"Tulip magnolia (Magnolia liliiflora) blooming, Ulysses S Grant National Historic Site, 2016." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain
Ulysses S Grant
National Historic Site - Missouri
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site is located 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Downtown St. Louis, Missouri within the municipality of Grantwood Village. The site, also known as White Haven, commemorates the life, military career, and Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant. Five historic structures are preserved at the site including the childhood home of Julia Dent Grant, wife of Ulysses S. Grant. White Haven was a plantation worked by slaves at the time Grant was married to his wife in 1848 and remained so until the end of the American Civil War.
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https://www.nps.gov/ulsg/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulysses_S._Grant_National_Historic_Site Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site is located 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Downtown St. Louis, Missouri within the municipality of Grantwood Village. The site, also known as White Haven, commemorates the life, military career, and Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant. Five historic structures are preserved at the site including the childhood home of Julia Dent Grant, wife of Ulysses S. Grant. White Haven was a plantation worked by slaves at the time Grant was married to his wife in 1848 and remained so until the end of the American Civil War. Ulysses S. Grant is known as the victorious Civil War general who saved the Union and the 18th President of the United States. He first met Julia Dent, his future wife, at her family home, named White Haven. From 1854 to 1859 the Dents, Grants and an enslaved African-American workforce lived on the property. Ulysses S. Grant is located in south St. Louis County on Grant Road, near Gravois Road to the south. Watson Road is to the north, I-270 is to the west, and Laclede Station Road is to the east. Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site Visitor Center This is the first stop for your visit. You can watch an introductory film, get information on historic house tours, explore the museum in the historic stable, and shop in the bookstore. From I-270, exit at Gravois Rd - Hwy 30 (Exit 3) and turn east toward STL; follow Gravois Rd 3.3 miles and turn left on Grant Rd; site is less than a mile ahead on right. From I-44 E, exit at Big Bend Rd (Exit 278), turn right, turn right on Grant Rd, turn right on Pardee Rd and follow; site is on left. From I-44 W, exit at Berry Road (Exit 279), turn left off exit, turn left on Big Bend Rd, turn right on Grant Rd, turn right on Pardee Rd and follow; site is on the left. From I-55 S, take I-44W or I-270W. White Haven in Autumn View of house with fence. Autumn colored leaves on trees White Haven is picturesque in all seasons, but in the fall the trees are especially beautiful. White Haven view of house from side and back. The house has several additions. Stone summer kitchen on right Behind the house is stone summer kitchen. Outbuildings To the left is the ice house and to right is chicken house. Ice house and chicken house behind the main house. Tack Room Saddles in tack room The historic stable tack room. Museum Exhibits boy looking at touchscreen in museum The interactive museum is located in the historic stable. Winter at White Haven Historic green house with snow on ground Visiting the park in the winter can be beautiful and peaceful. White Haven in Early Spring View of house from front with budding tree branch in foreground that is also covered in ice. Snowfall in early spring. Women Amidst War The extreme demands of wartime industry and the loss of traditional family breadwinners to military service caused hardship, but also presented opportunities to women for employment, volunteerism, and activism that previously had been unavailable to them. While many of these gains would be temporary, the Civil War nonetheless represents an important step forward in American society's view of the role of women. Women were increasingly seen (and saw themselves) as the foundat Photo of women at a house on the Cedar Mountain battlefield Reconstruction During Reconstruction, the Federal government pursued a program of political, social, and economic restructuring across the South-including an attempt to accord legal equality and political power to former slaves. Reconstruction became a struggle over the meaning of freedom, with former slaves, former slaveholders and Northerners adopting divergent definitions. Faced with increasing opposition by white Southerners and some Northerners, however, the government abandoned effor Picture depictsing former slaves and free blacks voting following the passage of the 15th amendment Shaping the System under President George H.W. Bush President George H.W. Bush was an ardent supporter of the national parks. Explore some the parks that are part of the legacy of the presidency of George H.W. Bush, who served as the 41st president of the United States from January 20, 1989 to January 20, 1993. President George H.W. Bush shaking hands with a park ranger at the World War II Memorial African American History at Father Dickson Cemetery Roughly two miles north of Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site is Father Dickson Cemetery, a historically Black cemetery where more than 6,000 people are buried. Some of these people endured slavery, served in United States Colored Troops Regiments during the Civil War, and led the push for equal rights in Missouri during the Reconstruction Era. man with beard, white hair, and suit posing for a photo. Family or Country: Grant’s Difficult Decision (Senior Ranger Activity) Ulysses S. Grant faced a dilemma at the beginning of the Civil War - to serve his country, or remain with his family in Galena, Illinois. Complete this activity to find out more about Ulysses and maintaining family ties during the war. 1861 map of the United States. Inset: Black and white photo of Ulysses S. Grant The Visits of Ulysses and Julia Grant to St. Louis Although Ulysses and Julia Grant never lived at White Haven after 1859, they continued to periodically visit the home and maintain a connection with St. Louis for the rest of their lives. men posing