"Asan_Bay_Overlook" by NPS Photo , public domain

War in the Pacific

National Historical Park - Guam

The War in the Pacific National Historical Park is a protected area in the United States territory of Guam, in Apra Harbor, which was established in 1978 in honor of those who participated in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Various sites on the island of Guam are part of the Park. It is unique among the National Park System insofar as it honors the bravery and sacrifices of all those who participated in the Pacific Theater. During World War II, Guam was captured by the Japanese forces in 1941 and liberated by the Americans in 1944. The park includes former battlefields, gun emplacements, trenches, caves, and historic structures. Nations involved in the War in the Pacific include the United States, Japan, Australia, Canada, Mexico, China, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and the Soviet Union.

location

maps

Official visitor map of War in the Pacific National Historical Park (NHP) in Guam. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).War in the Pacific - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of War in the Pacific National Historical Park (NHP) in Guam. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

brochures

Official brochure of War In The Pacific National Historical Park (NHP) in Guam. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).War In The Pacific - Brochure

Official brochure of War In The Pacific National Historical Park (NHP) in Guam. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Pacific Globe for War In The Pacific National Historical Park (NHP) in Guam. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).War In The Pacific - Pacific Globe

Pacific Globe for War In The Pacific National Historical Park (NHP) in Guam. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Invasion Map for War In The Pacific National Historical Park (NHP) in Guam. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).War In The Pacific - Invasion Map

