"Aerial view of the refuge" by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Northeast Region , publicdomain/mark/1.0/

Eastern Shore of Virginia

Native Plants

brochure Eastern Shore of Virginia - Native Plants

Native Plants at Eastern Shore of Virginia (NWR) in Virginia. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

Native Plants of Accomack and Northampton Plant Accommack and Northampton Natives! For the purposes of this guide, plants native to Virginia’s Eastern Shore - Accomack and Northampton counties - are those that have been part of the local ecology prior to John Smith’s landing and are adapted to the Shore’s local soils and climate conditions, resulting in many benefits to the region, its residents and migratory birds. The Eastern Shore native plants featured in this guide were selected because they are attractive, relatively easy for the home gardener to acquire, easy to maintain, and offer various benefits to wildlife and the environment. This guide to Accomack and Northampton native plants is being provided through the “Plant ES Natives” campaign, initiated by the Virginia Coastal Zone Management Program through its Virginia Seaside Heritage Program, and developed with the assistance of a planning team representing the following partners: Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay Barrier Islands Center Eastern Shore Environmental Education Council Eastern Shore Soil and Water Conservation District Maplewood Gardens The Nature Conservancy University of Virginia Anheuser Busch Coastal Research Center Virginia Cooperative Extension Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation - Eastern Shore Regional Office Virginia Department of Environmental Quality - Office of Environmental Education Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries Virginia Master Gardeners Virginia Master Naturalists To learn more visit - www.deq.virginia.gov/coastal/go-native.html. The “Plant ES Natives” campaign logo depicts a branch of Downy Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea) and a Scarlet Tanager, a migratory songbird which needs the berries and insects provided by this and other Eastern Shore native plants to fuel their long journey. The Shore is one of only a few rest stops for these and other migratory birds. Special thanks to our wonderful native plant photographers - Dot Field, Irv Wilson, Gary Fleming, Alli Baird, Alan Cressler, Ruth Meyers and the late Ken Lawless - without whom this guide would not be so attractive! Design and editing by Virginia Witmer, Virginia Coastal Zone Management Program. Native plant information provided by the following sources: USDA Plants Database (United States Department of Agriculture), Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center at the University of Austin, Division of Natural Heritage - Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Chesapeake Bay Watershed Native Plants for Wildlife and Habitat Conservation (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). Special thanks to Dot Field for her invaluable assistance in production of this guide. This native plant guide was designed and printed in Fall 2009 through funding from the U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, to the Virginia Coastal Zone Management Program at the Department of Environmental Quality under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended. DEQ VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Visit us on the Web at: www.deq.virginia.gov/coastal/ Cover Photos: top row Baccharis halimifolia - Groundsel tree (Field), Rosa palustris - Swamp rose (Lawless), Cercis canadensis - Eastern redbud (Field); second row Symphyotrichum novi-belgii - New York aster (Field), Sassafras albidum - Sassafras (Meyers), Rudbeckia hirta - Black-eyed susan (Field); bottom row Callicarpa americana - American beautyberry (Field), Amelanchier arborea - Downy serviceberry (Fleming), Osmunda cinnamomea - Cinnamon fern (Wilson). Back Cover Photos: top row Asclepias tuberosa - Butterflyweed (Field), Baptisia tinctoria - Yellow wild indigo (Lawless), Viburnum prunifolium - Blackhaw (Fleming); second row Passifora incarnata-Passionflower (Lawless), Lonicera sempervirens - Coral honeysuckle (Field); bottom row Andropogon glomeratus - Bushy bluestem (Field), Hibiscus moscheutos - Seashore mallow (Field), Alnus serrulata - Common alder (Wilson). What Makes Accomack and Northampton Native Plants So Special? Whether you want to put in a flower garden or establish or restore the landscape around your home, there are a great variety