Martin Dies, Jr.

Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines

brochure Martin Dies, Jr. - Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines

Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines at Martin Dies, Jr. State Park (SP) in Texas. Published by Texas Parks & Wildlife.

PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM Page 1 texas parks and wildlife TREES, SHRUBS AND WOODY VINES OF MARTIN DIES, JR. S T A T E PA R K PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM Page 2 Illustrations from Tree, Shrubs and Woody Vines of the Southwest by Robert A. Vines with drawings by Sarah Kahlden Arendale, 1960, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas. PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM Page 3 Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines of Martin Dies, Jr. State Park 1 AMERICAN BEAUTYBERRY Callicarpa americana These shrubs usually produce abundant crops of bright purple berries. It is highly desirable food (mast) for many birds and deer. Although it has a bitter, astringent taste, it can be made into a pleasant tasting jelly. 2 AMERICAN BEECH Fagus gradifolia This tree averages 70 to 80 feet in height, with large seed crops being produced every two to three years. The seed provides excellent food (mast) for animals and has a bur-covered husk. Beech leaves turn a beautiful golden color during the fall months. 1 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM 3 AMERICAN HOLLY Ilex opaca The largest of the native hollies and grows up to 50 feet in height, maturing in 100 to 150 years. It is very tolerant of forest compe­ tition. With their dark green leaves and bright red berries, hollies have played an important part in primitive magic, medicines and folk­ lore. 4 AMERICAN HORNBEAM Carpinus caroliniana A member of the birch family, the American horn­ beam is also called ironwood, named for the extremely hard and tough wood. The bole (trunk) of the tree has a “muscular” or fluted appearance. 2 Page 4 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM 5 BALD CYPRESS Taxodium distichum Distinguishing features of this tree is the swollen base of the trunk and “knees” which are believed to help support the tree. It can successfully grow in marshy or submerged soils. Unlike other needle-bearing species, this tree is deciduous (drops its needles in the fall). Highly resistant to decay, it was used in the past to build bridges, ships and hot tubs. 6 BLACK WALNUT Juglans nigra One of the most highly valued of North American hardwoods. Medium-sized tree from 70 to 90 feet tall, it is allelo­ pathic, meaning it inhibits growth of other plants under and around the tree. Native Americans used these husks when fishing, as the toxin killed fish, yet were still edible for humans. The black walnut seed is enclosed by a lime green fleshly covering, or husk. This husk is very valuable as a brown dye. 3 Page 5 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM 7 DEVIL’S WALKING STICK Aralia spinosa Aptly-named shrub or small tree, containing circles of sharppointed prickles (small thorns) around the trunk and at the base of each leaflet. Each leaflet may grow to 60 inches in length. Fruit provides food (mast) for animals. 8 EASTERN HOPHORNBEAM Ostrya virginiana The Eastern hophornbeam has a scaly bark, with seedpods shaped like hops. They are very tolerant trees, success­ fully growing under other trees. The buds, catkins (flexible flower) and fruit are important mast (food) for wildlife. 4 Page 6 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM Page 7 MUSCADINE GRAPE Vitis rotundifolia 9 SWEET WINTER GRAPE Vitis cinerea GRAPE FAMILY Vitis sp. The park is home to two types of native grapes: muscadine and sweet winter grapes. The larger-leafed winter grape vine produces whitish flowers and a purple-black berry. The darker green, more rounded muscadine grape also produces whitish flowers, and a larger grape. Many types of wildlife eat these grapes, and both grapes make excellent jelly. 