brochure Malheur - Wildlife

Wildlife at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge Watchable Wildlife Welcome to Tualatin River NWR Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge means different things to different creatures. For some it's a place where they raise their young, and others just a stopover during migration. It's also a place that some only spend the winter, and to others, it is a year-round home. Established in 1992, the Refuge is located within the floodplain of the Tualatin River basin near Sherwood, Oregon. Refuge habitats are varied and include rivers and streams, seasonal and forested wetlands, riparian areas, grasslands, and forested uplands. An important breeding area for neotropical migratory songbirds, the Refuge also supports a significant breeding population of wood ducks and hooded mergansers. There is something to experience in every season. From thousands of waterfowl in the winter to breeding songbirds in summer, the Refuge is ever changing. Enjoying the Refuge's Wildlife We encourage you to explore the beauty of this area and stop, look, and listen to the abundant wildlife that call it home. The Refuge is a place where wildlife comes first so think of yourself as a visitor to their home. You will be a more successful wildlife observer if you: move slowly, talk softly, use binoculars, and leave only footprints behind. The wildlife species in this brochure have been grouped into four categories: birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. Red-tailed hawks can be seen and heard soaring the open spaces over the Refuge Enjoying the Refuge's Birdlife Getting the Most from Your Visit Numbers and species of birds you will see here varies according to season, with the greatest numbers present from October to May. Heavy migrations of waterfowl occur during fall and winter. They come here to feed on wetland plants when their northern breeding grounds freeze over. Then, as water levels in the wetlands are drawn down in the spring, a wide variety of shorebirds are attracted to our invertebrate filled mudflats. When the wetlands dry out in spring and summer, songbirds arrive to breed and take shelter on the Refuge. Binoculars or spotting scopes are helpful for observing birds and a good field guide will help you identify what you see. You will see more birds if you time your visit for early morning or evening hours. Sit quietly and wait for the birds to come to you. When looking at a bird, pay close attention to characteristics such as color, size, shape, wing, and head markings. Always observe first and then refer to your identification book, because the bird may move out of sight quickly. This is especially true of perching birds. Also, be sure to listen for their calls and sounds. Take note of the type of habitat in which you see the bird, and where in the habitat they are likely to be found – canopy, tree trunk, brushy areas, open water, or ground area. You Can Help Seasons Sp - Spring, March through May S - Summer, June through August F - Fall, September through November W - Winter, December through February Seasonal Abundance Codes a - Abundant – species very numerous and easily seen or heard in suitable habitat. c - Common – species likely to be seen or heard in suitable habitat. u - Uncommon – usually present but may not be seen or heard in suitable habitat. o - Occasional – seen or heard only a few times a season in suitable habitat. r - Rare – may not be seen or heard every year in suitable habitat. Notes e t s b - Endangered Threatened Special of concern Breeding – confirmed or presumed to breed and/or nest on the Refuge. x - Accidental The following list of birds contains species that have been recorded on Tualatin River NWR. The common name and taxonomic order used in this list follows that appearing in the 7th edition of the American Ornithologist's Union Check List of North American Birds, published in 1998, and subsequent revisions. Since the establishment of the Refuge, the number of bird species seen here has quadrupled. We are still discovering species that are returning to the area. Keep notes – you may help us record the return of a species to the Tualatin River Valley! Northern pintail Birds of Tualatin River NWR Common Name Common Name