"Native grasses surround the Tumacácori mission church, Tumacácori National Historical Park, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain
National Historical Park - Arizona
Tumacácori National Historical Park is located in the upper Santa Cruz River Valley in Santa Cruz County, southern Arizona. The park consists of 360 acres in three separate units.
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https://www.nps.gov/tuma/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuzigoot_National_Monument Tumacácori National Historical Park is located in the upper Santa Cruz River Valley in Santa Cruz County, southern Arizona. The park consists of 360 acres in three separate units. Tumacácori sits at a cultural crossroads in the Santa Cruz River valley. Here O’odham, Yaqui, and Apache people met and mingled with European Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries, settlers, and soldiers, sometimes in conflict and sometimes in cooperation. Follow the timeworn paths and discover stories that connect us to enduring relationships, vibrant cultures, and traditions of long ago. Tumacácori National Historical Park is located off of Exit 29 of Interstate 19, forty-five miles (80 kilometers) south of Tucson, Arizona, and eighteen miles (26 kilometers) north of Nogales, Arizona. Tumacácori Visitor Center and Museum The historic 1937 visitor center building is the main entry point for those visiting the Tumacácori mission grounds. It is also an interpretive exhibit in and of itself. Its design uses architectural details from other Sonoran missions contemporary to Tumacácori. Tumacácori National Historical Park is located off of Exit 29 of Interstate 19, forty-five miles (80 kilometers) south of Tucson, Arizona, and eighteen miles (26 kilometers) north of Nogales, Arizona. Tumacácori on a Summer Day panorama of mission church with green grass and clouds A summer day yields beautiful colors and a striking scene on the mission grounds. La Fiesta de Tumacácori folklorico dancers in front of church The Fiesta de Tumacácori, held annually in December, has over 40 years of history and hundreds of years of heritage. Visiting Tumacácori long paved sidewalk leads to adobe mission church Modern facilities like paved sidewalks and restrooms complement a visit to this site's rich history. Visitors on a Mission Tour ranger and visitors looking at church facade Guided mission tours explore the hidden treasures and untold stories of Tumacácori's past. Visitors Exploring the Mission Grounds two visitors on trail walking toward church, papel picado in foreground Visitors can explore the mission grounds, the visitor center, and river corridor all in a single afternoon. Connecting the Dots: The Anza Trail in Sonora The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail enters the US at Nogales, Arizona, beginning a 1200-mile stretch of historic trail through the deserts and mountains of Arizona and California. However, the origins of Anza expedition of 1775-76 are in Sonora, Mexico. The people on this historic journey were recruited from the mining towns and farmlands of Sonora and Sinaloa. Anza Trail staff had the opportunity to trace the trail in Mexico with host country partners. Four riders on horseback in front of a white church Climate and Water Monitoring at Tumacácori National Historical Park At Tumacácori National Historical Park, the built environment reflects the historical importance of reliable water sources. The Sonoran Desert Network monitors climate, groundwater, and streams at this park. Understanding changes in these closely linked factors helps managers make informed decisions affecting both natural and cultural resources. Learn about our recent findings. Photo of man in hip waders standing in a stream. Wildland Fire: Fuel Break Created at Tumacácori In 2012, Tumacácori National Historical Park completed a fuel break along the western boundary of the park. In September 2011, crews from the Southwest Conservation Corps resumed work on a fire break started in 2005 by trimming limbs and felling trees. Other groups that worked on the fuel break include the Youth Conservation Corps, Youth Corps of Southern Arizona, Student Conservation Association. Southwest Conservation Corps sawyer crew helps to reduce fuel load. Measuring the Effects of Rainstorm Intensity on Adobe Walls A recent experiment sought to help National Park Service managers understand the possible effects of climate change on historic adobe structures. An interdisciplinary team built adobe brick test walls, then subjected them to rain simulations at different lengths and intensities. LiDAR scanning revealed specific, quantitative thresholds of rainfall at which we can expect major loss of abode materials. Smiling woman hugs an adobe wall Interdisciplinary Personnel Provide Value Support for Wildland Fire Efforts Nationwide Many of our interdisciplinary agency personnel Servicewide play a key role in supplementing agency fire staff and providing key skill sets for interagency wildland fire efforts nationwide. Personnel from all disciplines – fire management, resource management, visitor and resource