around a 19th century train "My Dearest You Never Could Have Crossed" Julia's wife (and unborn child) most likely escaped certain death from cholera when Grant refused her request to travel with him via the Isthmus of Panama on his way to Fort Vancouver in 1852. After Grant's safe arrival, he writes Julia to tell her of the harrowing and deadly journey. engraving of Grant done in 1843. He's wearing the uniform of a brevet second lieutenant. The Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant Fighting inoperable throat cancer and financial ruin, Ulysses S. Grant set about writing his famous Personal Memoirs in 1885. A First Edition Copy of Ulysses S. Grant's Personal Memoirs. Green Cover with gold embossed letters. Separation from Family: A Conversation Activity Due to recent circumstances, people today are experiencing separation from loved ones. Ulysses S. Grant was often separated from his family while serving in the army, prior to and during the Civil War. This separation caused him great anxiety and loneliness. Many families today can identify with Grant’s struggle and may also feel lonely or anxious during our uncertain times. Take a moment to complete this activity as a family. Black and white photo of a woman, Julia Grant, posed with two young children. The Importance of Family (Senior Ranger Activity) Complete this activity to learn about the dilemmas that Ulysses S. Grant faced as he balanced his career and family life. Black and white drawing of Ulysses S. Grant and his family Lessons from the Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant wrote his personal memoirs intending to show readers his perspective on the American Civil War and his life experiences more broadly. The article highlights a number of famous passages from the memoirs. U.S. Grant sitting on a front porch chair working on his personal memoirs Expanded Children's Programming in 2020 Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site is offering expanded children's programming in 2020. Click to learn more! Photo of a young girl in a yellow jacket playing with a wooden hoop toy White Haven Then and Now Look at historic and modern photos of the White Haven estate. Use an interactive slider tool to compare the photos. Do you see any differences between the historic photos and today? Comparison photo of White Haven in 1860 and today Ulysses S. Grant Word Scramble Test your brain power! Click here to unscramble word puzzles about Ulysses S. Grant's life. Photo of Ulysses S. Grant with a cartoon thought bubble containing a question mark. Julia Dent Grant and the Fight for Women's Property Rights in Missouri Julia Dent Grant was not an active member of the 19th century women's rights movement in the United States, but in 1868 she played an unexpected role in reinforcing property rights for women who lived in Missouri. woman with brown hair and long dress posing for photo. Battle of Belmont On August 28, 1861 Union General John C. Fremont placed Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant in charge of southeastern Missouri. Soon after taking command, Grant was embroiled in his first major battle of the Civil War at Belmont, Missouri. Read the story here. Battlefield map of the Battle of Belmont showing troop movements Lieutenant Grant Climbs Mount Popocatepetl Ulysses S. Grant was an avid outdoorsman. One of his most memorable outdoor experiences was climbing Mount Popocatepetl at the end of the Mexican-American War in 1848. large mountain covered with snow. Ulysses S. Grant: International Arbitrator China and Japan were embroiled in a years-long dispute over possession of the Loo Choo Islands during Ulysses S. Grant's world tour. While visiting both countries in 1879, Grant was asked to serve as an arbitrator to help solve the dispute. two men sitting in chairs with a table, vase, and flowers between them. U.S. Grant and Frederick Dent: Challenges of Politics in the Home (Senior Ranger Activity) How did Ulysses S. Grant's political views differ from his father-in-law's? To what extent did political differences strain their relationship? Complete this activity to find out. Composite of two black and white photos. One of Ulysses S. Grant and the other Frederick Dent. Ulysses S. Grant and Slavery (Senior Ranger Activity) From 1854 to 1859 Ulysses S. Grant lived at White Haven, a farm run with slave labor. In his roles as a farm hand and farm manager Grant was in frequent contact with enslaved African Americans. Complete this activity to learn more about Ulysses S. Grant and slavery. Photo of two men portraying Ulysses S. Grant and William Jones Cold Harbor, Grant's Greatest Regret At 4:30 AM, June 3, 1864 General Ulysses S. Grant and his officers sent their men into a storm of shot, shell and bullets. The attack was a complete disaster. One of the worst of the war. Grant’s army lost 6,000-7,000 men in the span of about 30 minutes. Grant would call Cold Harbor one of his biggest regrets of the war. Click to learn more. Color lithograph battle scene from the battle of cold harbor Ulysses S. Grant Timeline A timeline of major events in Ulysses S. Grant's life. Portrait of Ulysses S. Grant as President, wearing a suit. Owners of White Haven Estate The Dents were not the first white family to occupy the land they called White Haven. There were four owners of the land before Frederick Dent purchased the the land and a house in 1820. The White Haven estate would eventually be owned by Grant after the Civil War. Six different families lived at White Haven during the next one hundred years. In 1989 Congress authorized the National Park Service to acquire the home and the remaining ten acres of the estate. black and white historic image of White Haven two-story home with fence in foreground. White Haven's Wildlife Julia Dent Grant held a close relationship with nature during her childhood at White Haven. The many varieties of trees, plants, and animals she would have seen were much different from what visitors to Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site would see today. Red Tailed Hawk perched on a tree Why is White Haven Painted Green? The two most common questions visitors ask are why White Haven is painted green, and whether or not the green is a historic color. We have answers! door and wall painted bright green The Personal Memoirs of Julia Dent Grant Julia Dent Grant began writing her Personal