of Eastern Shore native plants from which to choose. Native plants not only offer many practical, low cost, environmental benefits over non-native plants, many also offer an appealing display of foliage and flowers that surpass non-native ornamentals. By planting natives, you will join an increasing number of gardeners who have discovered that wildflowers, trees, shrubs, grasses and annuals native to their region are not only important to protecting local water supply and wildlife, but are simply gorgeous. So, regardless of your gardening and landscaping plans, Virginia’s Eastern Shore natives are worth checking out. We think you’ll find just what you and the Shore need! Here’s Why! • Our native plants are survivors! They are well adapted to the Virginia Eastern Shore’s local soils and climate conditions. • Our natives generally require less watering and fertilizing than non-natives, and are less susceptible to drought conditions. Less watering means conserving potable water supplies for non-watering uses. • Our natives are often more resistant to insects and disease and less likely to need pesticides that may leach into water supplies or run off into shellfish aquaculture farms. • Some of our native plants are resistant to occasional salt-water stress. • Our native plants play a crucial role in our unique ecosystem. They help preserve the diversity, beauty, and function of our natural ecosystems. • Our native plants provide critical habitats and food for the millions of migratory birds that rely on Virginia’s Eastern Shore as a rest stop each spring and fall. Dot Field/DCR Fall 2009 Save time and money! And the Shore’s unique environment! Plant Virginia Eastern Shore natives!  TABLE OF CONTENTS Look for this banner at Accomack and Northampton Garden Centers ... How to Use This Guide ........................................................... 3 Benefits of Eastern Shore Native Plants ............................... 4 Accomack and Northampton Native Plants List ..................... 6 Native plants featured in the guide are highlighted in blue on this list, organized by botanical categories. Botanical Category Sections: Forbs (flowers and groundcovers) ..................................... 10 Dot Field/DCR Grasses ............................................................................. 16 ... and this tag in the pots of Eastern Shore native plants! Ferns ................................................................................. 18 Vines ................................................................................. 20 Shrubs .............................................................................. 22 Trees ................................................................................. 28 “Plant ES Natives” Demonstration Sites ............................. 32 Other Public Sites Featuring ES Natives ............................. 35 Index of Eastern Shore Native Plants in Guide ................... 36 A quick reference to the height patterns and light requirements of native plants featured in the guide, in alpha order by Latin name. Dot Field/DCR Native Plants of Accomack and Northampton  HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE Key to Herbaceous, Grass, Fern and Vine Sections Purple passionflower, Purple passion vine, Passiflora incarnata Maypop, Apricot vine Key to Shrub and Tree Sections Latin name Latin name/ common name(s) Photinia pyrifolia - Synonyms: Aronia arbutifolia, Pyrus arbutifolia height of plant at maturity perennial flower color, approximate up to 25 ft., with sprawls along ground lavender, May – Sep; orange-yellow berry bloom time; roadsides, meadows, pastures, woodland berry color edges/opens, streams, riverbanks natural habitat light requirement full sun, part shade rich, moist, clay and sandy, non-saline soils soil/moisture requirements ES Native alternative to: Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) Ken Lawless Benefits: Showy ornamental for arbor and fences, walls and columns. Birds eat fruit and flower attracts butterflies. Environmental, aesthetic, and economic benefits. Floral parts said to represent aspects of Christian crucifixion story, sometimes referred to as the Passion. Maypop refers to pop of berries when crushed. common name(s) Red chokeberry, Red chokecherry 6-12 ft., multi-stemmed shrub with fourseason interest. In May, flat-topped clusters of white, five-petaled flowers with red anthers appear in profusion and give way to dark green, glossy leaves that consistently turn a rich, orange-red in fall. Bright red berries appear in fall