Shiloh

National Military Park - TN, MS

Shiloh National Military Park preserves the American Civil War Shiloh and Corinth battlefields. The main section of the park is in the unincorporated town of Shiloh, about nine miles (14 km) south of Savannah, Tennessee, with an additional area located in the city of Corinth, Mississippi, 23 miles (37 km) southwest of Shiloh. The Battle of Shiloh began a six-month struggle for the key railroad junction at Corinth. Afterward, Union forces marched from Pittsburg Landing to take Corinth in a May siege, then withstood an October Confederate counter-attack.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Natchez Trace Parkway (PKWY) in Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Natchez Trace - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Natchez Trace Parkway (PKWY) in Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

brochures

Map of the Interpretive Trail at Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Shiloh Indian Mounds Trail

Map of the Interpretive Trail at Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Shiloh Indian Mounds

Brochure of Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Hornet's Nest for Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Hornet's Nest

Brochure of Hornet's Nest for Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about the Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Shiloh National Cemetery

Brochure about the Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Shiloh National Cemetery Map

Map of the Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Planning Your Visit for Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Planning Your Visit

Planning Your Visit for Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Memorial Day at Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Memorial Day

Memorial Day at Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Fall at Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Fall at Shiloh

Fall at Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Tejano Soldados for the Union and Confederacy for Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Tejano Soldados for the Union and Confederacy

Brochure about Tejano Soldados for the Union and Confederacy for Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about The Contributions of Women in the Civil War at Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - The Contributions of Women in the Civil War

Brochure about The Contributions of Women in the Civil War at Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Corinth: Fighting with Picks and Shovels at Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Corinth: Fighting with Picks and Shovels

Brochure about Corinth: Fighting with Picks and Shovels at Shiloh National Cemetery at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure 'Stream of American History: 1776-1870' at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Stream of American History: 1776-1870

Brochure 'Stream of American History: 1776-1870' at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Slavery in the Civil War at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Slavery in the Civil War

Brochure about Slavery in the Civil War at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Davis Bridge at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Shiloh - Davis Bridge