Memoirs following her husband's death in 1885. Although they were not published until 1975, her memoirs were the first to be written by a First Lady. The front cover of Julia Dent Grant's Personal Memoirs with Julia and Ulysses S. Grant in profile An Interview with Mary Robinson, Formerly Enslaved at White Haven Mary Robinson was an enslaved worker at White Haven in the years before the Civil War. When Ulysses S. Grant died in 1885, she was interviewed by a reporter in St. Louis and discussed the Grant family's life at White Haven. Stone Building at White Haven as it appeared on May 29, 1891. The First Woman To Run For President: Victoria Woodhull Victoria Clafin Woodhull was a writer, Wall Street broker, and women's rights activist who ran for President of the United States in 1872. Victoria Woodhull in a dress posing for a photo in the eighteen-sixties. Was James Longstreet the “Best Man” at Ulysses and Julia Grant’s Wedding? Ever since the end of the Civil War, Americans have been fascinated by stories that grew out of the conflict. An example that makes the war more personal is the claim that one of the most important Confederate Generals, James Longstreet, was the “best man” at Ulysses and Julia Dent Grant’s 1848 wedding in St. Louis. However, as romantic as this story seems, was it really the case? Mounted portrait of General James Longstreet motioning to fellow officers during a battle An Interview with Park Guide Shawn Williams about Civil War Weapons As the only trained historic weapons specialist at the park, Park Guide Shawn Williams brings a unique perspective to Civil War history and has extensive knowledge of the weaponry used during the conflict. We asked Shawn a few questions about his interest in Civil War weapons. Man dressed as a Union Civil war soldier holds a rifle as waist height. Outbuildings Activity Where did the Grant's store their food? How did they keep the main house cool without air conditioning? Learn more about the function of outbuildings at the White Haven farm. Photo of two rust-red historic farm outbuildings, an ice house and a chicken house Paris Green Activity Why is White Haven painted green? White Haven was painted three different colors in the 1800s including light brown, grey, and finally Paris Green. Complete this fun activity to learn more about Paris Green paint and White Haven. Photo of a bright green, two story frame house, White Haven Importance of Home Activity Home is where the heart is! Though he lived in many places, Ulysses S. Grant only felt a connection to two homes in his life, the White House and White Haven. Compare your home with Ulysses S. Grant's through this interactive activity. Black and white historic photo of a two-story house with a white rail fence in the yard Ulysses S. Grant & White Haven Ulysses S. Grant's personal connection to the White Haven estate in St. Louis, Missouri lasted for more than forty years. Ulysses and Julia Grant posing for a portrait Graduation Day: Ulysses S. Grant and the West Point Class of 1843 Ulysses S. Grant graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1843. He later recalled that his education at West Point played a crucial role in his future endeavors, and that graduation day was one of the best days of his life. rolling green hills with U.S. flag and stone monument in foreground. White Haven Coloring Page What color would you paint White Haven? Grant's home was painted Paris Green, but you can "paint" it any color you like! Click to download this coloring page. Black and white line drawing of a two-story house called White Haven Wildlife at White Haven Activity Julia Grant grew up on a rural farm full of plants and animals to discover, and huge forests to explore. Many of the plant and animal species that Julia saw are still seen on the park grounds today. Click to learn more. Photo of a male red tailed hawk perched on a tree branch Ulysses S. Grant at White Haven Word Search Click here to complete a Ulysses S. Grant themed word search, and learn about his life at White Haven in St. Louis, Missouri. Screenshot of a word search containing 14 key terms related to Ulysses S. Grant Slavery at White Haven Slavery played an integral role in the management of White Haven. Every white family that lived at the house before the Civil War, including Ulysses S. Grant, owned enslaved African American laborers who cooked and cleaned the house and tended to the 850 acre farm. enslaved woman holding a baby and posing for a picture Slavery at White Haven Activity What was it like to be enslaved at White Haven? How did the realities of slavery differ from Julia Grant's memories? Click to find out. Hanover County, Virginia The Civil War in American Memory America's cultural memories of the Civil War are inseparably intertwined with that most "peculiar institution" of American history - racial slavery. But in the struggle over Civil War memory which began as soon as the war was over and continues to this day, rival cultural memories of reconciliation and white supremacy have often prevailed. Therein lies the challenge as the National Park Service - a public agency - seeks to "provide understanding" of the Civil War era's lasting impact upon the development of our nation. Elderly Union and Confederate veterans shake hands at the fiftieth anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops Ulysses S. Grant & the 15th Amendment In the immediate aftermath of the American Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant was skeptical of any plan to make African American men eligible voters. He soon realized, however, that military service and loyalty to the Union made black men worthy citizens and voters. By the time he was elected president, Grant was ready to support ratification of the 15th Amendment. Original text of the 15th Amendment Ulysses S. Grant Crossword Puzzle (Senior Ranger Activity) Test your knowledge! Complete this senior ranger crossword puzzle based on the life experiences of Ulysses S. Grant. Image of a crossword puzzle with a blue background and silhouette of Ulysses S. Grant John Y. Simon Day 2020 Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site has hosted an Annual Lecture every October since 2009 to commemorate the life of Dr. John Y. Simon, lead editor of The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant from 1962 until his death in 2008. John Y. Simon Day is going virtual