Invasion Map for War In The Pacific National Historical Park (NHP) in Guam. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/wapa/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_in_the_Pacific_National_Historical_Park The War in the Pacific National Historical Park is a protected area in the United States territory of Guam, in Apra Harbor, which was established in 1978 in honor of those who participated in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Various sites on the island of Guam are part of the Park. It is unique among the National Park System insofar as it honors the bravery and sacrifices of all those who participated in the Pacific Theater. During World War II, Guam was captured by the Japanese forces in 1941 and liberated by the Americans in 1944. The park includes former battlefields, gun emplacements, trenches, caves, and historic structures. Nations involved in the War in the Pacific include the United States, Japan, Australia, Canada, Mexico, China, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and the Soviet Union. War in the Pacific National Historical Park was established to commemorate the bravery and sacrifice of those participating in the campaigns of the Pacific Theater of World War II and to conserve and interpret outstanding natural, scenic, and historic values and objects of the island of Guam. From the airport or Tumon, where most hotels are located, make your way to Route 1, Marine Corps Drive. Head south until the road ends and you arrive at the Naval Station Guam front gate. To the right, adjacent to the large 2-man Type-C Japanese midget submarine, is the T. Stell Newman Visitor Center. T. Stell Newman Visitor Center T. Stell Newman Visitor Center is open on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays from 9 am to 4 pm Asan Beach Overlook Mountain view down toward beach. Overlooking the invasion Asan Beach, this overlook honors the men and women killed on Guam in World War II. Memorial Day Flag Honors at Asan Beach Night view of light up US flags. Honoring the Chamorro citizens and US service personnel killed during World War II. Apaca point Calm water beach at sunset. This serene scene of Apaca Point does not reveal the intensity felt on the July 21, 1944 invasion. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] green slopes above seashore Coral Bleaching Monitoring on Guam In response to stresses such as higher water temperatures, corals can lose the symbiotic microscopic algae (which provides up to 95% of the coral’s nutrition) from their tissues causing them to look white or "bleached." If favorable conditions return, corals can sometimes recover. However, bleached corals are more vulnerable to disease and other stressors, which can lead to death. This worldwide trend of coral bleaching is linked to global warming. A bleached coral documented in Guam during inventory and monitoring. Relics of War at War in the Pacific National Historical Park The safety of National Park Service (NPS) staff in the field is paramount, and dangers take many forms. When NPS Pacific Islands Inventory & Monitoring Network biological technicians came across a WWII era grenade in a vegetation monitoring plot they knew what to do. A WWII era grenade discovered in the War in the Pacific National Historical Park. Outside Science (inside parks): Youth Summer Programs in Guam See how oung citizen scientists are helping monitor coral reef health in War In The Pacific National Historic Site. youth pointing to coral Outside Science (inside parks): Clam Monitoring in Guam Follow along as scientists track the growth and health of giant clams War In The Pacific National Historic Site. giant white clam Outside Science (inside parks): Coral Bleaching in Guam See how scientists are dealing with coral bleaching War In The Pacific National Historic Site. stark white coral underwater Climate Change Clues from Monitoring As climate changes, significant changes in weather conditions impact the natural environment by shifting patterns of precipitation, promoting extremes in storm behavior, and influencing bird migration, invasive species spread, coral reef decline, and much more. The Pacific Island Network (PACN) undertakes systematic long-term monitoring of a wide variety of natural resources to accurately determine if change is occurring and why. Precipitation seen over the lush valleys of Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Stream Life in Hawai‘i National Parks Changes in weather patterns affect the quantity and quality of the water, which has profound effects on our native stream animals. In the Hawaiian Islands, the total amount of rain is expected to decrease as the impacts of climate change manifest. A stream cascading through green vegetation POET Newsletter September 2012 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from September 2012. Articles include: Sea Level Rise and Coastal Parks; Fun with Coral Reefs and Climate Change Education; and Climate Change Exhibits From Sea to Rising Sea. people on beach Guam in World War II While Guam is only 212 square miles, the island is rich in history. Only hours after Pearl Harbor was attacked, the Japanese began aerial bombings on Guam. After two days of strafing, the Japanese came ashore and hours later the naval governor surrendered the American territory. The island remained under Japanese control for 31 months until July 21, 1944 when the United States returned and liberated the island. Marines on Guam Series: Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) Newsletters From 2009 to 