protection, administration, facility management, even Superintendents – help support wildland fire activities throughout the year. Three firefighters standing in a field looking into the smoke and sun from a wildfire. Climate and Water Monitoring at Tumacácori National Historical Park, 2017 At Tumacácori National Historical Park, the Sonoran Desert Network monitors water quality, flow, and other parameters in the Santa Cruz River. The river, bolstered by treated effluent, supports a rare cottonwood-willow riparian environment where it flows through the park. Learn more about this system and our most recent findings about stream health in the park. Santa Cruz River. Streams Monitoring in the Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains Because of their importance, streams were chosen as a focus for monitoring in the National Park Service (NPS) Sonoran Desert and Southern Plains inventory and monitoring networks. Portions of several major river systems (or their tributaries) are found within many parks of both networks. Monitoring water quality from a boat Module Conducts Wildland-Urban Interface Projects Throughout the Intermountain Region In 2013, the Saguaro Wildland Fire Module (WFM) managed multiple projects simultaneously in AZ, TX, and NM. WFMs are highly skilled and versatile fire crews that provide expertise in long-term planning, ignitions, holding, prescribed fire preparation and implementation support, hazardous fuels reduction, and fire effects monitoring. With their help, fire fulfills its natural or historic role to meet resource and management objectives and create fire-adapted communities. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Tumacacori National Historical Park, Arizona Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] mission and visitors at dusk The Vanishing Santa Cruz River Since 1951, the Santa Cruz River at Tumacácori National Historical Park has been bolstered by a steady flow of treated effluent from the Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant. As a result, the river supports a rare southwest cottonwood–willow riparian environment, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the U.S., as it flows through the park. But recent changes to the effluent inputs have reduced its flow, putting stress on riparian trees and plants. Santa Cruz River Hazard Fuel Project Helps Reduce Wildfire Risk Staff of Saguaro National Park, Coronado NF, and Tubac Fire District burned ~5 acres of piles at Tumacácori National Historical Park in April 2014. The piles, which consisted of branches and brush previously thinned in the park, were located in the northwest corner of the park, adjacent to private homes. The fire supports the NPS goal of creating fire-adapted human communities. Corridos: Stories Told Through Song The corrido is a traditional Mexican song style that has evolved over the past 200 years in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. Corridos are all about storytelling. They tell of battle victories (and loses), individuals taking on the establishment, the lives of great or notorious people, and – perhaps the most ancient type of story in human history – the epic journey. Learn about this enduring tradition and listen to a corrido about the Anza Expedition of 1776 A woodcut illustration of four people singing and a man playing guitar Earthen Architecture - Preservation Techniques Earthen structures offer an array of challenges for preservationists and architectural conservators. Different materials in the same building may require alternate treatments. The same material in different contexts may require similar re-assessment. group of people applying mud capping to short adobe wall Earthen Architecture - Glossary of Terms Is it mud or dirt or soil? What's the difference between lime wash, lime plaster, and lime render? Learn to speak like a real conservator of earthen architecture (and impress your friends!). group of smiling people with bare feet in a pile of mud Earthen Architecture - FAQs Answers to the most frequently asked questions about the preservation of earthen architecture. historic photo of mission grounds, partially excavated, with exposed adobe bricks Kino Heritage Fruit Trees In 2004, Tumacácori National Historical Park acquired significant adjacent property, including the original 5-acre mission orchard and a significant portion of the original agricultural area. The challenge became to replant the Spanish Mission Era orchard and garden using fruit tree stocks that could be traced to those introduced in the late 17th and early 18th centuries by Jesuit missionaries such as Father Kino. volunteers tending to heritage fruit trees Ethnobotany of Fruit Trees Missionaries brought fruit cultivars from across the planet to establish in the New World. They were used for many purposes, including medicinal applications. Today, they make up a large percentage of the modern American produce aisle. dozens of buckets of green quince fruit Ethnobotany of Mesquite Trees The mesquite bosque provided native and mission communities with wood, medicine and food that were essential to life. stately