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TEXAS PARKS AND WILDLIFE BIRDS OF KICKAPOO CAVERN STATE PA RK A FIELD CHECKLIST 2012 Cover: Illustration of Black-capped Vireo by Rob Fleming. INTRODUCTION K ickapoo Cavern State Park is located 22 miles north of Brackettville on RR 674 along the Kinney-Edwards county line. The park was purchased in 1986 and is composed of 6,400 acres. The landscape is predominately steep limestone hills with extensive canyons as is typical of the southwestern Edwards Plateau. Interspersed within these limestone hills and canyons are areas of deeper soil where small, open grasslands are found. The southwestern Edwards Plateau is dominated by Ashe Juniper (Juniperus ashei) and Plateau Live Oak (Quercus fusiformis). Another interesting feature of this area is a relictual population of Pinyon Pine (Pinus remota). The vegetation in the canyons is comprised mainly of wood shrubs, primarily Texas Persimmon (Diospyros texana), Vasey Shin Oak (Quercus pungens var. vaseyana), Agarita (Berberus trifoliolata), and Evergreen Sumac (Rhus virens). This provides nesting habitat for a variety of passerines. The avifauna of Kickapoo is a unique combination of birds that are found within the three physiographic regions of Texas which surround the park, the Edwards Plateau, South Texas Brush Country, and the mountains and basins of the Trans-Pecos. This interesting combination of birds provides a unique birding opportunity. The birds that are probably of the most interest to visitors are the endangered Black-capped Vireo and Golden-cheeked Warbler. Kickapoo Cavern State Park has a large population of the vireo and a small, fairly recently arriving, colony of the warbler. The Black-capped Vireos nest in canyons and other areas where fairly open shrublands. The Golden-cheeked Warbler is found in somewhat atypical habitat dominated by oak motes surrounded by juniper. Other species of interest that can be found on the park include Zone-tailed Hawk, Gray Vireo, 1 Painted and Varied Buntings and three species of orioles. The grasslands and arroyos are particularly good for a wide variety of sparrows throughout the year. This checklist includes all species known to occur within the boundaries of Kickapoo Cavern State Park. Checklist nomenclature and organization follow the A.O.U. Checklist of North American Birds, 7th Edition (1998) as currently supplemented. Please help us protect the natural avian communities in our parks by refraining from using playback tapes of bird songs. Frequent use of these tapes disrupts essential territorial behavior and may lead to nest failure. Thank you for your cooperation. LEGEND Seasonal Occurrence SP = Spring (March, April, May) S = Summer (June, July) EF = Early Fall (August, September) LF = Late Fall (October, November) W = Winter (December, January, February) Abundance Designations A = Abundant, always present and observed, expect large numbers in proper habitat and season C = Common, always encountered in proper habitat and season, numbers may vary from low to high U = Uncommon, usually present in proper habitat and season but may be overlooked, never common or abundant O = Occasional, not always present but usually encountered at least once during season indicated, may occur in a narrow time frame within a season or in a very specialized habitat, numbers may vary R = Rare, seldom recorded, not expected each season as designated, may not be recorded each year X = Accidental, may be observed only once in ten years or more, not expected I = Irruptive/Irregular, invasion species which may be absent some seasons/years-abundant others 2 CHECKLIST SP S EF LF W ____ Gadwall X ____ American Wigeon X ____ Blue-winged Teal X X ____ Northern Shoveler X ____ Green-winged Teal X ____ Ring-necked Duck X ____ Montezuma Quail R R R R R ____ Northern Bobwhite C C C C C ____ Scaled Quail X ____ Wild Turkey C ____ Wood Stork A A C R X ____ Double-crested Cormorant R ____ American White Pelican X X O ____ Great Blue Heron O ____ Great Egret X O O ____ Cattle Egret O O ____ Green Heron X ____ Black Vulture U U U O ____ Turkey Vulture A A A C ____ Osprey O ____ White-tailed Kite X ____ Mississippi Kite R R O O X ____ Bald Eagle X ____ Northern