Sp S F W N Grebes Pied-billed Grebe c c c c Horned Grebe r Red-necked Grebe r Eared Grebe r Western Grebe r Cormorants Double-crested Cormorant u c u Ibises and Spoonbills White-faced Ibis u u x c Bitterns, Herons and Egrets American Bittern o o Great Blue Heron c c c c Great Egret u u u u Snowy Egret Green Heron u New World Vultures Turkey Vulture b b x sx u Swans, Geese and Ducks Greater White-fronted Goose o o o Tule White-fronted Goose Snow Goose r r Ross’s Goose r Black Brant r Aleutian Canada Goose Cackling Canada Goose u a a Taverner's Canada Goose u c a Western Canada Goose c c a a Dusky Canada Goose o o u Lesser Canada Goose u c c Tundra Swan u u Wood Duck u c c u Gadwall c u o o Eurasian Wigeon o u u American Wigeon c a a Mallard a a a a Blue-winged Teal u c o Cinnamon Teal c c o x x F Northern Shoveler c u c Northern Pintail c o a Green-winged Teal u r a Canvasback o o Redhead r Ring-necked Duck c a Lesser Scaup u r Bufflehead c o c Common Goldeneye Hooded Merganser u u u Common Merganser r r Ruddy Duck u r u W N c a a o c o c r u r c Osprey, Kites, Hawks and Eagles Osprey o o Bald Eagle u o u c Northern Harrier u u c u Sharp-shinned Hawk u u Cooper’s Hawk u u u u Red-shouldered Hawk Red-tailed Hawk c c c c Rough-legged Hawk r Falcons and Caracaras American Kestrel Merlin Peregrine Falcon u u r u c r u c r c Gallinaceous Birds Ring-necked Pheasant c c c c California Quail c c c c Northern Bobwhite b b b b b b Sp S California quail © Morris b b b b t b x b b b b x Common Name Sp S F W N Rails Virginia Rail Sora American Coot u u c u u c u o u o r c Cranes Sandhill Crane Plovers Black-bellied Plover Semipalmated Plover Killdeer o o a Stilts and Avocets Black-necked Stilt r a © Morris Sp S F W N r Skuas, Jaegers, Gulls and Terns Bonaparte’s Gull r Mew Gull u California Gull r Caspian Tern r Forster’s Tern r Black Tern sx u Pigeons and Doves Rock Pigeon Band-tailed Pigeon u Mourning Dove c u Sandpipers and Phalaropes Greater Yellowlegs c o u Lesser Yellowlegs o Solitary Sandpiper r r Spotted Sandpiper u c Long-billed Curlew Marbled Godwit Western Sandpiper o o Least Sandpiper u o Pectoral Sandpiper Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Dunlin u o Stilt Sandpiper Short-billed Dowitcher o Long-billed Dowitcher c o Wilson’s Snipe u u o o Wilson’s Phalarope o r Red-necked Phalarope o Red Phalarope Mourning dove Common Name b b b b b x x x x x b x o c u o b u Barn Owls Barn Owl u u u b Typical Owls Western Screech-Owl Great Horned Owl Short-eared Owl u u u u u u r u u r b b Swifts Vaux’s Swift c c b Hummingbirds Anna’s Hummingbird r Rufous Hummingbird u u b Kingfishers Belted Kingfisher c c c c b Woodpeckers Red-breasted Sapsucker Downy Woodpecker Hairy Woodpecker Northern Flicker Pileated Woodpecker o c o c u o c o c u o c o c u o c o c u b b Tyrant Flycatchers Olive-sided Flycatcher u u Western Wood-Pewee u u Willow Flycatcher u u Pacific-slope Flycatcher c c Say’s Phoebe r Western Kingbird o Eastern Kingbird b b s b b x Common Name Shrikes Northern Shrike Sp S F W N o o o Vireos Cassin’s Vireo o Hutton’s Vireo Warbling Vireo o u o b Common Name b c u b Starlings European Starling c c c b Wagtails and Pipits American Pipit o o Waxwings Cedar Waxwing u u c c o o c c o o r o u o o r u u u c b b b Swallows Tree Swallow Violet-green Swallow Northern Rough-winged Swallow Bank Swallow Cliff Swallow Barn Swallow c c a c o u c u u u a c b b Titmice and Chickadees Black-capped Chickadee Chestnut-backed Chickadee c c c c c c c c b b Wood Warblers Orange-crowned Warbler Yellow Warbler Yellow-rumped Warbler Black-throated Gray Warbler Townsend’s Warbler Common Yellowthroat Wilson’s Warbler Yellow-breasted Chat Bushtits Bushtit u u u u b Tanagers Western Tanager Nuthatches Red-breasted Nuthatch White-breasted Nuthatch c r c r c r c r b Creepers Brown Creeper u u u u b Wrens Bewick’s Wren House Wren Winter Wren Marsh Wren c u u u c u u u c c u u u u o b b b b Kinglets Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet u u u u u u u b b b W N r u c c u u c F Thrushes Western Bluebird c c Swainson’s Thrush u u American Robin a a c Varied Thrush Crows, Jays and Magpies Steller’s Jay Western Scrub-Jay American Crow u c c Sp S a b u Common yellowthroat Common Name Sp S F W N Sparrows and Towhees Spotted