Wildlife at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Oregon. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).
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U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Watchable Wildlife Birds of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Malheur National Wildlife Refuge was originally set aside by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1908 to protect nesting egrets and other waterbirds from unregulated plume hunting. Today, Malheur protects more than 187,000 acres of prime habitat and is famous for its tremendous diversity and spectacular concentrations of wildlife. With its great diversity of habitat, Malheur attracts more than 340 species of birds and other wildlife. The Blitzen Valley, the most accessible portion of the Refuge, is composed of meadows, ponds, and extensive wetlands surrounded by sage uplands and basalt rimrocks. Some of the best sites for viewing wildlife on the Refuge include the Refuge Headquarters, Buena Vista Ponds and Overlook, Krumbo Reservoir, Benson Pond, Knox Ponds, and the Historic Sod House Ranch and P Ranch. Early morning and late evening are the best times to observe wildlife. The abundance of species varies by the seasons, as you will see by the list that follows. We hope you enjoy your birding experience at Malheur! Front cover illustration: Sandhill Cranes ©Ken Morris Season Symbols Species Abundance Symbols Red-tailed Hawk ©Ken Morris Sp - Spring, March - May S - Summer, June - August F - Fall, September - November W - Winter, December - February a - abundant (a common species which is very numerous) c - common (certain to be seen in suitable habitat) u - uncommon (present but not certain to be seen) o - occasional (seen only a few times during a season) r - rare (seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years) * - Birds known to nest (including historically) on the Refuge ✔ - Endangered or Threatened Birds of Malheur NWR Common Name Swans, Geese and Ducks Greater White-fronted Goose Snow Goose Ross’s Goose * Canada Goose * Trumpeter Swan Tundra Swan Wood Duck * Gadwall Eurasian Wigeon * American Wigeon * Mallard * Blue-winged Teal * Cinnamon Teal * Northern Shoveler * Northern Pintail * Green-winged Teal * Canvasback * Redhead Snowy Egret Jean Harrison Sp u a a a u a o a u a a u a a a a c c S r a u r o a u a u a c u u u c F u a c a u a o a r a a u c a a a c c W r r a u u r u r u c r o u u o o Common Name * Ring-necked Duck Greater Scaup * Lesser Scaup Surf Scoter White-winged Scoter Bufflehead Common Goldeneye Barrow’s Goldeneye Hooded Merganser * Common Merganser Red-breasted Merganser * Ruddy Duck Sp S F u r c r a u r c r r c c r o c r a u r c r a u r c o a c c o o c r a u r u W o u r r u c o u u o Gallinaceous Birds * Chukar * Gray Partridge * Ring-necked Pheasant * Greater Sage-Grouse * California Quail Loons Common Loon Grebes * Pied-billed Grebe * Horned Grebe * Eared Grebe * Western Grebe * Clark’s Grebe u r c a o u r c a o c u c c u c u c c u c r c c u u * American White Pelican a a a Cormorants * Double-crested Cormorant c c c r c c c o r c c c o r r r c c c o r r a r u r Pelicans Bitterns, Herons, and Egrets * American Bittern * Great Blue Heron * Great Egret * Snowy Egret * Cattle Egret Green Heron * Black-crowned Night Heron a r Common Name Sp S F * White-faced Ibis c c c New World Vultures * Turkey Vulture c c c