and remain until December or January and along with a reddish-brown, exfoliating bark add color to the winter landscape. natural alternative to a non-native species of concern on Virginia’s Eastern Shore Gary Fleming/DCR light requirement full sun soil/moisture requirements moist, acidic, rich soils Benefits: ES Native alternative to: Berries persist through much of the Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) winter, and are occasionally eaten by songbirds. a few environmental, aesthetic, interesting fact(s) about genus and/or species Description of species including height and shape; leaf, flower and berry color and bloom time; fall colors and other interesting facts and economic benefits natural aternative to a non-native species of concern on the Virginia Eastern Shore Key to Terms: Light requirement: Soil moisture: Soil type: Full Sun - 6 or more hrs Part shade - 2 to 6 hrs Shade - 2 hrs or less Dry - no signs of moisture Moist - looks & feels damp Wet - saturated Most soils on Virginia’s Eastern Shore will be sandy (coarse and grainy - drains well but dries out rapidly) or a sandy-loam mix (loam is the ideal mixture of sand, clay and silt). To have your soil tested, contact the Accomack County Cooperative Extension Office at (757) 787-1361 or Northampton County Cooperative Extension Service Office at (757) 678-7946. Accomack and Northampton counties are in garden zone 7 - 9. For more soil information and maps visit: USDA Soil Survey - http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/WebSoilSurvey.aspx Warning: Please take extreme care when harvesting native plants for any consumptive purpose. Sometimes although one part of a plant can be harmless, another part can be poisonous or toxic. For example, the seeds of all Prunus species, found inside the fruits, contain poisonous substances and should never be eaten (e.g. Black cherry). All Ilex species may be somewhat toxic if ingested (e.g. Inkberry, American holly).  Fall 2009 BENEFITS OF EASTERN SHORE NATIVE PLANTS Plant for the Birds and Butterflies! Native plants are critical to the millions of migratory songbirds that visit the Eastern Shore of Virginia each spring and fall! The Eastern Shore is one of only a few rest stops along the Atlantic coast for songbirds traveling thousands of miles to their winter homes in Central and South America. That’s quite a long trip for birds that can weigh as little as half an ounce! Native trees and shrubs provide the berries and insects that songbirds eat to fuel their long journeys. Native understory plants provide the greatest diversity and amount of fall fruits as well as safe cover from migrating raptors. Even the smallest yard can provide a “stopover habitat” for hungry migrants. Research by the Center for Conservation Biology at William and Mary has shown that a 50% increase in the density of understory vegetation results in a 50% increase in the number of migrants supported. Help make the Shore a generous rest stop! Native plants are crucial to the large variety of butterflies that occur on Virginia’s Eastern Shore! Adult butterflies are attracted to the showy flowers and nutritious nectar of native wildflowers. Robert Balogh Native Plants of Accomack and Northampton The colorful Blackthroated Blue Warbler is one of many songbirds which rely on the native vegetation of Virginia’s Eastern Shore for food and shelter during migration. Dot Field/DCR A Eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly enjoys the nectar of Asclepias tuberosa, commonly known as Butterflyweed, Butterfly milkweed or Orange milkweed. Many can only lay their eggs on specific species of native plants which provide essential food for their caterpillars. This is especially important for sustaining the annual Monarch butterfly migration through the Eastern Shore. By using native plants in your landscape you will not only ensure the survival of our butterflies, but will attract an abundance of these colorful visitors to your garden. Migratory songbirds and butterflies play very important ecological and economic roles on Virginia’s Eastern Shore! Songbirds consume tons of insects that would otherwise plague us, and damage our crops. Butterflies are important pollinators of the native plants the songbirds rely on. Together, they help sustain the “miracle of migration”, a unique source of ecotourism almost unparalleled on the East Coast. This fall migration will continue to contribute an increasing source of revenue for the Eastern Shore’s communities, if critical migratory bird stopover habitat is plentiful.  