mesquite tree in mission grounds Visitor Center Architecture and Historical Pastiche The design for Tumacácori’s visitor center evolved from a New Deal-era 1935 expedition to thirteen Spanish colonial mission sites in Sonora and two in Arizona, at a time of political and social unrest in Mexico. Its great interpretive value as an exhibit in an of itself earned it the distinction of National Historic Landmark in 1987. historic photo of visitor center Western Museum Laboratories The Western Museum shops in Berkeley, California employed artists and craftsmen under many New Deal programs to design and create museum exhibits. The laboratories were operated as a joint project between the National Park Service and the University of California. All of Tumacácori National Monument’s original museum exhibits were made the lab. historic photo of craftsmen and artist working on exhibits in Fulton Lab Historic American Buildings Survey With funding from FERA the National Park Service launched HABS on December 12, 1933 to document significant architectural and engineering features throughout the United States, with the permanent image and document collection housed at the Library of Congress. black and white photo of round mortuary chapel and back of church with dome, man in foreground Federal Emergency Relief Administration Initially established as the Emergency Relief Administration by President Hoover in 1932 to loan money to states for relief programs, Roosevelt asked Congress to authorize the FERA for the same purpose. sepia-toned photo of open excavation next to adobe brick building Native Peoples of the Sonoran Desert: The Yoeme The Yoeme (Yaqui) originated in southern Sonora near the Yaqui River. They traveled widely and probably came to the Santa Cruz Valley well before the arrival of the Spaniards. With the arrival of the Spanish, however, the Yaqui recognized opportunities to work as freighters, cowboys, and miners and came to this area in large numbers. They were often placed in positions of leadership within mission communities. leaping deer dancer with gourds, face covering, ankle rattles Native Peoples of the Sonoran Desert: The Nde The Apache (Inde) people came from as far north as Canada. They split into groups and settled across the American southwest. Although frequently cast as villains due to their historically antagonistic relationship with Spanish and American settlements, Apache people have a rich and varied cultural tradition. four dancers, painted white, with black face-coverings, dance in front of a crowd Pancho's Scrapbook Wouldn't it be amazing to hear the story of Tumacácori from one who has witnessed it first hand. Or is it "first wing?" Ranger Melanie and her feathered co-host read aloud, with discussion points to explore. ranger with book on her lap and red and black bird in the background Southwest River Environments In the arid Southwest, water means life, and prehistorically, rivers were the lifelines of the people. The Colorado River flowing through a canyon Southern Basin and Range The Southern Basin and Range is an extension of the Basin and Range Province centered on Nevada and the Great Basin and extending from southern Oregon to western Texas, and into northwest Mexico. Mountains and Desert in Guadalupe Mountains National Park Invasive Non-native Plant Inventory for Tumacácori National Historical Park Invasive exotic plants represent one of the most significant threats to natural resources in U.S. national parks today. They are a concern because they are able to reproduce prolifically, rapidly colonize new areas, displace native species, and alter ecosystem processes across multiple scales. An invasive non-native plant inventory was conducted at Tumacácori NHP during January and February 2006. Poison hemlock flowers Spanish Colonial Missions of the Southwest Travel Itinerary Spanish Colonial Missions of the Southwest Travel Itinerary. The National Park Service invites you to travel the National Historic Trails, units of the National Park System, and other places listed in the National Register of Historic Places that bring alive the stories of Spanish colonial missions in the Southwestern United States. Missions were communities aimed at converting American Indians to Roman Catholicism and to Spanish ways of life. Spanish Colonial Missions of the Southwest Travel Itinerary Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Eusebio Francisco Kino Padre Kino was a unique man and very much a part of the history of the American Southwest. His missionary work, maps, and explorations documented many cultures and wonders of the New World. statue of mane on a horse Tortillas de maíz (Corn Tortillas) According to a story told in Mexican-American households, Hernan Cortez, met with an emissary of the great Moctezuma and proceeded to extol the glory of his sovereign, Charles I. "My king is so wealthy that he eats each course of his meal off of a different golden service which only he may use," said Cortez. "My emperor, Moctezuma," replied the Aztec, "uses a different spoon for each bite." Moctezuma's spoons, las cucharitas de Moctezuma, were, of course, corn