this year. At 10AM on Saturday, October 10th, a pre-recorded video will be available. This video includes a short virtual tour of the park grounds, a tribute video to Dr. Simon, and a keynote lecture by Ranger Nick Sacco. Photo of a white male in suit and tie Ulysses S. Grant's Connection to John Brown Ulysses S. Grant had a minor connection to John Brown, the famous abolitionist who led a failed plot to overtake the federal armory at Harpers Ferry and eventually overthrow slavery in the United States. bearded man wearing a black suit. Ulysses S. Grant in St. Louis 1854-1860 For nearly six years before the American Civil War, future general Ulysses S. Grant called St. Louis, Missouri home. These years proved to be some of the most formative in his life. Grant confronted slavery for the first time on a daily basis, struggled to find a civilian career, and attempted to secure a new home for his growing family. Click to visit this digital exhibit. Composite image of Ulysses S. Grant and St. Louis City in 1854 Mary Clemmer Ames and “Ten Years in Washington” Mary Clemmer Ames' book Ten Years in Washington, was first published in 1874. The book is an engaging account of the notable buildings and agencies centered in the nation’s capital, and the people whose activities breathed life into them. Read excerpts from her book which include First Lady Julia Grant, First Lady Lucretia Garfield among others. Mary Clemmer Ames portrait On Presidential Births and Deaths There are many connections between the Presidents. This article will explore some of those connections. the United States Presidential Seal National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Air Balloons in the Civil War For many a hot air balloon ride, it is an exhilarating yet peaceful experience. During the American Civil War, however, balloons were used for very warlike purposes. Before the advent of planes and drones, balloons were used for aerial reconnaissance or directing artillery fire on enemy positions. As a general in the West, U.S. Grant had only a few connections to Civil War balloons, which were used mainly in the Easter Theater. Read the full story here. Nine men fill an early war balloon using hoses connected to large wooden wagons Treaty of Mentor The "Treaty of Mentor" is said to have taken place inside the Garfield Home in Mentor, Ohio. It was a meeting between presidential candidate James A. Garfield, Roscie Conkling and former President Grant. Did the meeting really occur or was this something newspapers made up? Find out here! painting of President James A. Garfield President Ulysses S. Grant's First Inaugural Address (March 4, 1869) Read the full text of President Ulysses S. Grant's First Inaugural Address. man with beard and suit sitting in a chair and posing for a photo. President Ulysses S. Grant's Second Inaugural Address (March 4, 1873) Read the full text of President Ulysses S. Grant's Second Inaugural Address. man with beard wearing a suit and bowtie. Archeological Investigations at Ulysses S. Grant NHS Ulysses S. Grant spent four years as a farmer at White Haven, his father-in-law's estate near St. Louis, Missouri, between 1854 and 1858. Recent archeological investigations of a satellite structure of the main house at White Haven have brought to light many details of slave life at the plantation in the years preceding the Civil War. Engraving of Ulysses S. Grant's White Haven A Short Overview of the Reconstruction Era and Ulysses S. Grant's Presidency Read this essay for a short introduction into the basics of the Reconstruction era and President Ulysses S. Grant's role in promoting civil and political rights for African Americans. painting of African American family during the Reconstruction Era. Ulysses S. Grant's Path to Victory: The 1864 Overland Campaign When Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General in March 1864, he held the burden of trying to find a way to defeat the Confederacy. What was Grant's strategy for attacking Confederacy General Robert E. Lee's forces? How did his plans differ from his predecessors? Ulysses S. Grant wearing U.S. Army uniform. Text reads "Lieutenant General U.S. Grant." General John A. McClernand: General Grant's Work Nemesis John A. McClernand was a popular Illinois politician who was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to serve as a general in the U.S. Army at the beginning of the American Civil War. He worked closely with General Ulysses S. Grant during the first two years of the war, but their relationship gradually deteriorated. man in U.S. Army uniform during the American Civil War. Did Women Earn the Right to Vote on August 18, 1920? Did women gain the right to vote on August 18, 1920? The answer is yes . . . and no. women in 19th century dresses casting their ballots to vote in Wyoming in 1888. General Grant and the Fight to Remove Emperor Maximilian from Mexico When the American Civil War ended in 1865, General Ulysses S. Grant turned his attention to Mexico, where the French Emperor Napoleon III had established military forces and a shadow government in an attempt to create a French empire in the Western Hemisphere. Removing French influence in Mexico became a central goal for Grant. man with beard wearing a blue and gold U.S. Army uniform and posing for a portrait. Why the Women's Rights Movement Split Over the 15th Amendment The women's rights movement pushed for voting rights after the Civil War, but bitter debates about the 15th Amendment created tensions within the movement. The primary question was whether women and African Americans should get voting rights at the same time, or should one group's priorities be placed above the other? The debate came to a head in May 1869. two elderly women looking at a book together. Frederick Dent Grant Joins His Father on the Battlefield Frederick Dent Grant was encouraged by his parents to observe life in the U.S. Army during the Civil War even though he was only 11 years old when the war first broke out. He was with his father during much of the Vicksburg campaign and talked about his Civil War experiences in several speeches later in life. man with U.S. Army Uniform circa 1875-1895. Ulysses S. Grant's Early Interactions with Native Americans Ulysses S. Grant held complex and somewhat contradictory views towards Native Americans. These views were largely shaped by his early military experiences with the