Osprey, Kites, Hawks and Eagles * Osprey * Bald Eagle * Northern Harrier Sharp-shinned Hawk Cooper’s Hawk Northern Goshawk Red-shouldered Hawk * Swainson’s Hawk * Red-tailed Hawk * Ferruginous Hawk Rough-legged Hawk * Golden Eagle u c a u u o o u c u c c u u a o u a u u o o u c u c c Falcons and Caracaras * American Kestrel Merlin Peregrine Falcon * Prairie Falcon u o o u u o u u o o u c c a c c a c c a * Sandhill Crane a a a Plovers Black-bellied Plover American Golden-Plover * Snowy Plover * Semipalmated Plover * Killdeer u r u o c u o c u r u o c Stilts and Avocets * Black-necked Stilt * American Avocet c c c c u a W Ibises and Spoonbills r o c o c u c o u o c o c c o r u Rails * Virginia Rail * Sora * American Coot o u Cranes o Common Name Sandpipers and Phalaropes Greater Yellowlegs Lesser Yellowlegs Solitary Sandpiper * Willet * Spotted Sandpiper Whimbrel * Long-billed Curlew Marbled Godwit Ruddy Turnstone Sanderling Western Sandpiper Least Sandpiper Baird’s Sandpiper Pectoral Sandpiper Dunlin Stilt Sandpiper Long-billed Dowitcher * Wilson’s Snipe * Wilson’s Phalarope Red-necked Phalarope Skuas, Jaegers, Gulls, and Terns Parasitic Jaeger * Franklin’s Gull Bonaparte’s Gull * Ring-billed Gull * California Gull Herring Gull * Caspian Tern Common Tern * Forster’s Tern * Black Tern Sp u o o c u r c u r o c c o r u c c c u c o a a r u r a a S c u r c c c o F W u o o c u c o r o a c u o u r a c a u o a a r u u a c r u r u u r u u o o o c r c c u r r Pigeons and Doves * Rock Pigeon Band-tailed Pigeon * Eurasian Collared Dove * Mourning Dove o u u o o u u Barn Owls * Barn Owl o o Common Name Typical Owls Flammulated Owl * Western Screech-Owl * Great Horned Owl * Burrowing Owl * Long-eared Owl * Short-eared Owl Northern Saw-whet Owl Sp S F r r c o u c o r c o u c r r c o u c o a u a u a u W r c u o r Nightjars * Common Nighthawk * Common Poorwill Swifts Vaux’s Swift o Hummingbirds Anna’s Hummingbird Black-chinned Hummingbird Calliope Hummingbird Broad-tailed Hummingbird Rufous Hummingbird o o r u o r u r o r c u u u o c u r u r u u c u u c Kingfishers * Belted Kingfisher Woodpeckers Lewis’s Woodpecker Williamson’s Sapsucker Red-naped Sapsucker Red-breasted Sapsucker Downy Woodpecker Hairy Woodpecker * Northern Flicker Tyrant Flycatchers Olive-sided Flycatcher * Western Wood Pewee * Willow Flycatcher Least Flycatcher Hammond’s Flycatcher * Gray Flycatcher Dusky Flycatcher Cordilleran Flycatcher o u u r u u c u c c r u u c u r c r u r u c c r u u c u Common Name Sp S F c u c u c u c u c u c u * Loggerhead Shrike Northern Shrike c u c c u Vireos Plumbeous Vireo Cassin’s Vireo * Warbling Vireo Red-eyed Vireo r u c r r * Say’s Phoebe * Ash-throated Flycatcher * Western Kingbird * Eastern Kingbird W Shrikes u u o r u c r o r c c a r r r c u a r r o r c c a r r r r c r a * Horned Lark c u c c Swallows * Tree Swallow * Violet-green Swallow * Northern Rough-winged Swallow * Bank Swallow * Cliff Swallow * Barn Swallow a c c u a c c o u u a c a c c u a c Crows, Jays, and Magpies Steller’s Jay Blue Jay California Scrub-Jay Clark’s Nutcracker * Black-billed Magpie * American Crow * Common Raven r Larks Titmice and Chickadees Black-capped Chickadee Mountain Chickadee o u o u o u u Bushtits * Bushtit Nuthatches Red-breasted Nuthatch White-breasted Nuthatch Pygmy Nuthatch u o u o o r o u o r r Common Name Sp Creepers Brown Creeper o S W o Wrens * Rock Wren * Canyon Wren * Bewick’s Wren * House