"Sunrise at Valley Forge, Valley Forge National Historical Park, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Valley Forge

National Historical Park - Pennsylvania

Valley Forge National Historical Park is the site of the third winter encampment of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, taking place from December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778. The National Historical Park preserves the site and interprets the history of the Valley Forge encampment. The Park contains historical buildings, recreated encampment structures, memorials, museums, and recreation facilities.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Valley Forge - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail in New Jersey. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail in New Jersey. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Tourism and Transportation Map of Pennsylvania. Published by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.Pennsylvania - Tourism and Transportation Map

Official Tourism and Transportation Map of Pennsylvania. Published by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.

brochures

Monuments Map of Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Valley Forge - Monuments Map

Monuments Map of Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map 'Why Valley Forge?' for Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Valley Forge - Why Valley Forge?

Map 'Why Valley Forge?' for Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Trees at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Valley Forge - Trees

Brochure about Trees at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Rusty Crayfishes at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Valley Forge - Rusty Crayfishes

Brochure about Rusty Crayfishes at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Weeds at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Valley Forge - Weeds

Brochure about Weeds at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Preventing Lyme Disease at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Valley Forge - Preventing Lyme Disease

Brochure about Preventing Lyme Disease at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/vafo/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valley_Forge_National_Historical_Park Valley Forge National Historical Park is the site of the third winter encampment of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, taking place from December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778. The National Historical Park preserves the site and interprets the history of the Valley Forge encampment. The Park contains historical buildings, recreated encampment structures, memorials, museums, and recreation facilities. Valley Forge is the encampment site of the Continental Army during the winter of 1777-1778. The park features 3,500 acres of meadows, woodlands, and monuments commemorating the sacrifices and perseverance of the Revolutionary War generation and honoring the power of people to pull together and overcome adversity during extraordinary times. The park is conveniently located off of U.S. Route 422. The main entrance to the park is at the intersection of State Route 23 and North Gulph Road. From the Pennsylvania Turnpike, take Exit 326. From Interstate I-76, take Route 422 West to Route 23 West/Valley Forge. From State Route 252, take State Route 23 East. Visitor Center at Valley Forge The Visitor Center at Valley Forge is open daily, 9 AM to 5 PM. Closed on Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's days. First opened in 1978, the Visitor Center at Valley Forge is a multi-use building designed by Walter Ogg of the Philadelphia firm of Eshbach, Glass, Kale, and Associates, and includes visitor information services, The Encampment Store, and a museum exhibit that tells the story of the Valley Forge encampment of the Continental Army. The park is conveniently located off of U.S. Route 422. The main entrance to the park is at the intersection of State Route 23 and North Gulph Road. Immediately after entering the park, proceed straight through the stop sign and continue down the hill to access the parking area. From the Pennsylvania Turnpike, take Exit 326. From Interstate I-76, take Route 422 West to Route 23 West/Valley Forge. From State Route 252, take State Route 23 East. s s Muhlenberg's Brigade at Sunset outdoors, log huts, gravel path, sunset, clouds The sun sets at Muhlenberg's Brigade. Visitor Center at Valley Forge a building that extends into a hillside with a flagpole and landscaping out front The front entrance to the Visitor Center at Valley Forge. Wayne Statue outdoors, monument, statue, man on horse, grass, trees, clouds. The Anthony Wayne Statue at Valley Forge. Washington's Headquarters outdoors, grass, trees, stone house, blue sky Washington's Headquarters in spring. National Memorial Arch outdoors, arch, monument, snow, trees The National Memorial Arch at Valley Forge. NPS Structural Fire Program Highlights 2014 Intern Accomplishments Schuylkill River Sojourn Connects Paddlers New and Old to "Our Working River" Over 200 paddlers of all experience levels took to the water in colorful kayaks as part of the 21st Annual Schuylkill River Sojourn in the Schuylkill River Greenways National Heritage Area in Pennsylvania. To go along with the 2019 theme “Our Working River,” paddlers stopped along their journey to learn about the industrial heritage of the river—and of course to have lots of fun! Colorful kayaks on the Schuylkill River Sojourn against the green Pennsylvania landscape The Schuylkill River Sojourn: Fostering Environmental Stewardship and Community Kayaks gathered at a stop on the Schuylkill River Sojourn / Image courtesy of Schuylkill River National Heritage Area Kayaks gathered at a stop on the Schuylkill River Sojourn 2011 Recipients: George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service Meet the six winner of the 2011 Hartzog Awards, which celebrates the amazing contributions of volunteers to our national parks. Youth volunteer Welcoming Visitors to the Park and Communities Collaboration at the visitor center unites Valley Forge National Historic Park and the Valley Forge Convention and Tourism Board in providing high quality visitor services to all that visit the park. Tourists and locals alike are connected to the legacy of Valley Forge through event promotion and historical interpretation. racers leave start line at valley forge revolutionary 5 mile run Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail e-Newsletter Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail, WARO quarterly e-newsletter Meeting at Headquarters: Public Archeology at Valley Forge One of the primary destinations for visitors to Valley Forge National Historical Park is the modest stone house that served as General George Washington’s Headquarters during the Revolutionary War winter encampment of 1777-1778. In 2009, Washington’s Headquarters was re-opened following a series of repairs and renovations that provided the perfect opportunity to gather significant archeological data in a manner that was highly visible to park visitors. Stone house. 