U.S. Army during the Mexican American War (1846-1848) and deployment in the Pacific Northwest (1852-1854). man wearing U.S. Army uniform President Ulysses S. Grant and Federal Indian Policy President Ulysses S. Grant sought genuine peace with the various Indian nations of the West during his presidency. However, some of these nations rejected the president's plan to "civilize" them through Christianization, farming, boarding schools, and U.S. citizenship. These conflicts led to some of the worst 19th century episodes of military violence between the U.S. Army and American Indians during Grant's presidency. five men standing on the steps of the U.S. Capitol with two men shaking hands in the middle. Ulysses S. Grant and General Orders No. 11 Ulysses S. Grant issued General Orders No. 11 on December 17, 1862. This controversial order expelled all Jewish people living within Grant's military district. At least thirty Jewish families living in Paducah, Kentucky, were forced to leave their homes. The order remains a stain on Grant's legacy, although he did make efforts to atone for this mistake during his presidency (1869-1877). U.S. Grant wearing U.S. Army uniform and sitting for photo. How Mark Twain Helped Ulysses S. Grant Write His Personal Memoirs Mark Twain had no role in writing Ulysses S. Grant's memoirs, but he helped Grant negotiate a publishing deal for the memoirs, provided edits to the manuscript, and served as a close friend during Grant's last days. side-by-side images of Ulysses S. Grant and Mark Twain wearing suits. Ulysses S. Grant's Artwork During his time as a cadet at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, Ulysses S. Grant took up drawing as a hobby. It was also an important part of his studies. Eight works of art by Grant during his time at West Point remain in existence today. drawing of a horse eating from a trough. Julia Dent Grant Chronology This extensive chronology documents first lady Julia Dent Grant's entire life. Detailed descriptions include dates, locations, people with her, and a citation for each event. Use the keyword search function to focus on a particular topic or browse the full table at your leisure. Sepia-tone photo of a Caucasian woman with short curly hair wearing a dark silk dress. President Grant Takes on the Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan was first established in 1866 and engaged in widespread intimidation, violence, and murder of African Americans throughout the former Confederate states. In an effort to stop the violence and protect the citizenship and voting rights of African Americans, President Ulysses S. Grant worked with Congress in 1870 and 1871 to pass a series of "Enforcement Acts" to empower the President to mobilize the U.S. Army against the KKK and similar terrorist groups. Two men wearing robes and white hoods while holding guns. A True Team Effort: The Fort Donelson Campaign Ulysses S. Grant's partnership with Admiral Andrew Foote led him to successfully capture Forts Henry and Donelson in February 1862. These battles represented some of the first major victories of the Union Army and helped Grant gain national attention for his generalship. Bearded man wearing U.S. Army uniform and posing for a photo. Ulysses S. Grant's Controversial Visit to Ireland Ulysses S. Grant enjoyed much praise from heads of state and ordinary citizens during his world tour (1877-1879), but his planned visit to Ireland elicited controversy due to Grant's opposition to the Fenian movement and past comments he made that were viewed by some as having anti-Catholic sentiments. collection of images depicting Dublin, including statues, ships, buildings, and churches. Ulysses S. Grant's Farming Experiences at White Haven Few letters exist from Ulysses S. Grant's time as a farmer at White Haven, but two letters from 1856 and 1857 highlight his optimism, hopes, and vision for becoming a successful farmer on the property. White two-story frame house surrounded by trees, grass, and a white fence. Ulysses S. Grant, Chinese Immigration, and the Page Act of 1875 President Ulysses S. Grant signed the Page Act into law on March 3, 1875. This legislation established the first federal immigration restriction in U.S. history and was aimed at keeping Chinese women out of the United States. Why did President Grant support the Page Act? A woman protects a Chinese man from a group of men with weapons. Text reads "The Chinese Question." Was General Grant Surprised by the Confederate Attack at Shiloh? The Battle of Shiloh was fought on April 6-7, 1862 and the bloodiest battle of the American Civil War up to that point in the conflict. Critics then and now accuse General Grant of not being prepared for a Confederate attack at Shiloh, but is there any merit to the claim? Bearded Man wearing U.S. Army uniform. Ulysses S. Grant's Experiences During the Camp Jackson Affair The Camp Jackson Affair took place in St. Louis on May 10, 1861. Ulysses S. Grant was mustering Illinois troops into military service in nearby Belleville, Illinois, when he heard about and witnessed the momentous event. Group of soldiers standing in formation with a large tree and buildings in the background. Top 10 Tips for Visiting Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site Interested in visiting Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site? Learn more about preparing for your visit on this page. Green two-story frame house surrounded by green trees. General Grant Gives General Lee "The Slip" At Petersburg In the summer of 1864, U.S. General Ulysses S. Grant attempted to gain an advantage on Confederate General Robert E. Lee's forces by attacking Richmond, Virginia (the Confederate Capitol) from Petersburg, twenty miles south of Richmond. Despite Grant's best efforts, his forces were placed in a position to lay siege on Petersburg for nine months. man wearing U.S. Army uniform sits on a chair and rests his right arm on a desk. Ulysses S. Grant's Unpleasant Ride In the winter of 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant traveled through eastern Tennessee and eastern Kentucky to study supply lines and determine his next move. He quickly learned that the rugged terrain, poor roads, and harsh weather conditions in this area would force him to rethink his strategy against the Confederacy. Bearded man in U.S. Army uniform riding a black horse in an open field. General