Towhee Chipping Sparrow Savannah Sparrow Fox Sparrow Song Sparrow Lincoln’s Sparrow White-throated Sparrow White-crowned Sparrow Golden-crowned Sparrow Dark-eyed Junco c c c c o c c u u u c c c c o o u u o c u c c Cardinals, Grosbeaks and Allies Black-headed Grosbeak Lazuli Bunting c u b b b b u u Blackbirds and Orioles Red-winged Blackbird c c Western Meadowlark Yellow-headed Blackbird r Brewer’s Blackbird c c Brown-headed Cowbird c c Bullock’s Oriole o Finches Purple Finch House Finch Red Crossbill Pine Siskin Lesser Goldfinch American Goldfinch Evening Grosbeak c u r u o u o c o Old World Sparrows House Sparrow u u c c c o c o b c c u b b u c b u u b Northern shovelers use specially designed holes on the edge of their bills to filter food out of the water Mammals of Tualatin River NWR All mammals listed are considered resident species with the exception of the bats, which migrate seasonally. Pouched Mammals Opossum (family Didelphiidae) Virginia opossum Shrews and Moles Shrews (family Soricidae) Vagrant shrew Dusky shrew Pacific water shrew Trowbridge’s shrew Moles (family Talpidae) Shrew-mole Townsend’s mole Coast mole Bats Evening Bats (family Vespertilionidae) Little brown myotis Yuma myotis Long-eared myotis Long-legged myotis California myotis Silver-haired bat Red bat Big brown bat Hoary bat Townsend’s big-eared bat Pikas, Rabbits and Hares Rabbits and Hares (family Leporidae) Brush rabbit Snowshoe hare Rodents Squirrels (family Sciuridae) California ground squirrel Townsend’s chipmunk Western grey squirrel Fox squirrel Douglas squirrel (Chickaree) Northern flying squirrel Pocket Gophers (family Geomyidae) Western pocket gopher Beaver (family Castoridae) Beaver New World Rats and Mice (family Cricetidae) Deer mouse Bushy-tailed woodrat Western red-backed vole White-footed vole Red tree vole Townsend’s vole Long-tailed vole Oregon vole Muskrat Old World Rats and Mice (family Muridae) Black rat Norway rat House mouse Jumping Mice (family Zapodidae) Pacific jumping mouse New World Porcupines (family Erethizontidae) Porcupine Nutria (family Capromyidae) Nutria Little brown myotis © Morris Carnivores Wolves, Foxes and the Coyote (family Canidae) Coyote Red fox Raccoon, Ringtail and Coati (family Procyonidae) Raccoon Weasels, Skunks, Badgers, Otters and Allies (family Mustelidae) Ermine Long-tailed weasel Mink Western spotted skunk Striped skunk River Otter Cats (family Felidae) Mountain lion Bobcat Hoofed Mammals Deer (family Cervidae) Elk Black-tailed deer Look for black-tailed deer feeding along forest edges at dawn and dusk Amphibians of Tualatin River NWR Reptiles of Tualatin River NWR The name amphibian means "double life" and refers to the fact that most amphibians spend part of the year on land but return to water to breed. It also reflects the change of an aquatic tadpole to a terrestrial adult frog or toad. In the spring and early summer look for them gathering in shallow ponds where they mate and lay eggs. Reptiles are egg laying animals that are protected by scales or horny plates. Look for them in grassy areas on the refuge. The exception are the turtles which are found near water. Salamanders Northwestern salamander Long-toed salamander Pacific giant salamander Rough-skinned newt Dunn’s salamander Western red-backed salamander Ensatina Clouded salamander Oregon slender salamander Lizards Northern alligator lizard Western fence lizard Western skink Frogs and Toads Tailed frog Western toad Pacific treefrog Northern red-legged frog Bullfrog Rough-skinned newts are one of the most poisonous animals known to science. Their only predators are garter snakes, which have adapted to barely tolerate the toxins contained on the newts' skin. Turtles Painted turtle Western pond turtle Snakes Rubber boa Yellow-bellied racer Sharptail snake Ringneck snake Pacific gopher snake Western terrestrial garter snake Northwestern garter snake Common garter snake Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge 16507 SW Roy Rogers Road Sherwood, Oregon 97140 Telephone: 503/590 5811 FAX: 503/590 6702 U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Refuge Information 1 800/344 WILD Cover photo black-capped chickadee All photographs © Ed Bustya June 2006

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