2015, the Pacific Ocean Education Team published a series of short newsletters about the health of the ocean at various National Park Service sites in and around the Pacific Ocean. Topics covered included the 2010 tsunami, marine debris, sea star wasting disease, ocean acidification, and more. Ocean waves wash in from the right onto a forested and rocky shoreline. POET Newsletter September 2014 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from September 2014. Articles include: Sea Star Wasting Disease; Corallivore: Crown of Thorns Starfish Wreak Havoc in American Samoa — The NPS Responds; Seafloor in 3D; and Coral Bleaching Monitoring on Guam. A large, red-colored sunflower sea star that appears to be melting or disintegrating. Cecilia “Chilang” Cruz Bamba Cecilia Cruz Bamba was a Chamorro woman who was orphaned at the age of nine during the Japanese attacks on Guam in 1941. Motivated by the grandmother who raised her, Bamba became a senator, businesswoman, and community leader. Photo of woman with short curly hair smiling PT Boats of World War II: From Home Front to Battle PT (Patrol, Torpedo) boats were small, fast, and expendable vessels for short range oceanic scouting, armed with torpedoes and machine guns for cutting enemy supply lines and harassing enemy forces. Forty-three PT squadrons, each with 12 boats were formed during World War II by the U.S. Navy. PT boat duty was very dangerous and the squadrons suffered an extremely high loss rate in the war. About a dozen men, some shirtless, standing in small groups on deck of boat with flag and guns. Submarines in World War II Submarines played a critical role in the Allied success of World War II. Learn about American, German, and Japanese submarines in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. Photo of a long, narrow submarine above water, at a dock. Series: Women's History in the Pacific West - Pacific Islands Collection Women's biographies from Hawai'i and Guam Map of parks in Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam and Northern Mariana Islands Guam: A Biogeographic and Maritime Cultural Landscape Exploration of a WWII Amphibious Battlefield From January 27-February 25, 2023, a team of researchers will begin their search for submerged shipwrecks, aircraft, amphibious vehicles, artillery and other artifacts related to the 1944 invasion of Guam during World War II (WWII). Amtrac amphibious tractor is submerged beneath about 50 feet of water Series: Using Science to Preserve the Past Conserving our nation’s rich cultural heritage – the stories, places, traditions, and artifacts that make up the fabric of our shared history – is an important part of the NPS mission. Throughout the Pacific West Region, park archeologists and paleontologists, museum curators, historic preservationists, and more are using scientific practices to better steward the cultural resources they protect. Explore these articles to learn more about their work. Museum object of cat-like nimravid skull with large incisors Travel Blog: The Pacific Islands Writing Prompt: Travel Blog written by Audrey Nelson for "A Day in the Life of a Fellow" Article Series. Audrey is a NPS Workforce Management Fellow, in partnership with Northwest Youth Corps Map of the Pacific Islands Intern Spotlight: Nia Crawford and Baylee Bales-Woods Meet Community Volunteer Ambassador interns Nia Crawford, at National Mall and Memorial Parks and Baylee Bales-Woods at War in the Pacific National Historical Park. Two headshots. On left, headshot of Nia Crawford. On right, headshot of Baylee Bales-Woods. Outside Science (inside parks): Guam Take a tour of Guam's waters off War In The Pacific National Historical Park! In this 3 part series, you'll follow researchers as they monitor clams and coral bleaching, and learn more about summer programs in the park. youth divers point at a coral reef Shaping the System Under President Jimmy Carter President Jimmy Carter oversaw one of the largest growths in the National Park System. Explore some of the parks that are part of the legacy of the presidency of Jimmy Carter, who served as the 39th president of the United States from January 20, 1977, to January 20, 1981. Historic photo of Jimmy Carter walking through a crowd at Harpers Ferry A Day When Everything Changed- Dwight Eisenhower and the Attack on Pearl Harbor On December 7, 1941, Dwight Eisenhower was a fifty-one-year-old Bvt. Brigadier General at Fort Sam Houston in Texas. The events of that day would forever change both Eisenhower’s life and the course of world history. Black and white photo of the wreckage of the USS Arizona protruding from the water of Pearl Harbor
War in the Pacifc War in the Pacific National Historical Park Guam by air, sea, and land, World War II’s devastation tore across the Pacifc Ocean on a scale never before experienced in human history. The warring nations— the United States, Japan, China, British Empire, Netherlands, and many others—were based thousands of miles away. Caught in the crossfre were the people of the Pacifc islands in whose homelands and waters combat raged for four years. Hours after their surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941, Japan bombed the US Territory of Guam and within two days invaded the island. Like countless indigenous people occupied by invaders, the Chamorros endured the destruction of their homes and National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior livelihoods, forced labor, imprisonment, and executions. On July 21, 1944, US forces returned to retake the island. War in the Pacifc