Brochure about Davis Bridge at Shiloh National Military Park (NMP) in Tennessee and Mississippi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/shil/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shiloh_National_Military_Park Shiloh National Military Park preserves the American Civil War Shiloh and Corinth battlefields. The main section of the park is in the unincorporated town of Shiloh, about nine miles (14 km) south of Savannah, Tennessee, with an additional area located in the city of Corinth, Mississippi, 23 miles (37 km) southwest of Shiloh. The Battle of Shiloh began a six-month struggle for the key railroad junction at Corinth. Afterward, Union forces marched from Pittsburg Landing to take Corinth in a May siege, then withstood an October Confederate counter-attack. Visit the sites of the most epic struggle in the Western Theater of the Civil War. Nearly 110,000 American troops clashed in a bloody contest that resulted in 23,746 casualties; more casualties than in all of America's previous wars combined. Explore both the Shiloh and Corinth battlefields to discover the impact of this struggle on the soldiers and on the nation. The park is 110 miles from the Memphis airport and 150 miles from the Nashville airport. From the west (Memphis, Tennessee, area): Take Highway 72 East to Corinth, Mississippi. From the Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center, take Highway 22 North to the Shiloh Battlefield. From the northeast (Nashville, Tennessee, area): Take Interstate 40 West to the Parker's Crossroads Exit. Then take Highway 22 South to Shiloh Battlefield. Continue on Highway 22 South to the Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center. Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center Located near the site of Battery Robinett, the Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center, is open from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm every day except Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, and New Year's Day. Center exhibits include interactive displays and multimedia presentations on the Battle of Shiloh and the Siege and Battle of Corinth. The Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center is located at 501 West Linden Street in Corinth, Mississippi. From Memphis take Hwy. 72 East to Corinth (approximately 96 miles). Parker's Crossroads Battlefield Visitor Center Begin your visit to our affiliated unit, Parker's Crossroads Battlefield, at the visitor's center. Located just off I-40 West and Tennessee Hwy. 22 at EXIT 108. The battlefield is midway between Nashville and Memphis. Pick up a map at the visitor center for your self-guided driving tour of the battlefield and visit the gift shop for souvenirs. At EXIT #108 on I-40. Midway between Nashville and Memphis. Approximately 49 miles north of Shiloh National Military Park on TN Hwy. 22. Shiloh Battlefield Visitor Center Shiloh Battlefield Visitor Center is open from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm every day except Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day, and New Year's Day. View the award winning orientation film, "Shiloh: Fiery Trial," shown every hour. Shiloh Battlefield Visitor Center is located at 1055 Pittsburg Landing Road in Shiloh, TN. From Nashville (I-40W) take Exit 108, Hwy. 22 (Parker's Crossroads). Take Hwy. 22 South to Shiloh National Military Park (53 miles). From Memphis, take Hwy. 72 East to Corinth, MS. At Corinth take Hwy. 45 North into Tennessee. Turn right on Hwy. 142 E (at Selmer, TN) and follow to Hwy. 22. Go north on Hwy. 22 for two miles and the main entrance is on your right. Ruggles Battery Ruggles Battery at Shiloh Ruggles' Battery Shiloh National Cemetery Sunrise in the Shiloh National Cemetery Sunrise in the Shiloh National Cemetery Park Visitor Center Photo of the front of the visitor center Visitor Center at Shiloh National Military Park Mississippi Monument The Mississippi Monument at Shiloh The Mississippi Monument Bloody Pond Cannon overlooking the Bloody Pond Cannon Overlooking the Bloody Pond Shiloh Bookstore The bookstore at Shiloh Bookstore at Shiloh Illinois Cavalry Monument at Shiloh The monument commemorating Illinois cavalry units at Shiloh Illinois Cavalry Monument Two Gun Battery at Corinth Two cannon is a reconstructed earthwork Two Gun Battery Display in the Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center Boxes of muskets as part of a museum display Display Depicting what Railroads were Transporting Stream of American History at Corinth A water feature at Corinth Stream of American History Women Amidst War The extreme demands of wartime industry and the loss of traditional family breadwinners to military service caused hardship, but also presented opportunities to women for employment, volunteerism, and activism that previously had been unavailable to them. While many of these gains would be temporary, the Civil War nonetheless represents an important step forward in American society's view of the role of women. Women were increasingly seen (and saw themselves) as the foundat Photo of women at a house on the Cedar Mountain battlefield National Parks and National Cemeteries Currently, the National Park Service manages 14 national cemeteries. These cemeteries represent a continuum of use dating to a period before the establishment of the historical parks of which they are an integral part and are administered to preserve the historic character, uniqueness, and solemn nature of both the cemeteries and the historical parks of which they are a part. Setting sun lights up graves and decorations Death and Dying The somber aftermath of Civil War battles introduced Americans--North and South--to death on an unprecedented scale and of an unnatural kind, often ending in an unmarked grave far from home. Neither individuals, nor institutions, nor governments were prepared to deal with death on such a massive scale, for never before or since have we killed so many of our own. The Civil War revolutionized the American military's approach to caring for the dead, leading to our modern cult Photo of freshly buried marked and unmarked graves near Petersburg, Va. Reconstruction During Reconstruction, the Federal government pursued a program of political, social, and economic restructuring across the South-including an attempt to accord legal equality and political power to former slaves. Reconstruction became a struggle over the meaning of freedom, with former slaves, former slaveholders and Northerners adopting divergent definitions. Faced with increasing opposition by white Southerners and some Northerners, however, the government abandoned effor Picture depictsing former slaves and free blacks voting following the passage of the 15th amendment The Border States The existence of divided populations in Border States had a profound impact on Union and Confederate strategy-both political and military. Each side undertook military and political measures--including brutal guerilla warfare-- in their attempts to control areas of divided loyalty and hostile moral and political views held by local civilians. Painting showing removal of Missouri civilians from their homes by Union troops The Military Experience The course of the war was the cumulative result of political, economic, and social policies that affected (and were affected by) military operations and battles waged across a front spanning 2,000 miles. The battles and campaigns of 1861-65 ultimately demonstrated that the simple application of massive military force, even with innovations in technologies and tactics, was insufficient to resolve a conflict between two sections mobilized against one another politically, socia Engraving of soldier warming himself by a fire Photo of U.S. Sanitary Commission office. Industry and Economy during the Civil War Both North and South mobilized industry to an unprecedented degree. But the North, which already had a head start in nearly every realm of industrial and agricultural development, far outpaced the South during the war. Unhampered by the southern opposition in such areas as providing free land to farmers and subsidizing a transcontinental railroad before the war, Congress passed sweeping legislation to expand the economy. As the war dragged on, in part because many of the ba Lithograph showing industrial and technological advancements of the Civil War The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits Falling Stars: James A. Garfield and the Military Reputations of Generals Irvin McDowell, George McClellan, and Fitz John Porter During the Civil War, James A. Garfield was elected into the House of Representatives but they did not begin session until the end of 1863. While waiting to begin his new position Garfield was part of one of the most celebrated military trials in American history: the court martial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter. Find out more about the trial and what part James A. Garfield played! nineteen men in suits sitting around a table Around and About James A. Garfield: Whitelaw Reid (Part I) Whitelaw Reid was editor of the New York Tribune for forty years, from 1872 to 1912. He played a major role in politics and was instrumental in presidential candidate James A. Garfield speaking from his home in Mentor, Ohio. a campaign poster- Benjsmin Harrison is on the left and Whitelaw Reid is on the righ Friends to the End Colonel Almon Rockwell and James A. Garfield were lifelong friends who met at the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute. They were in the Civil War together and Almon was at President Garfield's bed side after he was shot by an assassin. Learn more about Colonel Rockwell and the friendship he had with President Garfield. an old photo of Colonel Almon Rockwell who is wearing a suit jacket and bow tie NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Shiloh National Military Park, Tennessee and Mississippi Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] memorial site Series: African American History at Gettysburg Abraham Brian, Basil Biggs, James Warfield, and Mag Palm are just a few of the many individuals that were affected by the Civil War and the Battle of Gettysburg, and each has their own story to tell. We