Harrier O O U U ____ Sharp-shinned Hawk U U U U 3 SP S EF LF W ____ Cooper’s Hawk U U U U U ____ Harris’s Hawk O O O O O ____ Red-shouldered Hawk X ____ Swainson’s Hawk U U R ____ Zone-tailed Hawk U U U R ____ Red-tailed Hawk U U U U ____ Ferruginous Hawk X U ____ Golden Eagle R R R ____ Crested Caracara O O O O O ____ American Kestrel U O U U U ____ Merlin X X ____ Peregrine Falcon R R ____ Sandhill Crane U U O ____ Killdeer O O O O O ____ Lesser Yellowlegs X ____ Solitary Sandpiper X ____ Spotted Sandpiper X ____ Upland Sandpiper U O ____ Long-billed Curlew X ____ Wilson’s Snipe U O X X ____ Rock Pigeon X ____ Eurasian Collard-Dove R R R R R ____ White-winged Dove U U A U O ____ Mourning Dove A A A A A ____ Inca Dove C C C C C ____ Common Ground-Dove O O O O X ____ Yellow-billed Cuckoo U U U 4 SP S EF LF W ____ Greater Roadrunner U U U U U ____ Groove-billed Ani X ____ Barn Owl R ____ Eastern Screech-Owl U ____ Western Screech-Owl X U U U ____ Great Horned Owl U U U ____ Elf Owl O O O U ____ Lesser Nighthawk R R ____ Common Nighthawk C U C ____ Common Poorwill A A A ____ Chuck-will’s-widow U U O U ____ Chimney Swift R ____ Ruby-throated Hummingbird U U R ____ Black-chinned Hummingbird A A U ____ Anna’s Hummingbird X ____ Broad-tailed Hummingbird X A U U O X ____ Rufous Hummingbird U U ____ Belted Kingfisher R R R ____ Green Kingfisher X ____ Golden-fronted Woodpecker C C C C ____ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker U U U ____ Red-naped Sapsucker X ____ Ladder-backed Woodpecker C C C C C O U U ____ Northern Flicker U ____ Olive-sided Flycatcher O O ____ Western Wood-Pewee O O ____ Eastern Wood-Pewee U 5 O U SP S ____ Yellow-bellied Flycatcher X ____ Acadian Flycatcher EF LF W X ____ Alder Flycatcher X ____ Willow Flycatcher U U R ____ Least Flycatcher C C R ____ Black Phoebe X ____ Eastern Phoebe U O U U U ____ Say’s Phoebe U O U U ____ Vermilion Flycatcher C C C U R ____ Ash-throated Flycatcher C C O ____ Great Crested Flycatcher X X ____ Brown-crested Flycatcher O O ____ Great Kiskadee X ____ Couch’s Kingbird X ____ Cassin’s Kingbird X ____ Western Kingbird C ____ Eastern Kingbird O O ____ Scissor-tailed Flycatcher C U C O ____ Loggerhead Shrike U U U U ____ White-eyed Vireo C C C O O ____ Bell’s Vireo C C C ____ Black-capped Vireo C C C ____ Gray Vireo U U U O ____ Blue-headed Vireo U U O ____ Yellow-throated Vireo O R O ____ Warbling Vireo R O ____ Philadelphia Vireo X 6 O U C R SP S EF LF ____ Red-eyed Vireo U O U W ____ Blue Jay X ____ Western Scrub-Jay C C C C ____ Chihuahuan Raven R O O U ____ Common Raven U U U ____ Purple Martin O U O ____ Tree Swallow R R ____ Northern Rough-winged Swallow O C U O ____ Bank Swallow O O ____ Cliff Swallow C C O ____ Cave Swallow C U C O ____ Barn Swallow C C C C R ____ Carolina Chickadee X X ____ Black-crested Titmouse C C C C C ____ Verdin C C C C C ____ Bushtit C C C C C ____ Red-breasted Nuthatch I I I ____ Brown Creeper O O ____ Cactus Wren U U U U U ____ Rock Wren O O O O O ____ Canyon Wren U U U U U ____ Carolina Wren O O O O O ____ Bewick’s Wren C C C C C ____ House Wren U U U O ____ Winter Wren O ____ Sedge Wren X ____ Marsh Wren R 7 O R SP S EF LF W ____ Golden-crowned Kinglet O O ____ Ruby-crowned Kinglet C U C C ____ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher C C C O R ____ Black-tailed Gnatcatcher R R R R R ____ Eastern Bluebird U R O U R ____ Western Bluebird I I ____ Mountain Bluebird I I ____ Townsend’s Solitaire I I ____ Swainson’s Thrush O ____ Hermit Thrush C C C ____ American Robin I I I ____ Gray Catbird X X X ____ Northern Mockingbird A A A U A A ____ Sage Thrasher I I ____ Brown Thrasher R O O R ____ Long-billed Thrasher R R R R R ____ Curve-billed Thrasher U R O U U ____ European Starling R R R R ____ American Pipit U O U ____ Sprague’s Pipit R R R ____ Cedar Waxwing I I I ____ Phainopepla X ____ Worm-eating Warbler X ____ Louisiana Waterthrush X X ____ Northern Waterthrush X X ____ Black-and-white Warbler O X X ____ Prothonotary Warbler 8 O O X O I X SP S EF LF ____ Tennessee Warbler X X W ____ Orange-crowned Warbler C O C ____ Nashville Warbler A A C ____ MacGillivray’s Warbler U U O ____ Mourning Warbler R R ____ Common Yellowthroat O ____ American Redstart O O O ____ Northern