2020 Weather In Review: Valley Forge National Historical Park Valley Forge National Historical Park experienced an unusually warm and wet 2019. The year ended as the 3rd warmest and 23rd wettest year since 1895. A cabin with sunrays shining down on it Did You Know: The Justice Bell and the Fight for Women's Access to the Vote The bell is called the Justice Bell, but has also been known as the Women’s Liberty Bell and the Suffrage Bell. It was commissioned by Katharine Wentworth Ruschenberger in 1915. She was one of the 70,000 members of the Pennsylvania Woman Suffrage Association, and a leader of the organization in Chester County. A close replica of the Liberty Bell, the bronze Justice Bell was cast without a crack. Casting the Justice Bell, Troy, NY. Courtesy LoC Valley Forge Film HFC has contracted with Argentine Productions to produce a new film and four video shorts for Valley Forge National Historical Park in Pennsylvania. Their original film has played in the Park for 46 years and was due for an update. Half a dozen park staff, upwards of 2 dozen crew members (film & sound crews, grip & lighting crews, wardrobe, makeup, craft services…), and approximately 60 re-enactors participated. Days ran long – 11-12 hours/day on set and came with weather and The Oneida Nation in the American Revolution The Oneida were one of the individual Nations of the powerful Six Nations Confederacy. The "Oneida Carry," where Ft. Stanwix was built, was located in traditional Oneida lands. Man in traditional Oneida clothing; flowing red cape, feathers on his head, & leather leggings. Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: The People of Fort Stanwix Many different people and people groups have traversed the Oneida Carry throughout its history; from natives of the Six Nations Confederacy, to armies, to families and politicians. Learn more about many of these noted individuals and groups in the following series. A statue of a man in Continental Soldier uniform. His hand on his hip hold a sword hilt. Series: Tourism Stories The National Park Service (NPS) has a long history of working in collaboration with the travel and tourism sector to manage responsible tourism that supports conservation and facilitates enjoyment of public lands. These stories are one of a series profiling success stories and case studies of NPS-tourism sector collaboration stacked logs, revealing ring circles The 1st New York Regiment of the Continental Line 1776-1783 The regiment that came to be known as the 1st New York was actually authorized as the 2nd NY Regiment of the Continental Line on May 25, 1775. They were assigned to the Northern Department in Albany, NY with 10 companies from Albany, Tryon, Charlotte, and Cumberland Counties. After a year, Colonel Goose Van Schaick was designated as commander. Continental soldiers with packs on their backs that say NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] reconstructed log cabin Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Gaining Traction Special attachments for shoes allowed for greater stability when walking in mud, ice, and snow. archival photo, object, wood, leather, metal Supply Challenges Supplying the soldiery with adequate shoes was difficult, even with help from France. legs and feet with worn leather shoes Tracked by Their Blood Upon the Rough Frozen Ground Did soldiers really leave behind streaks of blood when they marched into Valley Forge? painting, soldiers, horse, snow, marching Series: Valley Forge Underfoot - Shoes of the Encampment What kind of shoes did people wear in the 18th century? Did soldiers really leave bloody marks on the frozen ground as they marched into Valley Forge in 1777? All your burning Revolutionary War-era shoe questions will be answered in this five-part series about the footwear worn by soldiers and camp followers during the Valley Forge winter encampment of the Continental Army. closeup of legs and feet with worn leather shoes. Strong Symptoms of Discontent How did soldiers endure long marches on frozen ground with sub-standard footwear? archival photo, black leather shoe with metal buckle Happily Suppressed What amount of misery and privation might lead a Continental Army soldier to mutiny? outdoors, mud, wagon, two men pushing Pleistocene Life and Landscapes—Valley Forge One of the richest fossil sites ever discovered in eastern North America was Port Kennedy Bone Cave in Valley Forge National Historical Park. The cave was found in the 1870s and explored through the 1890s. fossil skull of a short-faced bear French Alliance Day The Continental Army's alliance with France was formalized and celebrated during the Valley Forge encampment. outdoors, soldiers, cheers, hats Brood X Periodical Cicadas FAQ Learn about the Brood X periodical cicadas that emerged in 2021 throughout the Mid-Atlantic U.S. A perched periodical cicada with red eyes and orange wings Breeding bird monitoring at Valley Forge National Historical Park: 2019 status and trends To help inform natural resource management at Valley Forge National Historical Park, National Park Service scientists collect data about breeding bird populations. See what they learned from this data in 2019. A small yellow bird on a branch. The Commissary Department The Commissary Department’s main task was to purchase, pack, and distribute rations of food and supplies to the Continental Army under General George Washington. graphic, illustration, soldiers unload goods from a conestoga wagon On Guard! An Online Sentry Activity A revolution does not always involve