have collected their stories in one place so that you can learn more about their various trials during this tumultuous time in American history. A black and white photograph of a black family posing with a white man and his horse in a dirt road. The Civil War's Impact on Schools for the Deaf and the Blind in the South Schools for the Deaf and the Blind were profoundly affected by the Civil War, and in very different ways between schools in the North and the South. In the North, schools continued their terms, with the battles being taught as "current events." In the South, students were sent home as their schools were taken over as field hospitals or severely damaged in battles. Metal sign on a vertical post in front of a 2-story, red-brick building with 2 rows of windows. Women in Fire Science: Alicia Schlarb Alicia Schlarb is the lead fire effects monitor for a portion of the National Park Service's Southeast Region. She and her crew provide prescribed burning, monitoring, and wildland fire responses to national parks located within Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and portions of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Florida. She loves fire and that she can change perceptions about wildland fire through science. Alicia Schlarb. Corinth's Confederate Siege Line A brief history of the "Beauregard Line" that partially encircled Corinth, Mississippi in the spring of 1862. Series: What is There to See in Corinth, Mississippi? There's more to Shiloh National Military Park than just the Shiloh Battlefield. Just 22 miles southwest of Shiloh Church is Corinth, Mississippi, and its two strategically significant railroads. If you are planning a trip to Corinth, or are just plain curious about the Civil War history that is preserved in this small, southern town, then read up on some of the places that the National Park Service preserves here! Several headstones sit near a tall, granite obelisk on a grassy hill under a blue sky.
440 450 400 460 “Changing Size and Colors” 460 470 “Signs of Prestige” 0 44 46 0 “A Temporary Wall” River Road Mann’s Battery B “Maternal Clusters” “Leaving Home” 43 47 “Crossing the Palisade” Legend 46 Interpretive Trail 0 Bro 47 0 Interpretive Exhibits Footbridge Handicap Parking Civil War Campsite Indian Mound N.H.L. Plaque 200 300 Feet 400 430 450 Burial Mound oric 44 500 450 100 440 0 450 B 0 Sidewalk 460 Orientation Shelter C Hist Parking wn’ s La ndin 450 0 0 Tennessee Landing D 420 Brown’s “Surviving the Winter” 400 Orientation Shelter 460 PLAZA 450 “Signs of Dwellings” “A Major River Town” “A Vibrant Community” gR oad 17th Kentucky Infantry “The Center of Town” “Borrow Pits” A F G 420 E 28th Illinois Infantry Burial Site CLOUD FIELD stone steps 450 470 25th Kentucky Infantry 0 38 430 450 0 45 Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark Interpretive Trail
Shiloh National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Use a “short-hand” version of the site name here (e.g. Palo Alto Battlefield not Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Site) set in 29/29 B Frutiger bold. Shiloh National Military Park Tennessee-Mississippi Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark What Are The Shiloh Mounds? About 800 years ago, a town occupied the high Tennessee River bluff at the eastern edge of the Shiloh plateau. Between two steep ravines, a wooden palisade enclosed seven earthen mounds and dozens of houses. Six mounds, rectangular in shape with flat tops, probably served as platforms for the town’s important buildings. These structures may have included a council house, religious buildings, and residences of the town’s leaders. The southernmost mound is an oval, roundtopped mound in which the town’s leaders or other important people were buried. Who Lived Here? This town was the center of a society that occupied a twenty-mile-long stretch of the Tennessee River Valley. Around A.D. 1200 or 1300, inhabitants moved out of this part of the Tennessee Valley, perhaps to upriver locations now submerged under Pickwick Lake. Since the Shiloh society disintegrated several hundred years before there were written records to tell us who they were, it is not clear whether or how the Shiloh residents were related to later societies like the Choctaw, Chickasaw, or Creek. Archaeologists refer to the society centered at Shiloh as a “chiefdom.” The chief would have been the most important political leader as well as religious figure. Probably a council, composed of elders and respected members of the community, shared power with the chief. Close relatives of the chief would have been treated like nobility; some were probably buried in “Mound C.” How Did They Make A Living? The Residents of the Shiloh site were farmers. Corn (maize) was their most important food. They also grew squash and sunflowers, as well as less familiar crops such as goosefoot, marshelder, and maygrass. In addition to their cultivated crops, they also ate a wide variety of wild plants and animals. The most important wild plant foods were hickory nuts and acorns. Most of their meat came from deer, fish, turkey, and small animals such as raccoon, rabbit, and squirrel. What Made Up The Rest Of The Chiefdom? In addition to the Shiloh site, the chiefdom included six smaller towns, each with one or two mounds, and isolated farmsteads scattered on higher ground in the river valley. Downstream on the river’s eastern bank, Savannah, Tennessee, marks the site of another palisaded settlement with multiple mounds. Many of the Savannah mounds were actually built much earlier, about 2000 years ago, but the site was reoccupied at roughly the same time as the Shiloh site. We don’t know whether these two towns were occupied at exactly the same time. Modern buildings in Savannah have obliterated most of the prehistoric site. The Cherry Mansion in Savannah sits on the remains of a prehistoric mound. Who Were The Neighbors? The Shiloh chiefdom had as neighbors other chiefdoms in what is now Alabama, Mississippi, and western Tennessee. Most of the chiefdoms occupied portions of the major river valleys, like the Tennessee and Tombigbee. Some of the neighboring chiefdoms would have been hostile to the Shiloh chiefdom, while others were linked to Shiloh by political alliances. Archaeological evidence of these alliances survives in the form of “prestige goods” chiefs exchanged as tokens of their friendship. We can often tell where specific prestige What Is The Shiloh Pipe? The first archaeological excavation at Shiloh took place in 1899 when Cornelius Cadle, chairman of the Shiloh Park Commission, dug a trench into “Mound C.” There, he found the site’s most famous artifact, a large stone pipe carved in the shape of a kneeling man. Now on display in the Tennessee River Museum in Savannah, Tennessee, this effigy pipe is made of the same distinctive red stone and is carved in the same style as a number of human statuettes from the Cahokia chiefdom, located in Illinois near St. Louis. What Remains Today? Survey work in the winter of 1933-34 revealed numerous small, round mounds at the Shiloh site, each about one foot high and ten to twenty feet in diameter, the remains of wattle-and-daub houses. These structures had walls of vertical posts interlaced with branches (wattle), which were then coated with a thick layer of clay (daub). Each house had a fireplace in the center of the floor. A palisade wall, also made of wattle and daub, protected the site. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA™ goods were made. If we know where a particular item was made and where it was sent, we can tell who was exchanging with whom. In the case of Shiloh, we can tell political ties existed with a powerful chiefdom at Cahokia, near St. Louis. In contrast, there is no evidence of political ties to chiefdoms in central Tennessee. The early inclusion of
Shiloh National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Use a “short-hand” version of the site name here (e.g. Palo Alto Battlefield not Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Site) set in 29/29 B Frutiger bold. Shiloh National Military Park Tennessee-Mississippi The Hornet’s Nest The Hornet’s Nest There is perhaps no more famous Civil War icon than the Hornet’s Nest at Shiloh. Ranking with Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg, Bloody Lane at Antietam, and the Stone Wall at Fredericksburg, Shiloh’s Hornet’s Nest is well known to even the most amateur of Civil War buffs. Shiloh’s Hornet’s Nest lies in the center of the battlefield and was the scene of heavy combat on both days of the battle. On the first day, elements of three Union divisions manned the line along a little-used farm road that ran through the J.R. Duncan land. Duncan and his family worked a small cotton field that bordered the road to the south. With its open fields of fire and road cover, there is little wonder that the Duncan plot became one of the most important localities on the battlefield. Heavy fighting raged in the area of the Hornet’s Nest on the first day, with no less that eight distinct Confederate attacks turned back by the determined defenders of the Sunken Road. Attesting to the fury in the area, Confederates so named the location because, they said, the enemy’s bullets sounded like swarms of angry hornets. Household Names The terms “Hornet’s Nest” and “Sunken Road” are loosely used to mean the same geographical area. In reality, they are much different entities. The Sunken Road, meaning Duncan’s farm road, extended for three-fifths of a mile, connecting the Corinth Road and the River Road. The actual Hornet’s Nest, by comparison, refers to the nearly six-hundred-yard stretch of road in the center. This position, atop a small rise and fronting an almost impenetrable undergrowth, became the target of the numerous Confederate attacks on April 6. The terms did not come into regular use until after the Civil War, however. The name “Hornet’s Nest” predates that of the “Sunken Road.” Confederates themselves used the term “Hornet’s Nest,” and by the 1880s, veteran groups used the name regularly. There was even an annual “Hornet’s Nest Brigade” reunion. The term “Sunken Road” did not come into general use until after Congress established the national