BENEFITS OF EASTERN SHORE NATIVE PLANTS Plant to Save Water, Time and Money! And Maybe Your Next Meal! Please Be Aware of Invasive Non-Natives Some non-native plants can be highly invasive or aggressive and crowd out Eastern Shore natives. These invasive species can result in the degradation of the Shore’s natural communities and lead to the disruption of the local ecosystem. They are a potential threat to the Shore’s natural areas, parks and other protected habitats. Staff of the Virginia Department of Conservation Division of Natural Heritage Eastern Shore Office have identified the following invasive non-native species on the market to be of particular concern on the Shore: Natives can help fill your next glass of water! Groundwater is the Shore’s only source of drinking water. An increase in native vegetation helps slow the speed of water and sediment running off the land. This allows the water to soak into the ground where it is filtered by plant roots and can recharge the groundwater supply. Natives can help you save time and money! Adapted to the Shore’s environment, native species are drought and disease resistant, requiring less water, fertilizers and pesticides. Native plants are extremely well suited to “low maintenance” gardening and landscaping. Ailanthus altissima – Tree of Heaven Cynodon dactylon – Bermuda Grass Eleagnus angustifolia – Russian Olive Eleagnus umbellata – Autumn Olive Festuca elatior – Tall Fescue Hedera helix – English Ivy Ligustrum sinense – Chinese Privet ** Lonicera japonica – Japanese honeysuckle Melia azedarach – China Berry Morus alba – White Mulberry Pawlonia tomentosa – Princess Tree Rosa multiflora – Multiflora Rose Vinca minor – Common Periwinkle Vine Vitex rotundifolia – Beach Vitex Wisteria sinensis – Chinese Wisteria Natives can help protect your next meal! Landscaped areas of native trees, shrubs and groundcover can result in 50% greater reduction of runoff compared to grass lawns, significantly reducing non-point source pollution.* This helps protect water Virginia Witmer/VACZM quality in the Shore’s creeks and inlets where the Shore’s shellfish live (like the native oysters in the photo above). The Shore is the largest source of aquaculture-grown hard clams on the East Coast. In 2004, according to a Virginia Sea Grant Study, the total economic impact of hard clam aquaculture was almost 50 million dollars! * Please do not plant these species! Although they may attract songbirds, they can disrupt the natural ecosystem! For more information, including a downloadable fact sheet, about these and other invasive non-native species in Virginia, visit http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/invspfactsheets.shtml. ** Please note that all privet species are potentially invasive. Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act Handbook for the Eastern Shore of Virginia - Accomack-Northampton Planning Dsitrict Commission through the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation   Fall 2009 ACCOMACK AND NORTHAMPTON NATIVE PLANTS The native plants featured in this guide are shaded in blue. Latin Name Common Name(s) Latin Name Common Name(s) White snakeroot Lilium superbum Limonium carolinianum Lobelia cardinalis Mimulus ringens Mitchella repens Monarda fistulosa Monarda punctata Nymphaea odorata Oenothera biennis Oenothera fruticosa Opuntia humifusa Peltandra virginica Phlox paniculata Podophyllum peltatum Polygonatum biflorum Pontederia cordata Rhexia virginica Rudbeckia hirta Rudbeckia laciniata Ruellia caroliniensis Sagittaria latifolia Salvia lyrata Sanguinaria canadensis Saururus cernuus Sisyrinchium angustifolium Sisyrinchium atlanticum Solidago caesia Solidago odora Solidago sempervirens Symphyotrichum novi-begii Turk’s cap lily (p.13) Sea lavender Cardinal flower (p.13) Monkeyflower Partridgeberry (p.13) Wild bergamot (p.14) Spotted bee-balm American water lily Common evening primrose Sundrops (p.14) Eastern prickly-pear Arrow arum Summer phlox (p.14) Mayapple Solomon’s seal Pickerel weed (p.14) Virginia meadow-beauty Black-eyed Susan (p.15) Cut-leaved coneflower Carolina wild petunia Broadleaf arrowhead Lyre-leaf sage Bloodroot Lizard’s tail (p.15) Blue-eyed grass Coastal blue-eyed grass Bluestem goldenrod Sweet goldenrod Seaside goldenrod (p.15) New York aster (p.15) Forbs Ageratina altissima (Eupatorium rugosum) Anemone quinquefolia Asclepias incarnata Asclepias syriaca Asclepias tuberosa Arisaema triphyllum Baptisia tinctoria Caltha palustris Chelone glabra Chrysopsis mariana Clitoria mariana Conoclinium coelestinum (Eupatorium coelistinum) Coreopsis