Wren Pacific Wren * Marsh Wren c u o c u a c u o u Dippers * American Dipper o Kinglets Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet F u u o a c u o c u a o o o u a o o u c u u c a o r o u r c r r r r c o u a o u Old World Warblers * Blue-gray Gnatcatcher r r Thrushes Western Bluebird * Mountain Bluebird Townsend’s Solitaire Swainson’s Thrush Hermit Thrush * American Robin Varied Thrush u c u u u a o o o r r c r r r c r c u Mimic Thrushes * Gray Catbird Northern Mockingbird * Sage Thrasher Brown Thrasher Wagtails and Pipits American Pipit c Starlings * European Starling a c a u Waxwings Bohemian Waxwing * Cedar Waxwing r c r o r o r o Common Name Wood Warblers Tennessee Warbler Orange-crowned Warbler Nashville Warbler Northern Parula * Yellow Warbler Chestnut-sided Warbler Magnolia Warbler Cape May Warbler Black-throated Blue Warbler Yellow-rumped Warbler Black-throated Gray Warbler Townsend’s Warbler Bay-breasted Warbler Blackpoll Warbler Black and White Warbler American Redstart Ovenbird Northern Waterthrush MacGillivray’s Warbler * Common Yellowthroat Wilson’s Warbler * Yellow-breasted Chat Tanagers Western Tanager Sparrows and Towhees Green-tailed Towhee Spotted Towhee American Tree Sparrow * Chipping Sparrow * Brewer’s Sparrow Vesper Sparrow * Lark Sparrow * Black-throated Sparrow * Song Sparrow * Savannah Sparrow Fox Sparrow * Sagebrush Sparrow Lincoln’s Sparrow White-throated Sparrow Harris’s Sparrow Sp S F r c u r a r r r r a u u r r o o r r u c c u r r c u r a r r r r r r a o u c o c r c a c c r u c u c u o r a r r r r a u u r r r o r r u c c u W r c r o a c u o c c u o c o o a r u u c u u u r r o u r r Common Name Sp White-crowned Sparrow Golden-crowned Sparrow Dark-eyed Junco Lapland Longspur Snow Bunting a o c S F a o c Cardinals, Grosbeaks, and Allies Rose-breasted Grosbeak * Black-headed Grosbeak * Lazuli Bunting r u u r r r u o Blackbirds and Orioles * Bobolink * Red-winged Blackbird * Western Meadowlark * Yellow-headed Blackbird * Brewer’s Blackbird Great-tailed Grackle * Brown-headed Cowbird Baltimore Oriole * Bullock’s Oriole u a c a a r c r c c a c a a r c u a c a a r u c u c r r r o c r Finches Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch Purple Finch Cassin’s Finch * House Finch Red Crossbill Common Redpoll Pine Siskin * Lesser Goldfinch * American Goldfinch Evening Grosbeak r o c r W o u r r u r o r o r r u u u u u u u u u o o o c c c c Old World Sparrows * House Sparrow Marsh wren ©Roger Baker Accidentals The following birds have been observed less than five times or not within 25 years on the Refuge and are considered accidental: Pacific Loon Red-necked Grebe Tri-colored Heron Mute Swan Emperor Goose Least Bittern Green-winged Teal (European) American Black Duck Black Scoter Long-tailed Duck Smew Mountain Quail White-tailed Kite Broad-winged Hawk Black Rail Common Moorhen Upland Sandpiper Red Knot Short-billed Dowitcher Red Phalarope Wandering Tattler Long-tailed Jaeger Glaucous-winged Gull Sabines’ Gull Least Tern Ancient Murrelet White-winged Dove Yellow-billed Cuckoo Snowy Owl ©Rick Vetter Lesser Nighthawk Eastern Whip-Poorwill Snowy Owl Northern Pygmy Owl Barred Owl Black Swift White-throated Swift Red-headed Woodpecker Acorn Woodpecker Black-backed Woodpecker White-headed Woodpecker Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Eastern Wood-Pewee Eastern Phoebe Tropical Kingbird Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Hutton’s