tortillas. Tortilla demonstrator in front of Tumacácori mission church Tortillas de harina (Flour Tortillas) What exactly are tortillas? How big are they? Of what are they made? How should they be made? These are questions that can spark much discussion and debate, even among tortilla makers themselves. The important thing is that none of this really matters - they are good, as you will be able to assert for yourself when you eat one made fresh by a Tumacácori demonstrator or in your own kitchen. Tortilla demonstrator in front of Tumacácori mission church Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Series: The New Deal at Tumacácori The grounds of Tumacácori protect a map of treasures made by men and women during the New Deal era of the 1930's. Will you find them all? black and white photo of young men and truck in walled courtyard garden Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Native Peoples of the Sonoran Desert: The O'odham The O'odham people (also known as the Pima) occupied a region spanning hundreds of square miles of what is now Arizona and Sonora. group photo of O'odham people standing in front of mission church "Dear Tumacácori..." Participants will initiate a correspondence with Tumacácori just as the viceroys and leaders back in Europe corresponded with missionary priests on the frontier. They will receive updates about how things are going, what challenges and successes have been encountered, and what additional feedback could be useful. Enrichment activities and materials are included as well. A mailed response to the writing prompt triggers the next pack to be sent out. side-by-side graphic of binder paper with pencil and parchment with quill pen Series: Native Peoples of the Sonoran Desert Who were the original inhabitants of the Sonoran desert and how did they adapt to the world-changing arrival of Spanish colonists? folklórico dancers with a series of different flags including Arizona and Tohono O'odham Women of the Pimería Alta-Cultural Preservation Women were not passive victims of colonization or the mission system. They resisted pressures to conform to European and Spanish cultural norms and worked to preserve their traditions, while choosing to incorporate those new things that they found beneficial. Historic photograph of an O'odham woman grinding grain. Women of the Pimería Alta-Cultural Exchange Indigenous women played important roles in mission communities by functioning as cultural brokers or mediators. They negotiated the many tensions that occurred as colonial and local indigenous societies blended. Historic photograph of an O'odham woman with a kiaha on her back, walking away. Women of the Pimería Alta-Gendered Violence Male honor or “machismo” played a big part in the Spanish conquest of the Pimería Alta. Machismo was often expressed through violence, especially against indigenous people, and particularly, women. Historic photograph of five O'odham people posed outside adobe house. Women of the Pimería Alta-Intersectional Bias Overlapping combinations of biases related to religion, race and gender meant that indigenous women had to face many intersectional layers of prejudice. These colonial European biases limited roles and opportunities of indigenous women. Historic casta painting depicting 16 racial groupings. 18th c., oil on canvas. Women of the Pimería Alta-Establishing Missions In the Pimería Alta, gender determined relationships and power in politics, economics, and social relationships. With the arrival of Spanish missionaries, O'odham women played an important role in navigating political and cultural interactions, especially in the initial establishment of Spanish missions. Historic lithograph of two O'odham women carrying baskets. Women of the Pimería Alta-Gender and Sex Sexual fluidity is as common to the historical record as it is today. O'odham and European conceptions of gender and sex sometimes clashed as missions entered the Pimería Alta. Learn about the sociocultural conceptions of gender and sex within O'odham society before colonization. Historic photograph of two O'odham women posed together. Circa 1881. Women of the Pimería Alta-Sickness and Health Native women played an integral in developing botanical, herbal, and medicinal knowledge in their communities. They continued to provide healing expertise in mission communities. Native women also suffered disproportionately from diseases introduced by European colonists. Learn more about their triumphs and struggles with disease and health here. Small white apothecary jar with green scroll pattern. Circa 1800 from Mexico. Women of the Pimería Alta-Symbolic Figures Women were key facilitators, both symbolically and literally, in political negotiations and diplomacy between O'odham and Yoeme communities and European missionaries. See how missionaries used female symbolism to get them through the doors of O'odham diplomacy and the roles that women played in the unfolding of colonization. Historic painting of the Virgen de Guadalupe with the Four Apparitions. Circa 1773. Oil on copper. Two for the Price of One