National Historical Park commemorates the bravery and sacrifce of all those who participated in or were affected by World War II’s Pacifc Theater campaigns. The park conserves and interprets Guam’s outstanding places, artifacts, history, and culture. Throughout the park are remnants of combat and occupation—artillery, earthworks, battlegrounds—slowly succumbing to the elements. What endures is the spirit, dignity, and bravery of those caught up in a world at war. Top: US forces retake Guam, July 1944 USS Maryland and capsized USS Oklahoma, Dec. 7, 1941 Dec. 7 (Dec. 8 in Guam and other points west of International Date Line) Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor cripples the US Pacifc feet; Japan moves to occupy much of Southeast Asia and western Pacifc. Dec. 8 Japanese bomb islands of Wake, Guam, and the Philippines. On Guam, the targeted minesweeper USS Penguin is sunk outside Apra Harbor. Dec. 8–23 Wake Island falls to Japanese; 45 Chamorro civilian airline workers are stranded. 1942 Jan. 10 McMillin, American military and civilian personnel, and American and Spanish clergy are taken to POW camps in Japan. Feb.–March Japanese rename island of Guam Ömiyajima; the Keibitai—Japanese naval police—now govern. April After Battle of Bataan, thousands of US and Filipino prisoners perish in 62-mile forced march to Japanese prison camps. May 4–8 Battle of the Coral Sea: Japanese sink A decree was sent out that night that all men should go work in the fama’ayan, the rice feld. . . . All the men, young and old, were made to work from seven o’clock in the morning until six o’clock in the evening. They didn’t feed us anything, we ate whatever we found. When it rained we continued working in the rain, even when we were soaking wet. . . . When harvesting time came, we had gained nothing . . . Everything went to the Japenese soldiers. —Jose T. Acfalle US carrier Lexington; US stems Japanese advance. June 4–7 Battle of Midway; Japan suffers major losses of ships, aircraft, and men. Nov. 12–15 The decisive American victory in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal prevents Japanese from landing reinforcements. 1943 Under keibitai rule, Chamorros may remain on their ranches, but are forced to learn Japanese language and customs. English is forbidden. Chamorros suspected of hiding family members wanted by the Japanese or aiding Americans are harassed, beaten, tortured, or executed. 1944 March 4 Anticipating American invasion, Japanese return to Guam to reinforce southern Marianas. Social activities are banned, schools closed. Laboring at bayonet point, Chamorro men, women, and children work in felds, build defenses, and dig hundreds of shelter caves for Japanese occupiers. June 15 US forces invade Saipan, suffering heavy losses. June 19–20 Battle of Philippine Sea; US Navy carrier forces devastate Japanese feet. Early July 10,000– 15,000 Chamorros are forced to march to jungle camps with little In order to support us my mother had a soap factory . . . Mama would go from house to house with the carabao cart to collect all the ashes for the soap. We used the soap to barter, one bar of soap about the size of the regular GI bars. . . . Every piece of soap we’d trade for one chicken or fsh or vegetable. . . . My mother was killed by the Japanese. —Lorraine Mesa Aguon food or water. Many do not survive march; many others die from horrifc conditions in camps or on work crews. July 21 55,000 US troops land on Asan and Agat beaches; despite 18,500 Japanese defenders, both beaches are secured. July 24 US forces invade Tinian. Aug. 10 US declares Guam secure. Liberation costs over 7,000 American and about 17,500 Japanese casualties. Japan’s grip on the Marianas is broken. 1945 Guam transformed into military fortress. From here, US B-29s execute bombing raids on Japan, and Apra Harbor becomes world’s busiest port. Pacifc Fleet and Pacifc Ocean Arenas, 1945 PATI POINT August 7 PHILIPPINE SEA 0 5 Miles 3rd Marine Division July 21 Yigo Hagåtña Tamuning (Agana) ASAN POINT Asan CABRAS ISLAND OROTE PENINSULA 1st Provisional Marine Bri
Attu SOVIET UNION K Peiping KOREA IL R U ISL A HA Philippine Sea Philippines O C E A N Wake Island MARIANA ISLANDS Saipan Tinian Guam Philippine Sea BRITISH MALAYA Singapore NORTHEAST NEW GUINEA Papua SOLOMON ISLANDS N IS LA Pearl Harbor N GILBERT ISLANDS Equator Guadalcanal PAPUA Coral Sea AUSTRALIA IIA Kwajalein Greatest extent of MARSHALL Japanese ISLANDS control Tarawa Leyte PALAU Gulf CAROLINE ISLANDS Peleliu N E T H ER LA N D S E AST INDIES WA S FRENCH INDOCHINA Midway D THAILAND AN S Iwo Jima FORMOSA BURMA S D N D N A L S I P A C I F I C Shanghai Okinawa Hong Kong ALEUTI Tokyo JAPAN C H IN A ALASKA Allied offensives NEW HEBRIDES FIJI NEW CALEDONIA NEW ZEALAND Major battles or campaigns (1941–1945)
RITIDIAN POINT Mt Machanao Conclusion of Japanese resistance August 10 PATI POINT PHILIPPINE SEA Yigo Mt Santa Rosa American landing beach July 21 ADELUP POINT Hagåtña (Agana) ASAN POINT OROTE PENINSULA P ag Airstrip secured July 29 American landing beach July 21 Barrigada Piti APRA HARBOR Chalan Pago o River Mt Chachao Mt Tenjo Mangilao August 1 Pago Bay Ylig Apra Heights Yona July 31 Ri v GA’AN POINT Mt Barrigada Tamuning Asan Cabras Island August 7 August 6 Dededo Tumon Bay er Santa Rita Agat Mt Alifan BANGI POINT PACIFIC OCEAN Talofofo r July 30 Riv e Mt Lamlam Ri ve Talofofo Bay Umatac U m gu r Isolated pockets of Japanese resistance July 26-August 10 Inarajan Merizo Anchang Bay Cocos Island 0 0 5 Kilometers 5 Miles

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