lanceolata Coreopsis tripteris Desmodium paniculatum Eupatorium dubium Eupatorium fistulosum Eupatorium hyssopifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium purpureum Helenium autumnale Helianthus angustifolius Hibiscus moscheutos Impatiens capensis Iris versicolor Iris virginica Kosteletzkya virginica Liatris pilosa Wood anemone Swamp milkweed (p.10) Common milkweed Butterfly weed (p.10) Jack-in-the-Pulpit Yellow wild-indigo (p.10) Marsh marigold (p.10) White turtlehead (p.11) Maryland golden aster Maryland butterfly pea Mistflower (p.11) Lanceleaf coreopsis (p.11) Tall coreopsis Narrow-leaf tick trefoil Coastal Plain Joe Pye weed (p.11) Joe Pye weed, Trumpetweed Hyssop-leaved thoroughwort Common boneset Green-stemmed Joe Pye weed Sneezeweed (p.12) Narrow-leaf sunflower (p.12) Eastern rosemallow (p.12) Jewelweed Blue flag (p.12) Virginia blue flag Seashore mallow (p.13) Grass-leaf blazing star Native Plants of Accomack and Northampton  ACCOMACK AND NORTHAMPTON NATIVE PLANTS Latin Name Common Name(s) Latin Name Ferns Forbs Cont’d Verbesina alternifolia Vernonia noveboracensis Viola cucullata Yucca filamentosa Asplenium platyneuron Athyrium filix-femina Botrychium virginianum Dryopteris cristata Dryopteris intermedia Onoclea sensibilis Osmunda cinnamomea Osmunda claytoniana Osmunda regalis Polystichum acrostichoides Pteridium aquilinum Thelypteris noveboracensis Thelypteris palustris Woodwardia areolata Woodwardia virginica Yellow ironweed New York ironweed Marsh blue violet Common yucca Grasses/Sedges/Rushes Ammophila breviligulata Andropogon gerardii Andropogon glomeratus Andropogon virginicus Carex stricta Distichlis spicata Dulichium arundinaceum Elymus virginicus Festuca rubra Juncus canadensis Juncus effusus Juncus roemerianus Panicum amarum Panicum virgatum Saccharum giganteum Schizachyrium scoparium Sparganium americanum Spartina alterniflora Spartina cynosuroides Spartina patens Sorghastrum nutans Zizania aquatica Common Name(s) American beach grass (p.16) Big bluestem Bushy bluestem (p.16) Broomsedge (p.16) Tussock sedge (p.16) Salt grass Three-sided sedge - Dwarf bamboo Virginia wild rye Red fescue Canada rush Soft rush (p.17) Black needlerush Coastal panic grass (p.17) Switch grass (p.17) Giant plumegrass Little bluestem (p.17) American bur-reed Salt marsh cordgrass Big cordgrass Salt meadow hay Indian grass Wild rice Ebony spleetwort Northern lady fern (p.18) Rattlesnake fern Crested wood fern Evergreen fern (p.18) Sensitive fern (p.18) Cinnamon fern (p.18) Interrupted fern Royal fern (p.19) Christmas fern (p.19) Bracken fern New York fern Marsh fern (p.19) Netted chain fern Virginia chain fern (p.19) Vines Bignonia capreolata Campsis radicans Celastrus scandens Clematis virginiana Gelsemium sempervirens Lonicera sempervirens Mikania scandens Parthenocissus quinquefolia Passiflora incarnata Wisteria frutescens  Crossvine (p.20) Trumpet Creeper (p.20) American bittersweet Virgin’s bower (p.20) Carolina jasmine (p.20) Trumpet honeysuckle (p.21) Climbing hempvine Virginia creeper (p.21) Passion flower (p.21) Atlantic wisteria (p.21) Fall 2009 ACCOMACK AND NORTHAMPTON NATIVE PLANTS The native plants featured in this guide are shaded in blue. Latin Name Common Name(s) Latin Name Common Name(s) Rosa carolina Rosa palustris Salix sericea Sambucus canadensis Stewartia malacodendron Vaccinium corymbosum Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium pallidum Vaccinium stamineum Viburnum dentatum Viburnum nudum Viburnum prunifolium Pasture rose Swamp rose (p.26) Silky willow Common elderberry (p.26) Silky camelia (p.26) Highbush blueberry (p.27) Cranberry Early lowbush blueberry (p.27) Deerberry Southern Arrowood (p.27) Naked arrowod Black-haw viburnum (p.27) Shrubs Alnus serrulata Common alder (p.22) Baccharis halimifolia High tide bush/groundsel tree (p.22) Callicarpa americana American beautyberry (p.22) Cephalanthus occidentalis Buttonbush (p.22) Clethra alnifolia Sweet pepper bush (p.23) Gaultheria procumbens Wintergreen Gaylussacia baccata Black huckleberry Gaylussacia frondosa Dangleberry Hamamelis virginiana Witch hazel (p.23) Ilex decidua Possomhaw Ilex glabra Inkberry (p.23) Ilex verticillata Winterberry (p.23) Ilex vomitoria Yaupon holly (p.24) Itea virginica Virginia willow (p.24) Iva frutescens Marsh elder (p.24) Kalmia angustifolia Sheep laurel Kalmia latifolia Mountain laurel Leucothoe racemosa Fetterbush, Sweetbells Lindera benzoin Spicebush (p.24) Lyonia ligustrina Male berry Morella (Myrica) cerifera Southern wax myrtle (p.25) Morella (Myrica) pensylvanica Northern