fighting, and sometimes the hardest part about a war is what happens in between the battles. In this activity you will take on the role of a sentry during the Valley Forge encampment. You will decide who can enter camp and who cannot. photograph, outdoors, soldier standing with a musket in a muddy field. The Continental Army Arrives at Valley Forge The ill-supplied Continental Army marches in to Valley Forge on December 19, 1777. They will camp here for the next six months. outdoors, photograph, walking, shoe, mud, rain, evening Maker Tutorial - The Market Wallet Learn step-by-step how to make a market wallet! Civilian men and women (including those following the Continental Army) used market wallets to carry their personal items. It is likely that people would have carried them as they marched into Valley Forge on December 19, 1777. photograph, outdoors, smiling woman, bonnet, 18th century clothing, market wallet, log huts '78 Mile Challenge Annual Logo Design Contest The ’78 Mile Challenge Annual Logo Design Contest invites the public to submit logo designs for the '78 Mile Challenge. The deadline for submissions is March 19, 2022. graphic, blank square measuring 5 inches by 5 inches, Your Design Here! 300 dpi resolution. The '78 Mile Challenge The ’78 Mile Challenge is a Healthy Parks Healthy People program that encourages and rewards outdoor recreation at Valley Forge National Historical Park. Participants must complete 78 miles of walking, running, hiking, biking, and/or paddling within the park during a given time period, typically from late April through October. A logo, log huts and trail, Valley Forge National Historical Park 78 Mile Challenge 2023 2021 Weather In Review: Valley Forge National Historical Park Valley Forge National Historical Park experienced an extremely warm 2021 though total precipitation was near normal. The year ended as the 4th warmest and 59th wettest year since 1895. Sunset at Valley Forge A Revolutionary Life: Washington's Birthday Through the Years Nine short videos chronicle American history through the lens of George Washington's birthday and how it was (or wasn't) celebrated during critical points during his life. graphic, illustration, bust of washington wearing a birthday hat 18th Century Great Cake When George Washington turned 46 years old at Valley Forge in 1778, he most likely didn't have a birthday cake like we think of them today, but he probably did have cake at Valley Forge. photograph, handwritten document, faded parchment Youth Conservation Corps at Valley Forge Program details and application instructions for the Youth Conservation Corps program (YCC) at Valley Forge National Historical Park. The YCC promotes natural resource conservation by America’s youth and prepare participants for the ultimate responsibility of managing resources for the American people. Photograph, 9 smiling people wear hard hats and gloves and hold shovels. Art in the Park BINGO Art in the Park prompts for Valley Forge National Historical Park in the form of a fun BINGO activity! Man crouches with a paintbrush in his mouth. Cannons are in the background. Art in the Park Bingo The Monument to Patriots of African Descent: Black Americans’ Revolutionary Histories This program examines the process of creating the Monument to Patriots of African Descent, the history of sites that commemorate or exclude Black Americans from public culture, and the National Park Service’s role in foregrounding racially diverse histories of the American Revolution. A marble monument with a bronze plaque is surrounded by green grass amid blue sky. Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Deer Impacts A healthy forest needs to have enough tree seedlings and saplings to regenerate the forest canopy after a disturbance. Analysis of NPS I&M and other long-term datasets makes it clear that many eastern national parks lack adequate tree regeneration due to decades of over browsing by white-tailed deer. Deer impacts Ajena Cason Rogers: Amplifying Voices of African American Women While Ajena Rogers has had a variety of roles with the NPS, she became recognized for her expertise as a living history interpreter, portraying the lives of African American women at historic sites. In a 2020 oral history interview with the Park History Program, Rogers speaks of the privilege and burden of this first-person technique, experiencing racial dynamics of both past and present, and the family history that she carries forward. Ajena Rogers in character, in bonnet and apron with a mixing bowl and gazing out a kitchen window. Natural Resource Management Spring/Summer Internship Volunteer Student Intern (non-paid) in Natural Resource Management at Valley Forge National Historical Park with up to 2 positions available each year. two people stand in the woods smiling and holding turtles I&M Networks Support Resilient Forest Management NPS Inventory and Monitoring Networks have been tracking forest health in eastern national parks since 2006. This monitoring information can guide resilient forest management and support parks in adapting to changing conditions through the actions described below. Forest health monitoring Managing Resilient Forests. A Regional Initiative Forests cover tens of thousands of acres in eastern national parks and these critical resources face a range of interacting stressors: over-abundant white-tailed deer populations, invasive plant dominance, novel pests and pathogens, among other threats. The Resilient Forests Initiative will help parks address these issue collectively. Forest health monitoring Regina P. Jones Underwood Brake Regina Jones-Brake's career with the National Park Service (NPS) began in 1976 with the bicentennial of the Declaration of Independence. Over the next 33 years, her love of American history compelled her to share untold stories as she advanced from park ranger to management assistant. Regina Jones-Underwood pictured outdoors in her NPS uniform. The General von Steuben Statue: Interpreting LGBTQ+ Histories of the Revolution This program considers the changing audiences of the General von Steuben Statue, how contemporary communities’ desire for identification should be reflected in interpretation, and LGBTQ+ history in the Early Republic. As park visitors increasingly inquire about Steuben’s sexuality, it raises the question: how should the National Park Service incorporate