military park in 1894. The Hornet’s Nest Legacy Almost as soon as the battle ended, key participants began describing the action at the Hornet’s Nest as the central event of the battle. Defenders of the area, such as Brigadier General Benjamin Prentiss, openly argued that their stand made against so many brave Confederate attacks held the Union line long enough for army commander Major General Ulysses S. Grant to establish a last line of defense. Nest: Center of Union Line.” Eventually, a park preserved the battlefield, including the Hornet’s Nest. The area then gained tangible status when park commissioners placed first wooden and then iron road signs marking prominent places on the battlefield. Still standing even today, the iron road sign on the Eastern Corinth Road marks the “Hornet’s Historians have expanded on the veteran’s remembrances and continue to argue the importance of the Hornet’s Nest. Almost all the major monographs on the battle, as well as media presentations such as Shiloh: Portrait of a Battle, focus on the action that took place in the center of the battlefield. These works even portray the action in the area as a series of Confederate attacks across the open Duncan farmland. When these attacks failed, they argue, the Confederates had to assemble the largest concentration of artillery ever to appear on the North American continent. In portraying the Hornet’s Nest as the savior of Grant’s army, historians made it an American icon. Myth or Reality? Despite the emphasis on the Hornet’s Nest’s importance, a different story probably took place. Historians have recently begun to question the Hornet’s Nest’s role in the battle. Several pieces of evidence offer insight into the Sunken Road and Hornet’s Nest in the context of the battle as a whole. The number of dead and wounded in the area shows that the Hornet’s Nest did not see the heaviest fighting at Shiloh. An 1867 document produced by laborers locating bodies on the battlefield states that the heaviest concentrations of dead lay on the eastern and western sectors of the battlefield and that the dead were fairly light in the center, where the Hornet’s Nest was located. That in itself states that casualties were fewer in the center where, according to myth, the heaviest and most important fighting took place. Supporting this point are casualty figures for the units engaged in the Hornet’s Nest. Colonel James M. Tuttle’s brigade of four Iowa regiments, which held the Hornet’s Nest and the Sunken Road in front of Duncan Field, sustained a total of 235 killed and wounded in the battle - a number less than
Shiloh National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Use a “short-hand” version of the site name here (e.g. Palo Alto Battlefeld not Palo Alto Battlefeld National Historical Site) set in 29/29 B Frutiger bold. Shiloh National Military Park Tennessee-Mississippi Shiloh National Cemetery “These Honored Dead” After the renown orator concluded his remarks and the thunderous applause faded, the tall, gaunt man rose and began to address the crowd in a high pitched voice. Featuring none of the outward appearances of importance, the second speaker nevertheless spoke as if his was the keynote address. Although invited to speak almost as an afterthought, President Abraham Lincoln humbly spoke from the heart. The brief remarks he made that day still echo through American history as one of the most important speeches ever given. Known to history as the “Gettysburg Address,” Lincoln’s November 19, 1863, speech was more than a dedication of a new national cemetery. While fulflling that obligation very successfully, the speech did more. Lincoln’s masterpiece pointed to a vision of the future, setting the course of national destiny. It pointed toward an America that Lincoln hoped would one day exist. In this vision of the future, Lincoln spoke of “a new birth of freedom,” of a “government of the people, by the people, for the people.” But Lincoln knew that such a future would only be possible with the tragic death of America’s best. In dedicating the new national cemetery at Gettysburg, Lincoln tied this new vision of America to the loss of humanity on the battlefeld. The intention was not only to “dedicate a portion of that feld as a fnal resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live,” but also to call all Americans “to be dedicated here to the unfnished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.” Lincoln called Americans to “highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain,” and that “from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave their last full measure of devotion.” The National Cemetery System Lincoln’ s dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery was a part of a larger movement to decently inter America’s war dead. Battle after battle produced many dead who deserved proper burial. The result was the congressional establishment of a national cemetery system. President Lincoln signed the bill on July 17, 1862. All over the nation, particularly on Civil War battlefelds, workers began to build national resting places for America’s dead. Cemeteries began to appear at such places as Antietam, Soldier’s Home, and Gettysburg. Most cemeteries on southern battlefelds were not established until after the war, however, allowing time for word of the end of the war to spread and for emotions to cool. Wartime building of cemeteries in the South would not only take manpower away from the war efort, but also expose laborers to still-active Confederate forces that might be lurking in the area. “The Handsomest Cemetery in the South” In 1866, the War Department established a cemetery on the battlefeld of Shiloh, in southwestern Tennessee. In order to bury the dead not only from the April 6-7, 1862, battle of Shiloh but also from all the operations along the Tennessee River, workers began building the “Pittsburg Landing National Cemetery.” Changed to “Shiloh National Cemetery” in 1889, the cemetery holds 3,584 Civil War dead, 2,359 of them unknown. In the fall of 1866, workers disinterred the dead from 156 locations on the battlefeld, and 565 diferent locations along the Tennessee River. Headboards of wood frst marked each grave, but were replaced in 1876 and 1877 by granite stones. Tall stones marked the known dead and square, short stones denoted unknown soldiers. 1911. A superintendent cared for the cemetery until it was ofcially consolidated with Shiloh National Military Park in 1943. The results of so much labor produced what one observer called “the handsomest cemetery in the South.” Workers built a stone wall around the cemetery in 1867, and fashioned ornamental iron gates at the entrance in Although established as a Civil War burial ground, the Shiloh National Cemetery now holds deceased soldiers from later American wars. Many World War I and II, Korea, and Vietnam burials are in the newest section of the cemetery. There is also one Persian Gulf War memorial. Total interred in the cemetery now stands as 3,892. Although the cemetery was ofcially closed in 1984, it still averages two or three burials a year, mostly widows of soldiers already interred. “An American Soldier” Where Are The Confederates? “That These Dead Shall Not Have Died in Vain” There is perhaps no more honorable title than that of “American soldier.” Inscribed on the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery are the words, “Here Rests in Honored Glory, An American Soldier, Known But to God.” Thousands of known and unknown A
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Shiloh National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Shiloh National Military Park Tennessee-Mississippi Planning Your VisitHere Site Bulletin Title Lodging and Camping Facilities Rules and Regulations ADAMSVILLE, TN (38310) 12 miles NW* Deerfield Inn, 414 East Main St., (731) 632-2100 Old Home Motel, 211 E. Main St., (731) 632-3398 • The possession of metal detectors, hunting, collecting, and possessing of archaeological artifacts are prohibited. COUNCE, TN (38365) 15 miles SE* Hampton Inn, 10 Old South Rd., Hwy. 57 S., (731) 689-3031 Little Andy’s Sportsman Lodge, 7255 Hwy. 57 W., (731) 689-3750 Pickwick Landing State Park Inn, 120 Playground Loop, (731) 689-3135 Pickwick Landing State Park Campground, Hwy. 57 S., (731) 689-3129 Red Dog Campground, 709 Rock Pile Ln., (715) 360-0730 Stonebrook Inn, 21 Wayson Lane, (731) 689-4700 SHILOH, TN (38376) 4 miles SW* Battlefield Campground, Hwy. 22, (731) 689-3098 CRUMP, TN (38327) 7 MILES N* River Heights Motel, 3950 US-64, Crump, TN, (731) 632-4498 SAVANNAH, TN (38372) 12 miles NE* Bruton Branch Recreation Area, Bruton Branch Road, (731) 926-1802 (Apr.-Oct.) Days Inn, 1695 Pickwick Rd., (731) 925-5505 Green Acres RV Park, 215 Ziffel Circle, (731) 926-1928 Pickwick Dam Campground (below Dam), 1845 Wharf Road, (865) 361-9492 Quality Inn, 1645 Pickwick Rd., (731) 925-4141 River Cottage Guest House, 205 W. Main Street, (731) 607-2753 Savannah Lodge, 585 Pickwick Rd., (731) 925-8586 Savannah Motel, Hwy. 64 & Adams St., (731) 925-3392 Shaw’s Komfort Motel, 1155 Wayne Rd., (731) 925-3977 SELMER, TN (38375) 17 miles W-NW* Star Plus Inn and Suites , 644 Mulberry Ave, (731) 645-8880 Southwood Inn, 631 Mulberry Ave., (731) 645-4801 CORINTH, MS (38834) 22 miles SW* Comfort Inn, 2101 Hwy. 72 W., (662) 287-4421 Corinth Inn and Suites, Hwy. 72 W., (662) 287-8051 The General’s Quarters (B&B), 924 Filmore St., (662) 286-3325 Hampton Inn, 2107 Hwy. 72 W., (662) 286-5949 Holiday Inn Express, 2106 Hwy. 72 W., (662) 287-1407 Quality Inn, 2101 Hwy. 72 W., (662) 287-4421 * Mileage is approximate driving distance from Pittsburg Landing • Please do not climb on monuments, fences, or cannons. • All wildlife is protected. Please enjoy but do not harass. • Use caution when walking near the steep blufs along the Tennessee River. • Drivers please watch for pedestrians on roads. • Pedestrians should walk on left side of roadways. • Bicycles are permitted on paved roads only. Cyclists must obey trafc laws and signs. • Skateboards, scooters, electric scooters, one-wheels are not allowed on NPS sites. • Horseback riding is not permitted. • Pets must be leashed and under control of handler at all times. • Picnicking and