Vireo Canada Jay Pinyon Jay Purple Martin Veery Phainopepla Golden-winged Warbler Hermit Warbler Black-throated Green Warbler Blackburnian Warbler Yellow-throated Warbler Palm Warbler Prairie Warbler Prothonotary Warbler Worm-eating Warbler Kentucky Warbler Hooded Warbler Canada Warbler Summer Tanager Scarlet Tanager Pine Grosbeak Indigo Bunting Painted Bunting Dickcissel Lark Bunting Common Grackle Orchard Oriole Streak-backed Oriole Eastern Towhee Mammals of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge This checklist includes 67 species, which presently occur within Malheur National Wildlife Refuge. Also included are four species, which occurred on the Refuge historically, but are no longer present and six species, which may occur on the Refuge, but have not been reported. Malheur is a unique wetland oasis surrounded by Great Basin desert. Distinctive mammalian habitats include large fresh water marshes containing extensive stands of emergent aquatic vegetation, riparian areas bordering streams and canals; irrigated meadows; semi-arid grassland desert areas dominated by sagebrush and greasewood; and basaltic rimrocks. This checklist can best be used with a field guide to mammals that provides identification and natural history information. Status Symbols Habitat Symbols c u r h - p - common uncommon rare historically present, but no longer occurs possibly occurs d m g r w - desert marsh and riparian areas grassland rimrock widespread Bobcat kitten at headquarters © Robert McRea Mammals of Malheur NWR Common Name Status Habitat Shrews Preble’s Shrew Vagrant Shrew Water Shrew Merriam’s Shrew u c p r m,g g m d Bats Little Brown Myotis Yuma Myotis Long-eared Myotis Long-legged Myotis California Myotis Small-footed Myotis Silver-haired Bat Western Pipistrelle Big Brown Bat Hoary Bat Spotted Bat Townsend’s Big-eared Bat Pallid Bat Fringed Myotis c c u u u u u u c c p u u u w w w w w d w d w w d w w w Hares, Rabbits, & Pikas Pygmy Rabbit Nuttall’s Cottontail Black-tailed Jackrabbit u c c d d d,g Rodents Least Chipmunk Yellow-bellied Marmot White-tailed Antelope Squirrel Townsend’s Ground Squirrel Belding’s Ground Squirrel Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel Townsend’s Pocket Gopher Northern Pocket Gopher Great Basin Pocket Mouse Dark Kangaroo Mouse Ord’s Kangaroo Rat c u u u c u c u c u c d r d d g,d r g,d g,d d d d Common Name Status Habitat Great Basin Kangaroo Rat Beaver Western Harvest Mouse Deer Mouse Canyon Mouse Northern Grasshopper Mouse Desert Woodrat Bushy-tailed Woodrat Montane Vole Long-tailed Vole Sagebrush Vole Muskrat House Mouse Western Jumping Mouse Porcupine c c c c c u c c c u u c u h c d w w,g w r g,d r r g g d w w m,g w Carnivores Coyote Red Fox Kit Fox Black Bear Grizzly Bear Raccoon Long-tailed Weasel Mink Wolverine Badger Western Spotted Skunk Striped Skunk River Otter Mountain Lion Bobcat c p p r h c c c p c u u r r u w w d w w w w m w d,g w w m w w Ungulates Elk Mule Deer Pronghorn Bison California Big Horn Sheep r c u h r w w d,g g r Malheur National Wildlife Refuge 36391 Sodhouse Lane Princeton, OR 97721 Telephone: 541/493-2612 www.fws.gov/malheur U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service http://www.fws.gov For Refuge Information 1 800/344 WILD Visitors with disabilities may be reasonably accommodated upon request, and/or receive an alternative format publication. May 2019