LGBTQ+ history into the stories it tells about the founding of our nation? General Steuben Statue at Valley Forge, 1915. Bronze sculpture by J. Otto Schweizer. Series: Managing Resilient Forests Initiative for Eastern National Parks Forests in the northeastern U.S. are in peril. Over-abundant deer, invasive plants, and insect pests are negatively impacting park forests, threatening to degrade the scenic vistas and forested landscapes that parks are renowned for. With regional collaboration, parks can manage these impacts and help forests be resilient. This article series explores tools available to park managers to achieve their goals. Healthy forests have many native seedlings and saplings. Digitizing Artifacts from the Museum Collections at Valley Forge National Historical Park Lexi Coburn, a Revolutionary War and Iron Industry Museum Collections Intern at Valley Forge, spent the summer of 2021 working among the artifacts of the George C. Neumann collection, photographing historic objects one by one, and adding them to the digital records in the Interior Collections Management System (ICMS). a person holds a camera in front of an historic object and name plate with white backdrop. All About Trees - Activities for Kids Park rangers lead tree-themed educational activities for kids in these fun videos. Activities include How a Tree Grows, Why Leaves Change Colors, and Adopt a Tree. two park rangers kneel side by side with arms raised in the air. a large tree is in between them. Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Invasive Plants & Pests Park forests are threatened by invasive plants and pests. Strategically tackling invasive plants to protect park’s highest priority natural resources and planning around forest pests and pathogens are important actions in managing resilient forests. Forest Regeneration Series: Native History of the Oneida Carry Many Native Americans lived and died in the vicinity of the Oneida Carry. Tribes, families, and individuals were often pulled in different directions as the European world invaded theirs. Learn more of this history here. Overhead of an old map with a large fence, shaped like a hexagon with little buildings inside. Valley Forge Cell Phone Guide Transcript The written transcript of the recorded audio of the Valley Forge Cell Phone Guide. Dial 484-396-1018 to access the guide. graphic depicting a hand holding a cell phone and speaker with three arcing lines representing sound Valley Forge Bird List Over 227 species of birds have been observed within Valley Forge National Historical Park, and the Valley Forge Bird List is intended to reflect their present status. a small yellow and black bird sits on a spiky plant with purple blossoms with a seed in its beak. Natural Resource Management Fall/Winter Internship Natural Resource Individual Placement (1 internship), paid, full-time, temporary, 900 hour AmeriCorps national service position. Crayfish Corps Resource Brief 2021 Crayfish Corps is a management action led by Natural Resource staff and supported by volunteers, which aims to limit the effects of invasive non-native crayfish in Valley Creek within Valley Forge National Historical Park. a group of people stand in a shallow creek wearing rubber boots and dipping nets into the water Self-Guided Homeschool Activities Several self-guided, in-park activities geared towards homeschool families. a trail goes through a meadow near a small log structure National Public Lands Day at Valley Forge National Public Lands Day in 2022 is on Saturday, September 24. Register for positions on one of four different volunteer work projects at Valley Forge. volunteers wearing gloves hold large plastic bags and stand in a meadow The Philadelphia Campaign of 1777 2022 marks the 245th anniversary of the Philadelphia Campaign during the American Revolutionary War, and many local parks historic sites will be hosting commemorative events. The following list details some of the major engagements that occurred during the Philadelphia Campaign, and the places you can visit pay homage to this era in history. Fall Homeschool Day 2022 Fall Homeschool Day at Valley Forge (Oct. 11, 2022) is geared towards homeschool families with kids between the ages of 5 and 15, although it is open to the general public. It is a free event with no registration required. a ranger in 18th century clothing speaks to kids and adults who are standing and seated in front Valley Forge Write Out 2022 Much of what we know today about the Valley Forge encampment comes from the writings that people made in their journals and notebooks while they were in camp. Watch the video and check out the Valley Forge writing prompt! a toy log hut in a meadow and text reading Valley Forge Write Out 2022 Trees of Valley Forge During the encampment of George Washington and the Continental Army, almost every tree in what is now the park—and for miles beyond—was cut down for firewood, shelter, and defensive structures. Today, forest communities cover 34% of the park and contain 110 different kinds of trees. silhouettes of trees on the horizon. a person extends an arm to the trunk of a large tree. Become a Hopewell Furnace B.A.R.K. Ranger The best way to be a B.A.R.K. Ranger is to demonstrate to other visitors that you know how to explore the park safely and help protect special places like Hopewell Furnace National Historic Area. Pick up your official B.A.R.K. Ranger pledge card at the outside visitor table or from a ranger in the village. You will be asked to complete a few simple activities, learn the B.A.R.K. Ranger Rules and sign your pledge. You can then earn the official B.A.R.K. Ranger badge. B.A.R.K. Ranger badge in front of Hopewell Village. March-In Commemoration 2022 Visit Valley Forge National Historical Park on Saturday, December 17, 2022 to commemorate the 245th anniversary of the arrival of the Continental Army to Valley Forge. Hands-on activities and programming are scheduled from 11 AM to 6 PM. men dressed in 18th century clothing stand around a campfire in the snow Series: Geologic Time—Major Divisions and NPS Fossils The National Park System contains a magnificent record of geologic time because rocks from each period of the geologic time scale are preserved in park landscapes. The geologic time scale is divided into four large periods of time—the Cenozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Paleozoic