bayberry Persea palustris (borbonia) Red bay (p.25) Photinia pyrifolia Red chokeberry (p.25) (Aronia arbutifolia, Pyrus arbutiflolia) Rhododendron atlanticum Coast azalea (p.25) Rhododendron periclymenoides Pinxter Flower Rhododendron viscosum Swamp azalea (p.26) Rhus copallinum Winged sumac Rhus glabra Smooth sumac Native Plants of Accomack and Northampton Small Trees Amelanchier arborea Amelanchier canadensis Asimina triloba Betula nigra Cercis canadensis Castanea pumila Chionanthus virginicus Cornus amomum Cornus florida Crataegus crus-galli Morus rubra Ostrya virginiana Prunus americana Salix nigra  Downy serviceberry (p.28) Canada serviceberry Pawpaw River birch (p.28) Redbud (p.28) Chinkapin Fringetree (p.29) Silky dogwood (p.29) Flowering dogwood Corkspur hawthorn Red mulberry Eastern hop-hornbeam American wild plum Black willow (p.31) ACCOMACK AND NORTHAMPTON NATIVE PLANTS Latin Name Common Name(s) Medium to Large Trees Acer negundo Acer rubrum Carya alba Carya glabra Carya ovata Celtis occidentalis Diospyros virginiana Fagus grandifolia Fraxinus pennsylvanica Ilex opaca Juglans nigra Juniperus virginiana Liquidambar styraciflua Liriodendron tulipifera Magnolia virginiana Nyssa aquatica Nyssa sylvatica Oxydendrum arboreum Pinus echinata Pinus taeda Pinus virginiana Platanus occidentalis Prunus serotina Quercus alba Quercus coccinea Quercus falcata Quercus marilandica Quercus michauxii Quercus nigra Quercus phellos Quercus rubra Quercus stellata Quercus velutina Sassafras albidum Taxodium distichum Box elder Red maple Mockernut hickory Pignut hickory Shagbark hickory Hackberry (p.28) Persimmon (p.29) American beech Green ash American holly (p.29) Black walnut Eastern red cedar (p.30) Sweetgum Tulip-tree (p.30) Sweetbay magnolia (p.30) Water tupelo Black gum (p.30) Sourwood Shortleaf pine Loblolly pine Virginia pine Sycamore Wild black cherry (p.31) White oak Scarlet oak Southern red oak (p.31) Blackjack oak Swamp chestnut oak Water oak Willow oak Northern red oak Post oak Black oak Sassafras (p.31) Bald cypress Links to more photos and information about the plants in this guide: USDA Plants Database (United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service) - http://plants.usda.gov/ Chesapeake Bay Watershed Native Plants for Wildlife and Habitat Conservation (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) http://www.nps.gov/plants/pubs/chesapeake/toc.htm Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center at the University of Austin http://www.wildflower.org/ Flora of North Amercia - http://www.fna.org/ The Flora of Virginia Project - http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_ heritage/vaflora.shtml (Information on development of project)  Fall 2009 FORBS Asclepias tuberosa - Butterflyweed, Butterfly or Orange milkweed Asclepias incarnata - Swamp milkweed perennial 1 - 3 ft. yellow-orange to bright orange; May - Sep open woods full sun, part shade moist or dry, well-drained sandy soils (tolerates drought) perennial 4 - 6 ft. pink, purple; May - Aug wet freshwater areas: meadow, field, riparian area, swamp, marsh full sun, part shade moist/wet, rich soils (good plant for wetland gardens) Dot Field/DCR Benefits: Swamp milkweed’s showy flower clusters attract butterflies and hummingbirds. It is an important food source for the Monarch caterpillar (Danaus plexippus). ES Native Alternative to: Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) Dot Field/DCR Benefits: As its common name suggests, Butterfly weed attracts butterflies, and is a larval host and nectar source for the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). The genus was named in honor of Aesculapius, Greek god of medicine, because some species have long been used to treat a variety of ailments. Baptisia tinctoria - Yellow wild indigo Caltha palustris - Cowslip, Yellow marsh marigold perennial 1 - 3 ft. yellow pea-like; May - Sep dry open woods and clearings full sun dry, loam, sandy, acidic soils perennial 1 - 2 ft. shiny yellow; May - Jun wet woods; marshy hollows; stream edges part shade, shade wet or moist, humus-rich, acidic soils The genus name, from the Greek baptizein (to dye), refers to the fact that some species are used as an inferior substitute for true indigo dye. Benefits: Irvine Wilson/DCR Benefits: Nectar source for butterflies. Warning: Plant juices can cause blistering or inflammation on skin or mucous membranes on contact, and gastric illness if ingested. Ken Lawless Benefits: A larval host for Frosted elfin (Callophrys irus) and Wild indigo duskywing (Erynnis baptisiae) butterflies. Native Plants of Accomack and Northampton Although it is sometimes called Orange Milkweed, this species has no milky sap. Butterfly weed makes a delightful cut flower. 