recreational activities are allowed in designated areas only. • Shiloh United Methodist Church is an active congregation. Park visitors are welcome on privately owned church grounds. • Grounds close at dark. Facilities and Resources acre cemetery is the final resting place for more than 3,500 Union soldiers, 2 Confederate soldiers, a Revolutionary War soldier, and hundreds who fought in World War I and II, Korea, and Vietnam. Visitors should allow at least an hour to drive the 12.7 mile, self-guided auto tour route. Pull-ofs and interpretive wayside exhibits are located at each of the 20 tour stops. Many of the park’s 156 commemorative monuments, 600 troop position markers, and more than 220 cannon can be seen from the park roads. To see all historic structures, one must hike into the surrounding woods and felds. The park is also home to the Shiloh Indian Mounds National Historic Landmark. This ancient village was believed to have been inhabited between 1050 and 1400 CE. The site has a 1.3 mile hiking trail and wayside exhibits detailing the Indian mound complex. A brochure and map are available on request at the visitor center. To accommodate visitor needs and to enhance understanding of park resources, the 4,200-acre park ofers a variety of facilities and resources. A visitor center is open 8:00 AM until 5:00 PM, every day except Christmas Day. The center ofers exhibits and a 49-minute flm “Shiloh: Fiery Trial” shown on the hour. Accessible restrooms are located inside the visitor center and in the parking lot. The park’s one picnic area has a large pavilion, grills, and restroom facilities. It is available for use on a first come, first serve basis. This ten-acre area is located one mile south of the park entrance on Tennessee Highway 22. The area is open daily. Rangers are available at the visitor center to greet park visitors, to answer any questions, and to distribute park maps and program schedules. Across the street from the visitor center, is the park bookstore, operated by Eastern National Park and Monument Association. The store has a large selection of books and interpretive materials, battlefeld maps, and an audio driving tour on CD. Vending machines are located behind the bookstore. Shiloh National Cemetery is across the street from the visitor c
Shiloh National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Use a “short-hand” version of the site name here (e.g. Palo Alto Battlefield not Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Site) set in 29/29 B Frutiger bold. Shiloh National Military Park Tennessee-Mississippi Memorial Day at Shiloh This is a main head, labeled “Head-A” in the styles menu Introductory text is labeled “Introduction-text” in the styles menu. It is set in 11/15 NPS Rawlinson as a single column that measures six inches wide and begins .08 inches below the bottom of the image. Italics and bolds are set in NPS Rawlinson, italicized and NPS Rawlinson Two, bolded. Three-point (3 pt) horizontal rules are used to separate text sections and are eight inches wide. The distance from the rule to the next text block is .08 inches. The distance from the preceding paragraph to the Main Head set in 11/13 Frutiger 45 Light, bolded A gathering of Shiloh veterans on Memorial Day History Repeats Itself History repeats itself… What goes around comes around… The more things change, the more they stay the same… Continuity These pedantic phrases are often used flippantly, but they carry a great deal of truth to them. They particularly seem relevant when describing the Memorial Day activities at Shiloh National Cemetery. Through the decades of memorialization and remembrance at Shiloh National Military Park, people have changed, sites have been altered, and the calendar has advanced. Yet, in all the change, the Memorial Day services at Shiloh have remained amazingly constant. The Memorial Day service is one of the long-standing traditions at Shiloh National Cemetery. Since before the park was established in 1894, locals and veterans have met each year at the cemetery to remember and memorialize. Although different in makeup, each service through the years has included the basics of well-known speakers, patriotic songs, and nationalistic poetry. The 1914 Memorial Day services ended with a moving rendition of “Home Sweet Home.” as today, have often been spotlighted for their services. On Memorial Day in 1907, sixty-five aged members of the 21st Missouri returned to the battlefield and were honored guests. And just as today, orators ranging from governors to judges to former generals have spoken eloquently about the need to remember the sacrifice of our nation’s war dead. Another of the marks of continuity in the Shiloh services is the emphasis on people. Event organizers as far back as the 1890s tried to use people to provide an interesting, informative, and moving service. Local church choirs have almost annually sung at the event. Veterans, just Honor Guard representing America’s wars Main Head This is sample text type, labeled “Text” in the styles menu. Text type is 9/12 NPS Rawlinson. Text type runs in two columns, with .17 inches between columns. Text paragraphs are separated by a skipped line which is automatically inserted at the end of each paragraph with a hard return. This is an example of a “Head-B” Sub heads are set in 9/12 NPS Rawlinson Two, bolded and are labeled “Head-B” in the document’s styles menu. There is no line space after a sub head. Italics and bolds must be set manually as NPS Rawlinson, italicized and Shiloh National Cemetery Decoration A similar tradition is the decoration of the graves. As far as records show, which date back to the 1890s, American flags have been placed on each grave in the cemetery. Although responsibility for the placement of flags has changed through the years from veterans’ groups to political organizations to today’s National Park Service, the simple gesture of individually recognizing each serviceman’s sacrifice still remains. Similarly, the United States flag has traditionally flown at half-staff on Memorial Day from sunrise until noon. There is even a custom, dating back as far as the park’s establishment, of decorating the Confederate mass graves in the park. Rain, Rain Go Away Despite the continuity, one particular tradition has hopefully changed. In the first years of the park, rain dampened (literally) the festivities on Memorial Day. Almost each year, the park’s daily event ledger book records the similar words “rain occurred,” “the usual 30th of May rain fell,” or “the 30th of May brought the customary rain.” The crowds of course were smaller during rainy days, but sunny holidays would easily attract fivethousand people, with estimates of as many as twelve-thousand in 1906. Continue to Remember Times have changed, participants have been replaced, and the United States has many more war-dead to remember, but the basic idea of remembrance at Shiloh has remained the same, and the way it has been accomplished at Shiloh has remained amazingly constant through the years. May we always continue to hold this day and the sacrifice it memorializes dear to our hearts. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA
Shiloh National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Use a “short-hand” version of the site name here (e.g. Palo Alto Battlefield not Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Site) set in 29/29 B Frutiger bold. Shiloh National Military Park Tennessee-Mississippi The Color of Autumn: Nature’s Masterpiece The Arrival of Autumn Autumn is a season of change. The appearance in leaf color from green to a variety of shades such as red, yellow, orange, and brown is its signature and the reason that many people enjoy this season the most. But what causes the leaves to change colors? Why do specific colors express themselves in some trees, and not in others? Why do leaves of trees appear brighter and more vivid in one region of the country than another? Why are Leaves Green? Plants are producers of their own food in a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a reaction between light, water, carbon dioxide, and a pigment called chlorophyll to produce sugar (the plant’s food) and oxygen. Chlorophyll is the most abundant pigment in most all plants, and is essential in a plant’s survival. It absorbs all colors except green, and is the reason why leaves appear green in the growing seasons. In the autumn months, the days get shorter and the temperature gets cooler. Plants respond by ceasing chlorophyll production and eventually losing their leaves. As the chlorophyll disappears, the green fades away, and other pigments in the leaf begin to show. These pigments can be divided into 3 Anthocyanins Anthocyanins in various leaves. categories: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and tannins. Chlorophyll causes the green in trees. Anthocyanins are pigments found in certain species of plants. However, they are not stored in the leaves, like chlorophyll and cartenoids. They are made by the plant cells. The decomposition of chlorophyll, the shorter days, and the presence of sugars in the leaves are all factors that contribute to anthocyanin production. These are the first colors to show in the fall, and leaves with this pigment will appear anywhere from a bright red to a dark crimson. The trees and shrubs which exhibit this color are red oaks, sweetgum, black cherry, sumac, black gum, and maple. Carotenoids Carotenoids are common pigments found in the leaves of most plants. They are used as a secondary lightabsorbing pigment to chlorophyll. The chemical make-up of carotenoids is more stable than chlorophyll. As the chlorophyll decomposes and fades away in autumn, the carotenoids are left behind and give the leaf an orange or yellow color. They are the same pigments found in carrots and corn. These colors are usually seen in the leaves after the anthocyanins appear. The trees exhibiting this color are elms, hickories, black walnuts, yellow poplars, and maple. Tannins Tannins make leaves turn brown. Perfect Weather for Expression Carotenoids make leaves turn yellow. Tannins are chemicals found in almost every living plant. They occur in large amounts in oaks, as well as beech and chestnut trees. As fall continues and the weather changes, the chlorophyll production ceases, permitting the tan to dark brown color of the tannins will become visible. They are usually the last pigment seen in the fall and will not be visible until after the carotenoids and anthocyanins have disappeared or become less abundant. Autumn leaf color will be expressed more or less vivid, depending on regional weather conditions. The best conditions which produce the brightest and most vivid color are: · · · · Sunny days Cool nights Low humidity (drier weather) Low precipitation Annually each autumn, these weather conditions routinely occur in the northeastern United States, and it is this region where the autumn colors traditionally express themselves in grand splendor. Shiloh’s Canvas Shiloh National Military Park is populated with a variety of tree species that display remarkable autumn colors. We invite you to plan your fall visit here and enjoy this season of change with us. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA
Shiloh National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Use a “short-hand” version of the site name here (e.g. Palo Alto Battlefield not Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Site) set in 29/29 B Frutiger bold. Shiloh National Military Paper Mississippi-Tennessee Tejano Soldados For The Union And Confederacy "...know that reason has very little influence in this world: prejudice governs." -Wm. T. Sherman 1860 Duty and Sacrifice Mired in Prejudice Warfare was nothing new to the MexicanAmericans (Tejanos) of the western American frontier. Since the moment the first hispanic soldiers (soldados) and missionaries pushed northward from Mexico, into the vast expanse of the American southwest, a daily struggle for survival had existed. Conflicts with Indian inhabitants, a series of internal revolutions, the Texas War for Independence, and the Mexican War with the United States had tempered the hispanic peoples of North America to the realities and rigors of war. Despite this, hispanics did not respond to the American Civil War with the strong emotional urges felt by the vast majority of white Americans. Mostly isolated in small numbers on the frontier in Texas, New Mexico, and California, Mexican-Americans had only been U.S. citizens for 13 years or less. The average hispanic was preoccupied with far different social-economical interests and needs to become too involved in the "gringo" war. An estimated 9,900 hispanic men did volunteer. Almost half of the hispanic volunteers came from New Mexico, or they lived in small Texas communities along the Rio Grande Valley. The typical Civil War hispanic soldier usually enlisted and served in all hispanic companies of Texas or New Mexico Volunteer or Militia units. Civil War musters show that Spanish surnamed volunteers were to be found scattered throughout a variety of Federal and Confederate military units such as Hood's Texas Brigade, the Louisiana Pointe Coupee Artillery, Sixth Missouri Infantry, Fifty-fifth Alabama Infantry, and Ogden's Louisiana Cavalry. Some are even found in eastern volunteer units like Vermont. Hispanic volunteers served with forces which fired on Fort Sumter in 1861, and their participation and sacrifice can be found in both Union and Confederate armies engaged in most of the major battles of the war. Those hispanics which did serve, seemed not to identify with, nor understand, the origins of this truly American war, and most soldados approached the issues with considerable apathy, whether in blue or gray. The wartime performance of the Tejano recruit is hard to assess. He did have a tendency to desert the service. The desertion rate in some Texas and New Mexico Volunteer militia units, made up of hispanics, often ran as high as 95 to 100 percent. These men deserted their units most often, not because of any fear of death or service, but because of a constant prejudice that existed within the mostly white Union and Confederate forces. Typical of the men found in Hispanic companies serving in blue and gray, were these southern cavalrymen, seated left to right, Refugio Benavides, Atanacio Vidaurri, Cristobal Benavides and John Z. Leyendecker. Refugio and Cristobal both served with their brother, Col. Santos Benavides, against U.S. forces and bandits along the Rio Grande. They and the hard riding men under their command received the thanks of the Texas Legislature "for their vigilance, energy, and gallantry in pursuing and chastising the banditti infesting the Rio Grande frontier." Struggle With Equality Tejano regiments were consistently short changed on basic human necessities. Records show that at times, months often elapsed before some hispanic units received much needed food and clothing for basic survival. The soldado was often issued inferior and outdated weapons and foul ammunition to use with it. All of these factors contributed to the inability of the hispanic units to effectively organize, maintain morale, and perform standard military operations during the war. Tejano soldados averaged 28 years of age. This was far older than his 18 year old white Billy Yank or Johnny Reb. He very rarely spoke english and this language barrier contributed greatly to the Tejano soldado's lack of under- War Has No Prejudice For the common Tejano soldado, the American Civil War was a terrible and frustrating experience. Besides the difficulties of social prejudice, language barriers, and economic and political poverty, the hispanic yankee or rebel recruit had to share the same hardships of war suffered by all Civil War volunteers. He suffered the high attrition rate, due to disease, which constantly plagued the campaign trails and camps of Union and Confederate armies in the field. He experienced the Santos Benavides, Colonel of the 33rd Texas Cavalry, C.S.A. was the most famous of the hispanic soldados. He later commanded a regiment known simply as Benavides' Regiment. This force, poorly equiped and usually starved, forced marched ac
Shiloh National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Use a “short-hand” version of the site name here (e.g. Palo Alto Battlefield not Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Site) set in 29/29 B Frutiger bold. Shiloh National Military Park Tennessee-Mississippi The Contributions of Women in the Civil War In one way or another all women were involved in the Civil War. Just like men, they were united in character, ideals and in allegiance to their cause. This purpose bound women of all classes together in an unusual harmony and gave them strength and inspiration to engage in work usually performed by men. With Bayonet and Sword They Served The Alleviation of Suffering Not all who wore the uniform were men. A large but undeterminable number of women actually served as soldiers. These women entered the ranks motivated by patriotism or the desire to be near their husbands or sweethearts. Since army policy restricted military duty to men only, the women who joined the ranks did so by disguising themselves as men. In many cases the deception was carried out for long periods of time. Loretta Velazquez donned the Confederate uniform, enlisted as Lieutenant Harry T. Buford and recruited a company of volunteers from Arkansas. In the spring of 1862, after fleeing from authorities who had discovered her sex, she enlisted with the 21st Louisiana Infantry. According to Loretta, her participation in the Battle of Shiloh was her greatest military triumph. On the battlefield, her regiment became engaged alongside the men she had recruited in Arkansas: In both the North and South, women played an important role in Civil War medicine. Many women had learned of the efforts of Florence Nightingale in improving hospital conditions during the Crimean War. This and the realization that so many sick and wounded men needed attention led scores of women to enter the previously male dominated occupation of nursing. Such a decision represented real courage on their part, since none of the women had any experience beyond tending to family members and the application of home remedies. Kate Cumming left family and friends in Mobile to begin a career as a nurse with the Confederate Army of the Mississippi (later designated the Army of Tennessee). She was first assigned duty at Corinth, Mississippi receiving wounded men from the Battle of Shiloh. Later Cumming signed on as a matron with a mobile hospital system, which followed the Army of Tennessee through several western states during the course of the war. Women nurses worked mainly in general hospitals away from the fighting, but some did share the hardships and dangers of field hospitals. Mrs. Jersuha R. Small, followed her husband, a soldier with an Iowa unit, and became a nurse in the regimental hospitals. At Shiloh, the tent in which she was caring for a number of wounded men, was struck by enemy shells. She was forced to remove her patients to a "War seems inevitable, and while I am trying to employ the passing hour, a cloud still hangs over us all and all that surrounds us. All ages, all conditions, meet now on one common platform. We must all work for our country..." -Judith Brockenbrough McGuire "We had not long been engaged before the second lieutenant of the company fell. I immediately stepped into his place, and assumed the command. This action was greeted by a heartly cheer from the entire company... This cheer from the men was an immense inspiration to me... (it) encouraged me to dare everything, and to shrink from nothing to render myself deserving of their praises." After the battle Velazquez was wounded by a shell while burying the dead. An army doctor once again discovered that she was a woman. Believing that too many people knew her true identity, she finally gave up her uniform. Union patriot Lizzie Compton was but sixteen years old when her identity was revealed for a second time. Compton was serving in the 25th Michigan Infantry when she was wounded by a minie ball. She recovered and it is unknown whether or not she enlisted for a third time. point beyond the range of fire. After the most arduous service, extending over several weeks, she was struck down with disease and died. Just before her death, Mrs. Small said the following about her service to the wounded: "...I think I have been the means of saving some lives,... and these I consider of far more value than mine, for now they can go and help our country in its hour of need." "This patriot looked upon the war as certainly ours as well as that of the men. We cannot fight, so must take care of those who do." -Kate Cumming “It is a woman's mission...to soothe, to bind up, and to heal...the soldiers of our Southern Army." Mrs. C.E. Trueheart who wrote these words was prepared to devote her "...time, energy, strength and if necessary my life to the alleviation of the suffering of those who have left homes, and their all for their country." Stepping into Vacated Shoes "We are very weak in resourc