Grant and the Creation of Contraband Camps During the Vicksburg Campaign During the American Civil War, enslaved African Americans often ran away from their enslavers to seek refuge within the military lines of the U.S. Army. During General Ulysses S. Grant's campaign to Vicksburg in 1862 and 1863, he relied on Chaplain John Eaton to assist with providing aid and security for enslaved runaways within his lines. Bearded man wearing a black suit. An Introduction to Ulysses S. Grant's Classmates in the West Point Class of 1843 Ulysses S. Grant is the most famous cadet from West Point's class of 1843, but many of his classmates had noteworthy military careers of their own after graduation. Learn about some of these graduates in this article. Ulysses S. Grant wearing U.S. Army uniform and accepting diploma in outdoor graduation ceremony. "When Grant went A-Courtin'," by His Wife's Sister: Emma Dent Casey In 1908, Emma Dent Casey, youngest sister of Julie Dent Grant, reflected on her relationship with Ulysses S. Grant and her childhood at White Haven. Woman in black cloak, carrying a walking stick and standing the the woods. General Grant National Park In October 1890, one week after the establishment of Sequoia National Park occurred, General Grant National Park was created for the purpose of preserving the second tallest sequoia tree, which was named after General Ulysses S. Grant. The area that was once General Grant National Park became General Grant’s Grove in 1940 and is today found in Kings Canyon National Park. Man seated in front of a large tree. Ulysses S. Grant, Slavery, and the "Hiring Out System" in St. Louis The "hiring out" system function in St. Louis as a way for enslavers to temporarily contract their enslaved people to other non-slaveholders in the area. Ulysses S. Grant used the hiring out system while living at White Haven and had two enslaved men hired from other properties working with him in 1858. Newspaper Wanted Ad asking to hire two enslaved women to serve as cooks, washers, and nurses. Introducing Ulysses S. Grant (K-2 Distance Learning Activity Page) Ulysses S. Grant is an important figure in American history. Learn about Grant's remarkable life with an educational video and activity sheet geared for students in Kindergarten through second grade. Man wearing suit and sitting in a chair next to a table with a book on top of it. How to Find Education Resources on NPS.gov This short tutorial introduces educators to the vast network of online resources provided by the National Park Service for classroom use. It provides tips for navigating the NPS Educators Portal, NPS Subject Sites, and the "History & Culture" section of each individual NPS unit. National Park Service logo featuring a mountain, tree, lake, and a bison feeding on grass. Ulysses S. Grant, Matías Romero, and the Creation of the Mexican Southern Railroad In 1880, retired general and president Ulysses S. Grant was elected President of the Mexican Southern Railroad. Working with longtime friend Matias Romero, a former minister to the United States from Mexico, Grant desired the construction of a railroad to increase commerce and trade between Mexico and the United States. Bearded man wearing suit and standing next a table with a book on top of it. Protecting Life and Property: Passing the Ku Klux Klan Act During Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, a series of laws and constitutional amendments were deployed in the fight against acts of white supremacist terrorism by the Ku Klux Klan. "Protecting Life and Property" tells this story through a temporary exhibit that is currently on display in the park museum at Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site. It is replicated here in digital form. Four men sitting together in a room around a table inside the White House. General Grant Refuses President Johnson's Diplomatic Request General Ulysses S. Grant and President Andrew Johnson found themselves increasingly at odds over Reconstruction policy in 1866. When Johnson tried to remove Grant from Washington, D.C. by requesting that he accept a diplomatic mission to Mexico, Grant tried to maneuver around the request so that he could remain in the nation's capitol to help oversee Reconstruction alongside the president. Man wearing black and white suit with bow tie. 12th Annual John Y. Simon Day 2021 The 12th Annual John Y. Simon Day will be hosted virtually in 2021. View this page to see a series of presentations about Ulysses S. Grant's Boyhood in Ohio from Dr. Ned Lodwick, Vice-President of the U.S. Grant Homestead Association Historian, Brown County Historical Society. Picture of man wearing suit and text that reads Whitehaven: The Original Dent Family Home in Maryland Julia Dent Grant's childhood home in St. Louis, White Haven, got its name from a Dent family ancestral home located in Maryland. Learn about the original "Whitehaven" in this article. Map of rectangular-shaped property with text that reads "White haven 1,330 acres." Hoodoo in St. Louis: An African American Religious Tradition Some enslaved African Americans practiced Hoodoo, an ancient religious practice inspired by Central and West African religious practices. While doing archaeological research at Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site in the 1990s, several West African artifacts were discovered, suggesting that some or all of the enslaved African Americans living at White Haven before the Civil War may have practiced Hoodoo. Group of African Americans in a room with plaster walls participating in a religious ceremony. Holiday at White Haven Learn about 19th century holiday traditions. Find Your Park on Route 66 Route 66 and the National Park Service have always had an important historical connection. Route 66 was known as the great road west and after World War II families on vacation took to the road in great numbers to visit the many National Park Service sites in the Southwest and beyond. That connection remains very alive and present today. Take a trip down Route 66 and Find Your Park today! A paved road with fields in the distance. On the road is a white Oklahoma Route 66 emblem. Things to Do in Missouri Things to do and trip ideas in Missouri national parks. Purple flowers bloom on a grass-covered landscape under a partly cloudy sky. Series: Things to Do in Midwest National Parks There is something for everyone in