Parula X ____ Magnolia Warbler X ____ Bay-breasted Warbler X ____ Yellow Warbler C C ____ Chestnut-sided Warbler X ____ Blackpoll Warbler X U U O ____ Yellow-rumped Warbler A ____ Yellow-throated Warbler X A ____ Prairie Warbler X A X ____ Townsend’s Warbler X ____ Golden-cheeked Warbler U U R ____ Black-throated Green Warbler O O ____ Wilson’s Warbler C C U ____ Yellow-breasted Chat U U U R ____ Olive Sparrow O O O O O ____ Green-tailed Towhee R R R ____ Spotted Towhee A A A ____ Rufous-crowned Sparrow C C C C ____ Canyon Towhee C C C C C ____ Cassin’s Sparrow C A A C U 9 C SP S EF LF W ____ Chipping Sparrow A U A A A U ____ Clay-colored Sparrow U U I ____ Brewer’s Sparrow R R R ____ Field Sparrow C C C C A ____ Vesper Sparrow A U A A ____ Lark Sparrow A A A C R ____ Black-throated Sparrow A A A A A ____ Lark Bunting I I I I ____ Savannah Sparrow C R C C ____ Grasshopper Sparrow U O U O ____ Le Conte’s Sparrow R I R R ____ Fox Sparrow R R R ____ Song Sparrow O U U ____ Lincoln’s Sparrow A C A C ____ Swamp Sparrow X O ____ White-throated Sparrow R ____ Harris’s Sparrow R X R ____ White-crowned Sparrow A C A A ____ Dark-eyed Junco O U U ____ McCown’s Longspur X ____ Chestnut-collared Longspur R R ____ Summer Tanager C ____ Scarlet Tanager X C O C ____ Western Tanager R R ____ Northern Cardinal A A A A A ____ Pyrrhuloxia U U U C A ____ Rose-breasted Grosbeak R 10 SP S EF LF ____ Black-headed Grosbeak O R R ____ Blue Grosbeak C C ____ Lazuli Bunting U ____ Indigo Bunting O R R O ____ Varied Bunting U U U R O C W ____ Painted Bunting A A A ____ Dickcissel U I U ____ Red-winged Blackbird O O O O ____ Eastern Meadowlark O O O O C ____ Western Meadowlark C U C ____ Yellow-headed Blackbird C C U ____ Brewer’s Blackbird O O ____ Common Grackle R R ____ Great-tailed Grackle O ____ Bronzed Cowbird U U ____ Brown-headed Cowbird C C U ____ Orchard Oriole C C C ____ Hooded Oriole C C C ____ Bullock’s Oriole U R U ____ Scott’s Oriole C C C O X ____ House Finch C C C C C R R O ____ Pine Siskin I I I ____ Lesser Goldfinch C U O ____ American Goldfinch U U U ____ Evening Grosbeak X ____ House Sparrow O 11 C O C O O O NOTES 12 In 1983, the Texas Legislature created the Special Nongame and Endangered Species Conservation Fund. This fund may be used for nongame wildlife and endangered species research and conservation, habitat acquisition and development and dissemination of information pertaining to nongame management. Money for this fund is obtained through private donations and sale of nongame wildlife art prints and stamps. This fund now gives Texans a unique opportunity to help support this state’s valuable and sensitive nongame resources. Your individual contributions and purchases of nongame art prints and stamps will help determine the level of nongame conservation activities in Texas. For more information call toll-free (1-800-792-1112) or contact: Nongame and Endangered Species Program, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 4200 Smith School Road, Austin, Texas 78744. citation Bryan, Kelly and Mark Lockwood. March 2012. Birds of Kickapoo Cavern State Park, a field checklist. Natural Resource Program, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. TPWD receives federal assistance from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other federal agencies. TPWD is therefore subject to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, in addition to state anti-discrimination laws. TPWD will comply with state and federal laws prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, national origin, age, sex or disability. If you believe that you have been discriminated against in any TPWD program, activity or event, you may contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Federal Assistance, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Mail Stop: MBSP-4020, Arlington, VA 22203, Attention: Civil Rights Coordinator for Public Access. Natural Resources Program Texas Parks and Wildlife 4200 Smith School Road Austin, Texas 78744 © 2012 Texas Parks and Wildlife Department PWD BK P4501-147A (3/12) In accordance with Texas Depository Law, this publication is available at the Texas State Publications Clearinghouse and/or Texas Depository Libraries.