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Corinth Shiloh National Military Park Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center Fighting with Picks and Shovels Battery Robinett, 1862 Silent Sentinels Many surviving Civil War battlefields are living testimonials to the extensive use of field fortifications during that conflict. Fortifications made from mounded soil, baskets, timber, and even bales of cotton, were proven to be very effective during the war. The area surrounding Corinth, Mississippi was fortified heavily by the Union and Confederate forces who struggled for control of the strategically important town. Today, those earthworks stand as silent sentinels, bearing witness to the bloody affairs of war. They are some of the best preserved earthworks in the country, and are designated National Historic Landmarks. Viewing these fragile remnants is a highlight of touring Civil War Corinth. The Use of Field Fortifications Field fortifications had several purposes. The first, and most obvious, was to provide protection against incoming fire. Projectiles would bury themselves in earthworks, inflicting little damage to the soldiers inside. Second, fortifications were meant to place obstacles in front of an attacking force in order to impede and slow the assault. Abatis, trees felled in the direction of the enemy with sharpened ends, offered such obstacles. The last purpose was to provide an open field of fire in which the defenders could shoot down attacking soldiers. This fire was most effective when it could be poured into the enemy from more than one direction. The shape of fortifications was intended to provide for such enfilading (cross) fire. For example, after serving as commander of Confederate forces in and around Corinth during the spring of 1862, General P.G. T. Beauregard had this to say of his army and fortifications, ”They had come to fight, and not to handle the pick and shovel….Before I had left that gallant army, however, I had learned how readily the humbler could aid the nobler duty.” Army officers of both Northern and Southern forces understood early in the war the importance of using field fortifications for both defensive and offensive operations. Advances in weapons technology necessitated a shift in warfare. The officers educated at West Point had completed courses on the science of field fortifications under the direction of Dennis Hart Mahan. Mahan’s classes had their desired effect, and his influence was seen in strategy developed by his pupils throughout the war. Soldiers constructing earthworks during the war The men on the front lines found they could improve their chances for success, and more importantly, for survival, by digging in. Simple rifle pits could be dug by infantry soldiers in earnest, even under fire. These crude pits could be improved to form trenches with headlogs and ditches in front. Fortified Corinth Following the retreat from Shiloh, the Confederate Army spent the majority of April, 1862 constructing and occupying a defensive line of earthworks on the northern and eastern sides of Corinth. As Federal forces under the command of Henry Halleck advanced on Corinth, they put on The fight for Battery F one of the more elaborate displays of offensive entrenchments in the entire war. As the army advanced, it sent out skirmishers to clear the way, then constructed a new line of earthworks to occupy. This cautious strategy transformed the landscape between Shiloh and Corinth, and turned a 22 mile journey into a 30 day exercise in field fortification science. The strength of these fortifications, as well as the size of force, convinced Beauregard his Southern army could not defend Corinth. The use of offensive fortifications aided National forces in capturing Corinth on May 29, 1862 without the calamity of a large battle. Fortifications for the artillery were much more difficult to build. The size of artillery pieces as well as the number of men needed to operate them required larger, more complex structures. Six such structures were constructed through the summer of 1862 around the southern and western approaches to the town and named Batteries A through F. Following their completion, Union General William S. Rosecrans ordered a new series of seven fortifications built. These positions were meant to be an inner line of defense for the rail junction and depot in Corinth that could be garrisoned by a smaller force. These earthworks were located in a semicircle within roughly a half mile radius around the rail crossover, guarding the northern, southern, and western approaches into town. Battery Robinett Battery Robinett, one of the structures ordered built by Rosecrans, was built on the site just east of the courtyard behind the Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center. This wedge shaped work, called a lunette, was roughly thirty- five yards wide by forty yards deep, and was open to the rear. It had seven foot tall parapets, a ten foot wide ditch in fro
The Courtyard Environment The culminating event for visitors to the Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center is a walk through the commemorative courtyard at the rear of the facility. Here the visitor experience is shaped on several levels by the power of monumentation. The courtyard’s first impression conveys a feeling of tranquility and beauty, as the visitor encounters an art feature of fountain, pool, and flowing water. Closer inspection reveals this water feature, through a distinctively minimalist approach, provides a detailed representation of first the birth and growth of the United States, and the accompanying rise of sectionalism; then the momentous events, and finally the continuing legacy of the American Civil War. Beyond its inviting, initial emotional appeal, and with a complexity at first glance easily overlooked, this watercourse records the flow of events central to understanding the American nation’s turbulent first century. Liberty Pool From an elevated, curved pool rises a small fountainhead, representing the wellspring of American democracy – “a new nation conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.” In the center of the pool stands an imposing black stone. Inscribed on its face are familiar, yet stirring, phrases from the Declaration of Independence - words the founding fathers used to present a compelling vision of freedom to the world, words which today still serve as the moral conscience of the nation. The phrases recall principles, enumerated in the complete document, upon which a new nation was founded, and to which North and South would each turn 84 years later to give legitimacy to their now separate causes of Freedom. Left unsaid is the contradictory reality existing when Jefferson penned this inspiring theory of government. Because of restrictions in the freedoms of individuals, the principles set forth in the Declaration were only partially realized in the 1780s. For many, its democratic ideals were only a goal – a promise not yet fulfilled. Below the Constitution quote, the straight rear wall of the Liberty Pool symbolizes the year 1790, when the last of the 13 original colonies (Rhode Island) ratified the Constitution. Here, water from the pool empties through 13 evenly spaced weirs to form a stream whose flow represents the ongoing history of the new nation. The states are depicted geographically from south to north (from left to right) as one faces the Ratification Wall. On the reverse face of the Declaration Stone are the opening words of the Preamble of The Constitution of the United States of America, representing the legal mechanism or social contract defining the functioning of our government and its relationship to the governed. The Constitution serves as both the foundation for all subsequent government in the United States, and a model for representative government worldwide. Courtyard Water Feature Compromise Markers in the Flow of History Over a very slight gradient, the stream moves away from the 1790 wall. Each three and a half inches the current travels away from the Ratification Wall represents the passage of a year. As other states join the Union, the stream widens with new fountainheads appearing on either side: southern (slaveholding) states on the left as one faces the wall, northern states (free states) on the right. At the year 1820, the stream flows over the lip of a thin granite marker, symbolizing the Missouri Compromise, an event which would only delay future sectional confrontation. Along the way, ripples of increasing sectionalism (Federalism, tariffs, slavery) occasionally mark the gentle waters. The Battle Blocks: A Tragic War Divides a Nation Here the water feature’s scale changes, as the depiction of the passage of time slows dramatically, the drop of the spillway’s swirling torrent representing a deeply divided nation pulled into a war it can no longer avoid. At the base of the fall, the single stream becomes two, now flowing separately while four years of war decide the issue of union. The watercourse now is fast moving, energetic, and irregular shaped. Between the two streams, from an unseen subsurface pile of rubble symbolizing the Civil War’s 10,000 individual armed conflicts large and small, rise roughly 50 battle blocks representing its major battles and campaigns. The sizes of the stones are proportional to the casualties incurred at each battle; however, the chaotic nature of war has given the blocks an irregular, almost random placement. Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center Shiloh National Military Park After this drop, the slight gradient of the stream again National Parkcarries Serviceforward the course of history. To markofthe of 1850, the U.S. Department theCompromise Interior stream makes another slight drop, then resumes its steady flow. Such events are symbolized by small granite conflict pyramids at the state location where the action centered. For example, at the year 185