Era, and The Precambrian. photo of desert landscape with a petrified wood log on the surface Case Studies in Deer Management White-tailed deer populations have grown out of control in eastern parks. Inventory & Monitoring Program scientists studying forest health have found that forests in a majority of these parks are facing probable or imminent regeneration failure linked to deer overpopulation. Through this StoryMap, learn how deer management has improved forest health at three national parks: Gettysburg, Catoctin, and Valley Forge. Antlered deer standing among green foliage 2022 Weather in Review: Valley Forge National Historical Park It was a very warm year at Valley Forge National Historical Park in 2022 though total precipitation was near normal. The year ended as the 15th warmest and 59th wettest since 1895. The National Memorial Arch with pink trees blooming in foreground The 4th NY Regiment of the Continental Line, 1777-1780 The 4th New York Regiment that served to the end of 1780 was organized in January of 1777 from the remnants of various regiments raised for the 1775 Canadian invasion and short lived 1776 regiments. By the end of the war these men had the distinction of being present at the surrender of two British Armies: Burgoyne at Saratoga in 1777 and Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781. 3 Continental Soldiers stand at ease with their muskets resting on in their hands in front of them. White-tailed Deer Fawns at Valley Forge White-tailed deer fawns are born between mid-May and July at Valley Forge, and are sensitive to human interaction and contact. If you encounter a baby deer in the park, leave it alone! A spotted baby deer sits in tall grass 2022 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service The National Park Service is pleased to congratulate the recipients of the 2022 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service. A montage of photos of volunteers working in a national park. Junior Ranger Angler at Valley Forge Free introductory fly fishing program for families hosted by the Valley Forge Chapter of Trout Unlimited and Valley Forge National Historical Park. After attending the program that runs on three consecutive Saturdays (Sep 30, Oct 7, Oct 14, 2023) all participants will earn the Junior Ranger Angler badge and a family membership to Valley Forge Trout Unlimited. Illustration adult and child in silhouette holding fishing rods, standing in a creek. Crayfish Corps Resource Brief 2022 In 2022, the trend continued of decreasing catches of invasive crayfish per person-hour since 2009. Crayfish Corps is a management action led by natural resource management staff and supported by volunteers, which aims to limit the effects of invasive non-native crayfish in Valley Creek within Valley Forge National Historical Park. a group of people stand in a shallow creek wearing rubber boots and dipping nets into the water Fall Homeschool Day 2023 Fall Homeschool Day at Valley Forge (Oct. 24, 2023) is geared towards homeschool families with kids between the ages of 5 and 15, although it is open to the general public. It is a free event with no registration required. smiling children gather around a table where a man in 18th century clothing speaks March-In Commemoration 2023 Visit Valley Forge National Historical Park on Tuesday, December 19, 2023 to commemorate the 246th anniversary of the arrival of the Continental Army to Valley Forge. Hands-on activities and programming are scheduled from 6 PM to 8 PM. a man wearing an continental army soldier uniform stands over a fire Christmas at Valley Forge Christmas celebrations in the Continental Army during the winter of 1777 depended on multiple factors, partly because observances varied between different religious demographics. The holiday's customs changed drastically between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. By taking a broad perspective, a clearer understanding of revolutionary-era Christmas celebrations emerges. Eastern Parks Reduce Herds to Benefit Forests, Deer, and People National parks protect a small but critical part of eastern U.S. forests. They’re now responding to an accelerating crisis as overabundant white-tailed deer coincide with a profusion of invasive plants. two people stand next to a fenced off area full of lush vegetation. 2023 Weather in Review: Valley Forge National Historical Park It was the 4th warmest year ever recorded at Valley Forge National Historical Park though total precipitation was close to normal. A stone house with white blooming dogwood trees in the yard. Celebrate Washington's Birthday at Valley Forge Celebrate Washington's Birthday at Valley Forge National Historical Park on Monday, February 19, 2024 from 10 AM to 2 PM. bronze statue of george washington wearing a birthday hat. Volunteer Student Internship (non-paid), Interpretation and Education Volunteer Student Intern (non-paid) in Interpretation and Education at Valley Forge National Historical Park with up to 4 positions available. A group of smiling park rangers in front of a large bronze statue of a uniformed soldier. Crayfish Corps Resource Brief 2023 Crayfish Corps is a management action led by Natural Resource staff and supported by volunteers, which aims to limit the effects of invasive non-native crayfish in Valley Creek. In 2023, Crayfish Corps included 301 volunteers who contributed 636 hours towards rusty crayfish removal. a group of people stand in a shallow creek wearing rubber boots and dipping nets into the water Solar Eclipse Viewing at Valley Forge Join park rangers and volunteers at Wayne's Woods picnic area on Monday, April 8, 2024 from 2 PM to 4:30 PM to watch the partial solar eclipse. Pick up a free pair of eclipse glasses (while supplies last), earn a special Junior Ranger Eclipse Explorer badge, look through a solar telescope, learn about the science of eclipses, and hear a special ranger talk about the historical solar eclipses experienced by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. circular illustration depicting soldiers holding muskets, a log hut, and a black sun in the sky Irish Immigrants in the American Revolution Quite a few Irish immigrants to North America served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution, including Doctor James McHenry and John Fitzgerald, both aides-de-camp to General George Washington at Valley Forge.