Companion, assistant, confidant, ambassador, host, nurse, cook, secretary, editor, field technician, wildlife wrangler, diplomat, and social director are some of the many roles that people who marry into the NPS perform in support of their spouses and the NPS mission. Although the wives and daughters of park rangers were some of the earliest women rangers in the NPS, many more women served as “park wives” in the 1920s–1940s. Three members of a family Substitute Rangers As the 1940s dawned, the United States was still dealing with the economic woes of the Great Depression and trying not to get drawn in WWII. Even as it continued to manage New Deal Program work in national and state parks, the NPS remained understaffed as a government bureau. The emergency relief workers and about 15 percent of NPS staff enlisted or were drafted during the first couple of years of WWII. Winifred Tada, 1940. (Courtesy of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin) The Heliograph: 2020 Edition The Heliograph is the newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. This issue features stories on how we adapted our operations to minimize field work lost to the covid-19 pandemic, vegetation mapping at Saguaro NP, and communication improvements and opportunities for network parks. We also probe the minds of our interns and celebrate a high honor for our program manager. Person wearing hat and face covering sits near a stream with a bucket and net. Series: Women of the Pimería Alta Native women in the Pimería Alta were not passive victims of colonization or the mission system. They actively shaped the communities in which they lived and influenced the overall trajectory of colonial and mission life. An O'odham woman mealing corn. The Heliograph: Summer 2021 The Heliograph is the newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. This issue shares predictive tools and planning processes that can help park managers make proactive decisions in the face of climate change. We also explore some explanations for this spring's highly unusual saguaro bloom, celebrate our staff members, and provide updates on our monitoring projects. Saguaro cactus with blooms all over its top Tumacacori and the Antiquities Act 17th century Spanish missionaries created a chain of missions along the Santa Cruz Valley with the aim of Christianizing the O'odham residents and turning them into Spanish citizens. On September 15, 1908, President Theodore Roosevelt signed a proclamation to create Tumacácori National Monument, describing its significance as “one of the oldest mission ruins in the Southwest … and in remarkable repair, considering its great age, and of great historical interest.” Mission Church building. Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Changing Attitudes Most women with disabilities hired by the National Park Service (NPS) in the 1970s and early 1980s had temporary jobs. Some built long-term careers with the bureau. Starting before the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, these women experienced the opportunities and changes the law brought. It was their hard work and dedication to the NPS mission, however, that continued to change attitudes and educate coworkers and visitors alike. Ranger Shirley Beccue in her wheelchair and NPS uniform and flat hat looks out over the Everglades. The Heliograph: Summer 2022 The Heliograph is the newsletter of the Sonoran Desert Network and Desert Research Learning Center. In this issue, find out how eDNA inventories may change what we thought we knew about SODN springs. Learn about the new technology that will improve our streams monitoring, and the lasting contributions of our IVIPs to projects across multiple networks. Get caught up on our latest reports and the status of ongoing projects, and find out what’s happening at the DRLC. Two men at the edge of a marsh. One crouches. The other holds a long metal rod with a disc on top. Of Adobe, Lime, and Cement: The Preservation History of the San José de Tumacácori Mission Church (Part I - The Fabric) In 2008 Tumacácori National Monument in southern Arizona commemorated 100 years. The theme of Tumacácori's centennial celebration was “One Hundred Years of Preservation and Stewardship,” in recognition of the preservation specialists, archeologists, historians, interpreters, masons, and maintenance workers who have strived to preserve the mission for future generations. This article summarizes the preservation history of San José de Tumacácori. Adobe mission church. Guide to the Thomas J. Allen Photograph Collection Finding aid for the Thomas J. Allen Photographs in the NPS History Collection. 50 Nifty Finds #17: Common Threads Each National Park Service (NPS) employee has a unique story. We can't tell them all, but sometimes there's a personal account—like that of Sallie Pierce Brewer Van Valkenburg Harris—that speaks to common experiences. Although her NPS connections ran from 1933 to 1971, many of her joys, challenges, and frustrations can still be recognized in the NPS today. Sallie's story resonates regardless of era, gender, or position. How will it speak to you? Sallie Brewer in her NPS uniform standing at a gate