Slavery and the Civil War National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior www.nps.gov The role of slavery in bringing on the Civil War has been hotly debated for decades. One important way of approaching the issue is to look at what contemporary observers had to say. In March 1861, Alexander Stephens, vice president of the Confederate States of America, gave his view: The new [Confederate] constitution has put at rest, forever, all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institution — African slavery as it exists amongst us — the proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution . . . The prevailing ideas entertained by . . . most of the leading statesmen at the time of the formation of the old constitution, were that the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature; that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally, and politically . . . Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error . . . Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its corner–stone rests upon the great truth, that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery — subordination to the superior race — is his natural and normal condition. Alexander H. Stephens, vice president of the Confederate States of America. — Alexander H. Stephens, March 21, 1861, reported in the Savannah Republican, emphasis in the original. Today, most professional historians agree with Stephens that slavery and the status of African Americans were at the heart of the crisis that plunged the U.S. into a civil war from 1861 to 1865. That is not to say that the average Confederate soldier fought to preserve slavery or that the North went to war to end slavery. Soldiers fight for many reasons — notably to stay alive and support their comrades in arms — and the North’s goal in the beginning was preservation of the Union, not emancipation. For the 200,000 African Americans who ultimately served the U.S. in the war, emancipation was the primary aim. The roots of the crisis over slavery that gripped the nation in 1860–1861 go back to the nation’s founding. European settlers brought a system of slavery with them to the An African–American sergeant, western hemisphere in the Furney Bryant, of the United States 1500s. Unable to find cheap Colored Troops. labor from other sources, white settlers increasingly turned to slaves imported from Africa. By the early 1700s in British North America, slavery meant African slavery. Southern plantations using slave labor produced the great export crops — tobacco, rice, forest products, and indigo — that made the American colonies profitable. Many Northern merchants made their fortunes either in the slave trade or by exporting the products of slave labor. African slavery was central to the development of British North America. could not be ignored. Although slaves could not vote, white Southerners argued that slave labor contributed greatly to the nation’s wealth. The Constitution therefore gave representation in the Congress and the electoral college for 3/5ths of every slave (the 3/5ths clause). The clause gave the South a role in the national government far greater than representation based on its free population alone would have given it. The Constitution also provided for a fugitive slave law and made 1807 the earliest year that Congress could act to end the importation of slaves from Africa. The Constitution left many questions about slavery unanswered, in particular, the question of slavery’s status in any new territory acquired by the U.S. The failure to deal forthrightly and comprehensively with slavery in the Constitution guaranteed future conflict over the issue. All realistic hope that slavery might eventually die out in the South ended when world demand for cotton exploded in the early 1800s. By 1840, cotton produced in the American South earned Although slavery existed in all 13 colonies at the start of the American Revolution in 1775, a number of Americans (especially those of African descent) sensed the contradiction between the Declaration of Independence’s ringing claim of human equality and the existence of slavery. Reacting to that contradiction, the Northern states decided to phase out slavery following the Revolution. The future of slavery in the South was debated, and some held out the hope that it would eventually disappear there as well. When the U.S. Constitution was written in 1787, however, the interests of slaveholders and those who profited from slavery The South’s cotton economy ran on slave labor. more money than all other U.S. exports combined. White Southerners came to believe that cotton could be grown only with slave labor. Over time, many took for granted that their prosperity, even their way of life, was inseparable from African slavery. In the decades prec
Davis Bridge Shiloh National Military Park Tennessee-Mississippi National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Hatchie River An Army on the Run The Confederate Army of West Tennessee was in full retreat. The heavy fighting at the Battle of Corinth, October 3 & 4, 1862, had crippled the army under Major General Earl Van Dorn and he sought to return to Mississippi to rest and refit his forces. The path to safety led across Davis Bridge on the Hatchie River in Tennessee. In an effort to block the Confederate escape, a Union column under Major General Edward O. C. Ord was dispatched from Bolivar, Tennessee. A Campaign to Retake West Tennessee. In September of 1862, Van Dorn placed into motion a campaign to clear the Federals from West Tennessee and drive the enemy to the Ohio River. He planned to crush the forces under Major General Ulysses S. Grant by marching fast and attacking isolated garrisons, a process known as “defeating an enemy in detail.” The first target of the 22,000 man Confederate army was the Federal garrison at Corinth which, was defended by 23,000 Union soldiers. Van Dorn marched north from Ripley, Ms., and entered Tennessee in an effort to confuse the enemy as to his intentions. On October 2nd the Confederates turned to the east, crossed the Hatchie River and left one thousand men to guard the supply train of five-hundred wagons. On the morning of the 3rd Van Dorn attacked the Corinth defenders under Major General William S. Rosecrans and in two days of brutal fighting was decisively beaten by the Federals. His campaign in a shambles, Van Dorn concluded to retreat back through Tennessee to secure his supply wagons and then push on for the safety of Mississippi. A Race to the River In response to the Confederate offensive, Grant dispatched a column from Bolivar to relieve the Union forces at Corinth, if they were still under attack, or to block the Confederates at the Hatchie River if the enemy was in retreat. General Ord led 6,000 men in a forced march and on the morning of the 5th arrived at Metamora Ridge overlooking the Hatchie River. The lead elements of Van Dorn’s army had arrived on the field, and with the wagon guard crossed Davis Bridge and took up a tenuous defensive position along Burr’s Branch. The Federals deployed along the ridge and opened a devastating artillery barrage with eight cannon which silenced the four guns of the Confederate artillery. At 10:00 a.m. the Union regiments charged down the slope and overwhelmed the Southern defenders, capturing over 400 men and securing the critical river crossing. Unsatisfied with merely taking the bridge, Ord concluded to take his troops across the river and attack the Confederate army. That Miserable Bridge Ord’s plan was simple: his twelve regiments would cross the river, alternating one regiment to the left one to the right, until a long line was formed which would charge up the opposing heights and attack the Confederates. The plan was thrown into disarray due to a sharp bend in the Hatchie which prevented the Union from extending the line to the south. Federal units became hopelessly intermingled as Confederate reinforcements took a strong position on the heights overlooking the east bank and began to fire into the mass of blue uniforms. In an attempt to bring order to his line, Ord rode out on what he called “that miserable bridge” where he was seriously wounded in the leg and taken from the field. Major General Stephen Hurlbut assumed command. Hurlbut sent artillery across the river and extended the line to the north. Many of the Confederates were running low on ammunition and the slower rate of fire allowed the Federals to strengthen their disorganised line. Major General Earl Van Dorn Major General Edward O. C. Ord Escape to Crum’s Mill As the fighting raged along the banks of the Hatchie, Van Dorn sought an alternate route across the river and back into Mississippi. Six miles to the south, at Crum’s Mill, Confederate cavalrymen were ordered to rebuild a damaged mill dam which would allow the army to cross to safety. As the repairs commenced, Van Dorn sent his wagons and troops down the Boneyard Road to the crossing at Crum’s. Meanwhile, at Davis Bridge, Hurlbut had brought order to the Union lines and ordered an attack up the heights. The Confederates, many out of ammunition, fell back fighting and then slipped away down the Boneyard Road. General Hurlbut did not pursue, his forces having suffered 46 killed and 493 wounded, most of them to the devastating fire on the east bank of the river. On the Banks of the Tuscumbia While the head of Van Dorn’s army was engaged at Davis Bridge, the rear guard was busy fending off the pursuing Union forces marching from Corinth. Brigadier General John S. Bowen kept the Union advance at arms length throughout the day, skirmishing when necessary to buy time for the retreating army. Near sunset the lead Federal troops under Brigadier General James B. McPherson attacked, driving Bowen

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