Valley Forge National Historical Park Pennsylvania National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior ¯ ! [ Monuments Site of Sullivan's Bridge Sc h uy l k ill R iv e r McIntosh's Brigade Delaware Memorial ! [ Route 23 ! [ ! [ ! [! [ ! [ Varnum's Brigade ! [ Patriots of African American Descent ! [ ! [ ! [ Route 23 D.R. Plaque 1901 D.R. Memorial: Soldiers Buried at Valley Forge Waterman's Plaque Georgia Memorial ! [ ! [ Nine North Carolina Regiments Statue of General Washington ! [ ! [ Statue of General von Steuben Route 422 Rhode Island Regiments General Armstrong Gravestone of Revolutionary Soldier (shot on neighbouring farm) Huntingdon's Brigade Route ! [ 23 Marylanders Memorial ! [ ! [ Horseshoe Trail Marker ! [ Brigadier General McIntosh Muhlenberg's Brigade Stirling's Division Betsy Ross Monument ! [ Coffee Bean Tree & Marker ! [ Maxwell's Brigade ! [ Weedon's Brigade New Jersey Memorial Gu lp h Route ! [ 252 Rd . Co un ty L R i ne d. r th No Maine Memorial In n Marker: Site of Marquee [ !! [ O r u te L in eD r. ! [ Patterson's Brigade er Lin eD r. Learned's Brigade Free and Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania Monument ! [ Glover's Brigade U.S. National Memorial Arch ! [ [! !! [ [ ! [ ! [ George Washington and Troops (Pearl Harbor Survivors Assn.) Massachusetts Memorial Telephone Pioneers of America Memorial Valley Creek ! [ New Hampshire Regiments New York Regiments Unknown Buried Soldiers (DAR) ! [ Pennsylvania Brigade ! [ ! [ [ ! [! Poor's Brigade Pennsylvania State Columns Virginia Memorial ! [ ! [ Scott's Brigade [ [! ! [ ! ! [ Butler's Brigade Legend Soldier's Hut Site Memorial ! [ Sassafras Tree Marker Hartley's Brigade Authorized Park Boundary Ro u te 25 ! [ Statue of General Wayne 2 PA ! [ T u rn Privately Owned Inholdings pike 0 Rotary International Monument "Lord Stirling" and James Monroe Commemorative Monuments ! [ 300 600 May 2013 1,200 Feet
North Sullivan’s Bridge Pawling Farm Washington’s Headquarters S L K I LL CHUY Varnum McIntosh T i er L nn UN y I GRAND Redoubt 2 PARADE Redan Redan Conway Muhlenberg Weedon Maxwell Redoubt Patterson s Artillery se Learned fen Park Glover e eD Poor Lin er t Ou Roa G ul ph Redoubt 3 d Wayne 2nd Pa 1st Pa es ens Def 0 0.5 Kilometer Scott e n Li ter 0 0.5 Mile Ou ne Defense JOY Creek Woodford s Va l l e MO The Valley Forge Brigade encampments in 1777–78 ER Redoubt 1 Redoubt 4 Huntington Historic trace (road) RIV
Tree Species in the Park Beech Family (Fagaceae) American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) American Chestnut (Castanea dentate) Black Oak (Quercus velutina) Blackjack Oak (Quercus marilandica) Chestnut Oak (Quercus montana) European Beech (Fagus sylvatica)** European Chestnut (Castanea sativa)** Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) Scarlet Oak (Quercus coccinea) White Oak (Quercus alba) Birch Family (Betulaceae) American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) Eastern Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) River Birch (Betula nigra) Sweet Birch (Betula lenta) Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis) Cashew/Sumac Family (Anacardiaceae) Poison-sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) Cedar/Cypress Family (Cupressaceae) Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) Eastern White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis) Custard Apple Family (Annonaceae) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Dogwood Family (Cornaceae) Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) Ebony Family (Ebenaceae) Common Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) Elm Family (Ulmaceae) American Elm (Ulmus Americana) Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) Figwort Family (Scrophulariaceae) Princess Tree (Paulownia tomentosa)** Ginseng Family (Aralliaceae) Devils-walking-stick (Aralia spinosa) Holly Family (Aquifoliaceae) American Holly (Ilex opaca) Honeysuckle Family (Caprifoliaceae) Blackhaw Viburnum (Viburnum prunifolium) Laurel Family (Lauraceae) Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) Linden Family (Tiliaceae) American Basswood (Tilia americana) Magnolia Family (Magnoliaceae) Cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminate) Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera) Maple Family (Aceraceae) Boxelder (Acer negundo) Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)** Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Olive Family (Oleaceae) Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Pea Family (Fabaceae) Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Bristly Locust (Robinia hispida)** Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Kentucky Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) Pine Family (Pinaceae) Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) European Larch (Larix decidua)** Norway Spruce (Picea abies)** Red Pine (Pinus resinosa)** Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)** Quassia Family (Simaroubaceae) Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima)** Rose Family (Rosaceae) Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) Dotted Hawthorn (Crataegus punctata) Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea) Smooth Serviceberry (Amelanchier laevis) Sycamore Family (Platanaceae) American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) Tupelo Family (Nyssaceae) Black Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) Walnut Family (Juglandaceae) Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis) Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Butternut (Juglans cinerea) Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa) Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra) Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) Sweet Pignut Hickory (Carya ovalis) National Park Service U.S. Department of Interior Valley Forge National Historical Park King of Prussia, Pa Trees of Valley Forge National Historical Park Willow Family (Salicaceae) Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) Black Willow (Salix nigra) Cottonwood (Populus deltoids) Crack Willow (Salix fragilis)** Weeping Willow (Salix babylonica)** White Poplar (Populus alba)** Witch-Hazel Family (Hamamelidaceae) Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) **Non-native tree species NPS Photo Forests at Valley Forge Forest condition was first evaluated in 1983, and was described as excellent. Over the past two decades an increasing number of deer has resulted in undesirable changes in the species composition, structure, abundance, and distribution of native plant communities, particularly forests. Browsing of tree and shrub seedlings by deer has eliminated the ability of forests to regenerate, leading to monocultures of invasive plants, such as Japanese stilt grass, above. Future management will focus on the protection, preservation, and restoration of forests and other native plant communities. NPS Photo The spectacular display of fall foliage at Valley Forge provides a dramatic backdrop for a day in the park. 2010 www.nps.gov/vafo Encampment-Era Trees State Champion Trees Encampment-era trees are those likely to have been growing here State champion trees are particularly impressive or unusual examples of a tree species due to size, shape, age, or other trait. 1. Lafayette Sycamore 4. Knox Black Walnut Estimated to be over 300 years old. Also a “William Penn Tree,” indicating it was growing in 1682. Circumference: 18.1 ft Height: 93.9 ft Spread: 113 ft 3 Black Walnut was used for gun stocks, furniture, dye (nuts) and firewood NPS Photo 2. Maxwell Sycamore Circumference: 20.9 ft Height: 119.9 ft Spread: 114 ft American sycamores make poor firewood, but were used for chopping or butcher’s blocks NPS Photo 5. Potts Blackhaw Viburnum 5 Circumference: 2.4 ft Height: 19.9 ft Spread: 26 ft Photo by Scott Wade 3. Pawling Sycamore Photo by Scott Wade Circumference: 21.4 ft Hei
The Rusty Crayfish The rusty crayfish is considered a non-native, invasive species in the park and throughout Pennsylvania. Originally from the Ohio River Basin, this crayfish has been introduced into 19 states where it never occurred before over the last 30-40 years (Figure 2). It has been transported from one place to another primarily by bait fishermen, but also through biological supply houses, aquaculture, and the pond and aquarium trade. Rusty crayfish were first documented in Pennsylvania in the 1970’s and now occur in the Delaware, Potomac, Schuylkill, and Susquehanna River watersheds. From large rivers they are able to invade the countless small streams that feed into the rivers, such as Valley Creek. What does invasive mean? An invasive, non-native species is one that, once introduced, is able to out-compete native species for needed resources such as food, space, water, and shelter. In extreme cases, native species may be totally eliminated from the ecosystem. The rusty crayfish is bigger, more aggressive, and eats up to twice as much as native crayfish in Valley Creek. They are able to eliminate ALL other crayfish species through direct competition for food and shelter and increasing the susceptibility of native crayfish to predators as they are chased from under protective rocks and move more to find food. Rusty crayfish also may reduce the amount of aquatic vegetation, reduce aquatic insect populations, and ultimately negatively effect large predators such as trout. National Park Service U.S. Department of Interior Valley Forge National Historical Park King of Prussia, Pa Stewards of Native Diversity at Valley Forge Introduced Populations Native Range Figure 2. Distribution of rusty crayfish in the United States, including their native range and areas where they have been introduced and are considered non-native.(From http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=214). For additional information on rusty crayfish please visit*: http://www.invadingspecies.com/Invaders. cfm?A=Page&PID=4 http://www.seagrant.umn.edu/ais/rustycray fish_invader http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.as px?speciesID=214 * Information contained within this brochure was obtained from the sources above. 2010 Did You Know? It is illegal to use rusty crayfish as fishing bait in Pennsylvania and no live bait of any kind can be used in Valley Creek within the park. These regulations exist to prevent the introduction of additional non-native species into Valley Creek and to control the spread of rusty crayfish across the state. www.nps.gov/vafo Funding contributed by the National Park Service Volunteer-In-Parks Program What is the Crayfish Corps In 2008, the rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) invaded Valley Creek in Valley Forge National Historical Park. Valley Creek is considered an “Exceptional Value” waterway, Class A Wild Trout Fishery, and one of the park’s most important natural resources. The rusty crayfish is a highly aggressive, non-native species that poses a significant threat to the continued health of the stream ecosystem. Rusty crayfish claws are grayish– green to reddish-brown with dark black bands on the tips (b). The claws, when closed, have an oval gap in the middle. The moveable claw is smooth and S-shaped (c). NPS Photo Members of the What is a Non-Native Crayfish Corps will Species? join NPS staff in the Non-native species are battle to suppress those that occur in an rusty crayfish area as the result of populations by deliberate or accidental physically removing human activities. them from the stream ecosystem. Our goal is to maintain a ratio of 1 rusty crayfish or less for every 4 native crayfish present in Valley Creek. (b) Black bands on tip of claw Join the Crayfish Corps Crayfish Corps is active between May and August in order to catch the most rusty crayfish and allow the stream time to rest. Crayfish removal is accomplished using hand nets and participants should be prepared to get in the stream and get wet! All ages are welcome and park staff will provide necessary