10 HICKORY FAMILY Carya sp. Hickories produce heavy, strong, especially shock-resistant wood with high fuel value. Hickory wood has also been used to smoke meats. They have up to 11 to 23 leaflets, are long-lived trees and have outstanding yellow-gold fall color. Historically, Native Americans crushed the meat of the hickory nuts to make flour. SHAGBARK HICKORY Carya ovata 5 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM Page 8 11 MAGNOLIA (SOUTHERN) Magnolia grandif lora This medium-sized tree grows from 60 to 110 feet tall with large, showy, beetle-pollinated creamy white flowers that reach up to 11 inches in diameter. Leaves are dark green and glossy, and the red seeds are produced in an upright aggregate (cluster of seeds) cone. 12 MAPLE FAMILY Acer sp. FLORIDA MAPLE Acer barbatum Three members of the maple family can be found in the park. Florida maple leaves have five lobes with rounded tips, red maple has pointed tips, and the box-elder has a compound leaf (many leaflets on a stem) with usually three lobes. Red maple petiole (leaf stalk) is reddish in color, with the leaf turning a bright red in the fall. RED MAPLE Acer rubrum BOX-ELDER MAPLE Acer negundo 6 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM Page 9 WHITE OAK Quercus alba 13 OAK FAMILY Quercus sp. There are over five mem­ bers of the oak (Quercus) family in North America, producing more native timber annually than any other group of broadleaved trees. Oaks are divided into categories. White oaks, which in East Texas include the white oak, overcup oak, post oak, swamp chestnut oak and live oak, have lighter colored and sweeter flavored acorn meat. Red oaks, which include Shumard oak, southern red oak and cherrybark oak, have bristles at the tips of each leaf lobe, and have bitter, darker-colored acorn meat. 14 PINE FAMILY Pinus sp. Three native pines found in the park are the short leaf, loblolly and longleaf pines. Pines are the most important timber in the south, used for producing lumber and paper. The illustration shows the medium-length loblolly needles and cone. Short leaf needles and cones are shorter, whereas the longleaf are longer. LOBLOLLY PINE Pinus taeda 7 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM 15 POISON IVY Toxicodendron radicans Perhaps the most notorious plant of the forest, all parts of the poison ivy plant can cause a severe rash to those allergic to the plant. A deciduous (drop leaves in the fall) vine or small shrub with characteris­ tic three-leaf arrangement. Remember the saying: leaves of three, let them be. Leaves turn red in the fall. Deer and other browsers (animals that eat leaves) are not affected by the toxins in the plant, and birds and squirrels consume poison ivy berries with no ill effects. 16 SASSAFRAS Sassafras albidum Sassafras is unusual because of the three distinctly shaped leaves: typical leaf shape, the mitten shape and the ghost shape. The dried and powdered leaves are used to thicken and flavor Creole dishes. Oil of sassafras is used to make tea and root beer. It is an important deer browse and the seeds are food for various wildlife. 8 Page 10 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM 17 SWEETGUM Liquidambar styracif lua This large tree that grows from 80 to 120 feet tall, and is one of the most widespread trees in the southern forest. Maturity is reached in 200 to 300 years. Seeds are produced in a round, prickly, “sweetgum ball.” Leaves are star-shaped and produce spectacular fall color. 18 YAUPON HOLLY Ilex vomitoria Shrub to small tree with evergreen, wavytoothed thick leaves. Red berries produced by this plant are commonly used in Christmas decorations. The scientific name vomitoria describes the reaction to eating yaupon berries. Historically, yaupon leaf tea, which contains caffeine, was used as a standard treatment each spring to improve spirits, restore energy and kill intestinal worms. 9 Page 11 PWD BK P4504-031H MartinDies 6/11/07 2:43 PM Page 12 4200 Smith School Road Austin, Texas 78744 PWD BK P4504-031H (5/05) In accordance with Texas State Depository Law, this publication is available at the Texas State Publications Clearinghouse and/ or Texas Depository Libraries. TPWD receives funds from the USFWS. TPWD prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, disability, age, and gender, pursuant to state and federal law. To request an accommodation or obtain information in an alternative format, please contact TPWD on a Text Telephone (TTY) at (512) 389-8915 or by Relay Texas at 7-1-1 or (800) 735-2989 or by email at If you believe you have been discriminated against by TPWD, please contact TPWD, 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, TX 78744, or the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office for Diversity and Workforce Management, 5275 Leesburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041.

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