the Midwest. See what makes the Great Plains great. Dip your toes in the continent's inland seas. Learn about Native American heritage and history. Paddle miles of scenic rivers and waterways. Explore the homes of former presidents. From the Civil War to Civil Rights, discover the stories that shape our journey as a nation. Steep bluff with pink sky above and yellow leaves below. President Grant and the Yellowstone National Park Protection Act President Ulysses S. Grant wasn't an advocate for conservation and never visited Yellowstone, but on March 1, 1872, he signed into law the Yellowstone National Park Protection Act, which established Yellowstone as the world's first National Park. watercolor painting of large canyon surrounded by trees and a waterfall in the background. Uncovering the Past at White Haven: The "Dearest Julia" Letter During the 1990s, the National Park Service worked to restore Ulysses S. Grant's White Haven home. In 1998, an amazing discovery was made inside a window frame on the second floor of the house. Shard of paper with text that reads "Dearest Julia" at the top. The Dent Family and the Domestic Slave Trade During the American Civil War, "Colonel" Frederick F. Dent, Ulysses S. Grant's father-in-law, sold four enslaved people to his daughter Emma. The bill of sale from this transaction is currently on display at the museum at Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site. Handwritten legal document transferring ownership of four enslaved people. Volunteer Story: Carmen King Quite often park libraries are overlooked and neglected. Very few parks have dedicated librarians or staff are assigned library work as collateral duty. Carmen King has volunteered over 900 hours in Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site’s library. She was honored with the 2020 National Park Service Regions 3, 4 and 5 (Midwest) Hartzog Enduring Service award. Woman standing in a library smiling at a book she has open. The NPS Wellness Challenge at Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site Welcome to your wellness challenge at Ulysses S Grant National Historic Site! Personal wellness is well within reach if you get out and explore. NPS Wellness Challenge logo in front of Grant's home, White Haven Ulysses S. Grant's Horsemanship Grant was an avid horseman his entire life. Had he not been a soldier or statesman, he might have easily spent his days with his horses. black and white photo of Grant standing next to his horse General Zachary Taylor’s Influence on U.S. Grant General Zachary Taylor's leadership during the Mexican American War had a profound influence on Ulysses S. Grant. Painting of the Battle of Palo Alto Series: Ulysses S. Grant NHS Virtual Junior Ranger Activity Book Requirements Ages 5-7: Complete one or more activities. Ages 8-10: Complete two or more activities. Ages 11+: Complete three or more activities. White Haven, two story house painted green The Grants' World Tour Following the conclusion of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, Ulysses and Julia embarked on what would become a two-and-a-half year tour of the entire world. This article provides an overview of the Grants' world tour and outlines the countries they visited in chronological order. Lithographic drawing of Egyptian Pyramids US Grant Bicentennial Junior Ranger - Part 4: The Presidency and Memoirs This section of the Bicentennial Junior Ranger program covers Grant's presidency and the years that followed prior to his death in 1885. Drawing of man taking an oath US Grant Bicentennial Junior Ranger - Part 2: Early Military Life and Marriage This section of the Bicentennial Junior Ranger program covers the years of Grant's early military career and his time at White Haven. Drawing of a farm field with barn Series: Ulysses S. Grant Virtual Bicentennial Junior Ranger Activity Book Complete the following activities and help celebrate the bicentennial of this very special person in U.S. history. Cover of booklet with Grant and 3 drawings US Grant Bicentennial Junior Ranger - Part 3: The Civil War This section of the Bicentennial Junior Ranger program covers the years during the U.S. Civil War. Drawing of cannon on hill above a river US Grant Bicentennial Junior Ranger - Part 1: Grant's Early Life The first section of the Bicentennial Junior Ranger program covers the early years of Grant's life before entering the Army. Drawing of boy and a horse ULSG Virtual Junior Ranger Completion page After you complete the activities, go to this page to download your virtual ranger badge and certificate. Ulysses S. Grant and White Haven: A Timeline This comprehensive timeline chronicles the history of the White Haven estate from 1796 to 1990. For researchers, the timeline can be downloaded as a CSV file. Lithograph drawing of two story wood frame house surrounded by trees and white fence. President Grant and the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia On July 4, 1876, President Ulysses S. Grant and his wife Julia attended the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Black and white drawing of thousands of people gathered on a street surrounded by buildings. Ulysses S. Grant is Appointed Secretary of War Ad Interim In August 1867, General Ulysses S. Grant was appointed Secretary of War Ad Interim by President Andrew Johnson. This thrusted Grant into the feud between President Johnson and Congress regarding Reconstruction. This experience led to a political break between Johnson and Grant and propelled Grant on his path to the presidency. sepia photo of bearded standing man Grant at White Haven In 1854, Ulysses S. Grant returned home after resigning from the army. For two years, he had endured isolation from his family and suffered depression from a number of business failures. He was elated to reunite with his wife, Julia Dent Grant, and two sons, one of whom he had never met. Together they lived with his parents- and sister-in-law. A house with a brick chimney and two cannons President Grant's Cold War with Spain President Grant faced several major foreign policy challenges during his presidency, including potential war with Spain over the fate of Cuba. These tensions culminated in the "Virginius Affair." Lithograph drawing of five steamboats in water, including the USS Virginius. President Grant's St. Louis Horse Farm Following the Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant acquired the White Haven estate and began raising horses on the property. Grant envisioned a profitable, thriving farm that would provide financial security for his family following his presidency. The reality was much more complicated. Drawing of a two story frame house. Text reads "The Old Dent Homestead on President Grant's Farm." "Let Us Have Peace": Ulysses S. Grant and the Election of 1868 The presidential election of 1868 was the first one to be held after the Civil War. It pitted General Ulysses S. Grant versus former New York Governor Horatio Seymour. Grant campaigned on the slogan, "Let Us Have Peace." Gold circular button with image of Ulysses S. Grant and text that reads "Gen. U.S. Grant." Where in the World is Ulysses S. Grant? A Timeline Ulysses S. Grant traveled tens of thousands of miles throughout his life and circled the globe from 1877 to 1879. Learn about Grant's extensive travels in this timeline. Lithograph drawing of a large ship at sea. Financial Ruin at White Haven: The Panic of 1857 Comes to White Haven Ulysses S. Grant's farming ventures were negatively affected by the Panic of 1857, an economic recession that led to devaluing of the fruit and vegetable crops Grant raised at White Haven. Drawing of panicked men going to a bank to withdraw their savings. To Forever Set Free: The Manumission of Robert Green A new document recently donated to Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site tells the fascinating story of Robert Green, an enslaved man at White Haven who was freed from slavery in 1838. handwritten manumission paper from Col. Frederick F. Dent freeing Robert Green. A Society Built Upon Enslaved Labor The institution of slavery existed in St. Louis for 100 years. Free and enslaved Black people were present alongside French settlers Auguste Choteau and Pierre Laclede at the founding of St. Louis in 1764. Photograph of the St. Louis riverfront in 1852. Steamboats are docked on the Mississippi River. Slavery and the Law The Missouri State Legislature worked to define who could be considered "Black" under state law. They also passed a series of laws circumscribing the rights of Black Missourians while working to strengthen the institution of slavery. Despite these challenges, enslaved people worked to assert their freedom by trying to use the legal system to their advantage. Black and White Photo of a courthouse with a large dome under construction in 1851. The Code Noir and the Missouri Compromise From 1764 until the early 1800s, St. Louis was governed by the French and Spanish. After the Louisiana purchase was completed in 1803, the United States assumed governance of what would become the state of Missouri. All three forms of government regulated and protected the institution of slavery. Book published in 1743 with the title "Code Noir." Resisting Slavery Enslaved people used a number of different strategies to resist slavery and seek freedom. Read about the ways enslaved people in St. Louis fought for their freedom in this article. Lithograph drawing of an enslaved freedom seeker carrying a pouch and running towards freedom. Free People of Color in St. Louis In the years leading up to the Civil War, between 1,500 and 2,100 free Black Americans called St. Louis home. While free, they endured poor working conditions, limited rights, and racial discrimination. Colorized photo of African American woman in the 1850s wearing a large dress and holding a book. The Slave Trade in St. Louis From 1850 to 1860, St. Louis's enslaved population decreased by about 1,600 people. Part of the reason for this decrease was the expansion of slave trade in St. Louis, particularly Bernard Lynch's slave trading business at 5th and Myrtle streets. Group of 17 men standing in front of a wood frame building. The Civil War and Emancipation in St. Louis Roughly 3,700 African American Black men from Missouri, most of whom were enslaved, served in United States Colored Troops (USCT) regiments during the Civil War. Many of them were stationed at Benton Barracks in North St. Louis. African American Civil War soldier posing with two weapons in front of a military backdrop. Series: The History of Slavery in St. Louis The famous Black abolitionist William Wells Brown once remarked that "no part of our slave-holding country is more noted for the barbarity of its inhabitants than St. Louis." This exhibit aims to tell the story of slavery in St. Louis through the use of primary source documents, historic images, and individual stories of enslavement. Read stories from nine different banners that were created as part of this exhibit. They cover the founding of St. Louis in 1764 to the Reconstruction era. Painting of a large group of people at the St. Louis Courthouse attending a slave auction in 1861. Black Life in St. Louis During Reconstruction The transition from slavery to freedom for St. Louis's Black population saw area residents fighting to end racial discrimination in voting, education, and public transportation. Civil Rights leaders like James Milton Turner (pictured) Charlton Tandy, and Caroline Williams led the way. Bearded man wearing suit and tie. Reckoning with Slavery's Legacy in St. Louis The history of slavery in St. Louis has not been studied by scholars or commemorated by society with the attention that it deserves. Where do we go from here? Statue of Dred and Harriet Scott looking towards the Gateway Arch. Fighting Back Against the Shackles of Slavery in St. Louis In the hundred years of slavery’s existence in St. Louis (1764-1865) enslaved African Americans faced increasing restrictions. Yet, they found active ways to resist, which greatly contributed to the breakdown of the institution itself. Painting of auction of enslaved people on courthouse steps. Further Reading on Slavery in St. Louis and Missouri This resource page offers additional primary and secondary sources on the history of slavery in St. Louis and the state of Missouri more broadly. Text of an 1847 law banning the teaching of reading and writing for Black Missourians. Teaching Military Strategy at West Point Before the Civil War Ulysses S. Grant famously stated that he did not thoroughly read military theory and strategy prior to the American Civil War. What did cadets at West Point learn about these topics before the Civil War? sepia colored salt print photo of a man wearing a suit and bow tie in the 1850s.