10 Marsh marigold requires little care other than protection from drying and winter and early spring winds. The flowers resemble large buttercups rather than marigolds. The name Caltha derives from the Greek for cup (calyx), describing the open flowers. FORBS Conoclinum coelestinum - Chelone glabra - White turtlehead perennial 1 - 4 ft. white, pink; Jul - Sep brushy marshes; stream banks; wet ditches; low meadows; woodlands full sun, part shade, shade light, rich, wet to moist soils The distinctive shape of this flower is reflected in the genus name, derived from the Greek chelone (a tortoise). Benefits: Synonym: Eupatorium celestinum Benefits: Blue mistflower Dot Field/DCR Benefits: Nectar source for butterflies. Lanceleaf coreopsis or tickseed, Coreopsis lanceolata - Sand coreopsis Eupatorium dubium - Dwarf Joe-Pye weed, Little Joe perennial 1 - 2.5 ft. yellow; May - June open woodlands; meadows; pastures full sun, part shade, shade dry, sandy, gravelly, well-drained, acid-based soils Dot Field/DCR Benefits: Attractive ground cover for harsh sunny conditions. Its seeds are a favorite food for goldfinches. Blue mistflower is a colonizing groundcover. It spreads quickly and is good for areas with poor drainage. Benefits: Fluffy-edged flowers are a magnet for late-season butterflies. Irvine Wilson/DCR Benefits: perennial 1 - 3.5 ft. bright blue or violet; July - Nov wood margins; stream banks; low woods; wet meadows; ditches full sun, part shade moist, loam, sandy or clay soils Grows in small clumps but forms extensive colonies. It is the most common native coreopsis, easy to grow and drought tolerant. It prefers sun and should have frequent deadheading to keep it in bloom well into the summer. perennial 2 - 5 ft. purple, rarely white; Jul - Oct swamps, bogs, marshes, swales full sun, part shade moist, usually sandy acidic soil Benefits: Dot Field/DCR Benefits: Flowers attract butterflies, especially swallowtails and monarchs. Fluffy seed heads provide nesting materials for birds. 11 Other identifying marks for eastern Joe-Pye weed are the fine purple spots on the stem, and the domeshaped flower clusters (as opposed to the flat-topped clusters of spotted Joe-Pye weed). While the flower heads last a long time, this is one perennial that does not re-bloom if you remove spent blossoms so leave old flower heads on the plant and let them go to seed. Fall 2009 FORBS Helenium autumnale - Common sneezeweed, Fall sneezeweed Benefits: Gary Fleming/DCR Benefits: Attracts butterflies. A beautiful addition to your landscape with many elongate leaves and numerous flower heads. Helianthus angustifolius - Swamp sunflower, Narrow-leaf sunflower perennial 1.5 - 5 ft. yellow; Jul - Nov open areas along streams & ponds; wet meadows full sun moist soils perennial 1.5 - 5.5 ft. yellow; Aug - Oct flood plains; bottomland full sun, part shade wet, sandy, loam or clay, acidic soils Sneezeweed does not derive its common name from the effects of its pollen. The common name is based on the former use of its dried leaves in making snuff, inhaled to cause sneezing that would supposedly rid the body of evil spirits. Part of the Asteraceae family in which there are about 920 genera and 19,000 species including Cosmos, Sunflower, Zinnia and Dahlia. rosemallow, Crimson-eyed Hibiscus moscheutos - Eastern rosemallow, Marshmallow hibiscus Benefits: Ken Lawless Benefits: Attracts birds and are very beautiful in bouquets. Iris versicolor - Harlequin blueflag, Northern blue flag perennial 2 - 3 ft. shades of purple; May - Aug meadows; stream banks; marshes; swamps full sun, part shade wet or moist, acidic soils (can tolerate complete submergence) perennial 3 - 8 ft. creamy-white flowers; Jul - Sep swampy forests; wet meadows; freshwater marsh edges full sun, part shade wet or moist alkaline soils Clumps of Hibiscus start to grow late in the season and flower over a long period in late summer. Benefits: Dot Field/DCR Benefits: Strikingly showy species that is a nectar source for hummingbirds. Native Plants of Accomack and Northampton Benefits: Ken Lawless Benefits: Attracts hummingbirds and birds. Insects attracted to the sepals must crawl under the tip of a style and brush past a stigma and stamen, thus facilitating pollination. 12 From the middle English flagge, meaning rush or reed. Flowers have symbolized power, with the thre

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