training and equipment including nets and a limited number of hip boots. Participants should wear their own close-toed water shoes if possible. (b) (c) Receive a Crayfish Corps button the first time you participate and earn a Crayfish Corps t-shirt after participating only three times. To become a member of the Crayfish Corps, visit our volunteer website : Rusty Crayfish Identification http://www.nps.gov/vafo/supportyourpark/ volunteeropportunities.htm Rusty crayfish are most easily identified by the presence of rust-colored spots located on both sides of the carapace behind the claws (a) (Figure 1). (a) These patches may be less pronounced on crayfish from different areas. Illustration by Marian Orlousky NPS Photo (a) Rust-colored spot on carapace Figure 1. Rusty crayfish illustration showing key identifying characteristics: (a) rust-colored spots, (b) black bands on tip of claws, and ( c ) S-sh
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Valley Forge National Historical Park King of Prussia, Pa National Park Service U. S. Department of Interior Preventing Lyme Disease The More You Know The Easier It Is What is Lyme Disease? Lyme Disease is a bacterial infection which acquired its name from Lyme, Connecticut, where the first cases were diagnosed in 1975. The Centers for Disease Control currently lists Lyme Disease as the most common tick-borne illness. Although reported throughout the United States and Europe, in the United States it is most prevalent in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states. Caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, Lyme Disease is most commonly transmitted to humans through the bite of the deer tick or black legged tick (Ixodes scapularis, formerly Ixodes dammini). The tick becomes infected when it takes a first blood meal from the white-footed mouse, its primary host. Recognizing the Deer Tick Deer ticks often go unobserved because of their small size compared to the common dog tick (which also may transmit Lyme Disease). There are three stages in the life cycle of the deer tick: larva, nymph, and adult. During the larval stage it is the size of the head of a pin. The adult reaches the size of a sesame seed unless it has just fed, then it may grow up to four times normal size. Ixodes scapularis nymph compared to a human thumb These deer ticks are shown actual size: larva nymph adults blood-engorged adult tick How and Where the Tick Lives In the Northeast, larval deer ticks hatch and take a first blood meal in August, often from the white-footed mouse – the carrier of the Lyme Disease bacterium. This is usually when ticks become infected with Lyme Disease. Fully engorged larvae drop to the ground then emerge as nymphs the following Spring. Nymphs (and in Fall the adult ticks), then transfer to a larger host. Lyme Disease can be transmitted to humans if they encounter a tick at this time and become the secondary host. It is common for nymphal and adult ticks to attach to dogs, cats, birds, squirrels, raccoons, foxes, mice, deer, etc. The primary role that deer and other wildlife such as birds play in the spread of Lyme Disease is in the transport of potentially infected ticks into the home environment. Additionally, abundant hosts may support a higher than normal tick population compared to areas with fewer host species. Ticks spend most of their lives in moist, humid areas with abundant host species. Although found in all natural environments at Valley Forge National Historical Park, research indicates that the highest tick densities are in wooded areas. Ticks can be found on shrubby vegetation less than 3 feet in height, the undersides of leaves, logs, and in leaf litter. Structures such as stone walls, particularly when located within wooded areas of the park, are also favored locations for ticks. Student collecting ticks using a drag cloth Transmitting Lyme Disease to Humans Although tick larvae do bite humans, they are unlikely to be a carrier of the Lyme Disease because they have not yet been infected. The most dangerous period for transmission of Lyme Disease to humans is during the nymphal stage because nymphs are most likely to feed on a person and are still small enough to be difficult to detect. The adult tick transmits the disease, but they are usually large enough to see and are often spotted and removed quickly. Peak months for nymphal and adult deer ticks in this area are May, June, July, and October. If a tick is attached to your skin for less than 24 hours your chance of getting Lyme Disease is very small. Prompt removal of ticks may substantially reduce the probability of acquiring Lyme Disease from a tick bite. How to Remove a Tick The more quickly you remove a trick from your body, the better your chances of avoiding infection. To safely remove a tick, grasp it firmly with fine-point tweezers where the mouthparts enter the skin. Without squeezing the body of the tick, tug gently until it releases its hold and then wipe the bite area with antiseptic or wash with soap and water. Lyme Disease Symptoms The majority of Lyme Disease cases are reported in June, July, and August. Early symptoms usually occur from a few days to a few weeks after infection, although it could be up to one a month. If recognized early it is easily treated with antibiotics. A vaccine is also available. Ask you doctor about this option. Early Symptoms The onset of Lyme Disease is usually accompanied by flu-like symptoms that include one or more of the following: fatigue, chills and fever, headache, muscle and joint pain and/or stiffness, stiff neck, discomfort in the jaw area, red eyes, and swollen glands. As many as 50% of the people who are infected with Lyme Disease also develop a RED RASH at the site of the initial bite. The rash is often round and may expand up to 18 inches in diameter over a number of weeks. The center of the rash may clear as it expands creating a “bulls-eye” effect. The rash can have several

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