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Reconstruction Era

National Historical Park - South Carolina

The Reconstruction Era National Historical Park is located in Beaufort County, South Carolina. It preserves and commemorates activities during the Reconstruction Era that followed the American Civil War.

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Official Visitor Map of Reconstruction Era National Historical Park (NHP) in South Carolina. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Reconstruction Era - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Reconstruction Era National Historical Park (NHP) in South Carolina. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of the Beaufort National Historic Landmark District (NHLD) at Reconstruction Era National Historical Park (NHP) in South Carolina. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Reconstruction Era - Beaufort NHLD

Official Visitor Map of the Beaufort National Historic Landmark District (NHLD) at Reconstruction Era National Historical Park (NHP) in South Carolina. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of the Penn Center National Historic Landmark District (NHLD) at Reconstruction Era National Historical Park (NHP) in South Carolina. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Reconstruction Era - Penn Center NHLD

Official Visitor Map of the Penn Center National Historic Landmark District (NHLD) at Reconstruction Era National Historical Park (NHP) in South Carolina. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/reer/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconstruction_Era_National_Historical_Park The Reconstruction Era National Historical Park is located in Beaufort County, South Carolina. It preserves and commemorates activities during the Reconstruction Era that followed the American Civil War. The Reconstruction era,1861-1900 the historic period in which the United States grappled with the question of how to integrate millions of newly freed African Americans into social, political,economic, and labor systems, was a time of significant transformation. The people, places, and events in Beaufort County, South Carolina, reflect on the most important issues of this tumultuous time period. The park's headquarters is located at 706 Craven Street in Beaufort, South Carolina, directly across the street from the Beaufort Visitor Center in the Beaufort Arsenal, and next door to the downtown Beaufort Public Library. Darrah Hall Darrah Hall is the oldest building on the campus of the Penn Center, and is the park's base of operations for the Penn Center National Historic Landmark District. Darrah Hall is located in the Southwest Corner of the Penn Center campus. Drive out Highway 21/Sea Island Parkway as if you are going to Hunting Island State Park. Turn right onto Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. The main entrance to Penn Center will be on the right, follow the signs to Darrah Hall. Pinckney-Porter's Chapel Visitor Contact Station Pinckney-Porters Chapel is a Reconstruction era Freedman's Chapel located in the Naval Heritage Park just outside the main gate to Naval Hospital Beaufort. The Town of Port Royal rebuilt the chapel in late 2020, and through an agreement, Reconstruction Era National Historical Park operates the site as a visitor contact station. Inside are temporary exhibits, and most Camp Saxton programs begin at this site. Pinckney-Porter's Chapel is open Fridays and Saturdays from 9am to 5pm. From downtown Beaufort, travel South on Ribaut Road. As you approach Naval Hospital Beaufort, turn left onto Shell Road. Porters Chapel Visitor Center will be ahead on your right, directly across the entrance gate to the hospital and next to a large skate park. Reconstruction Era National Historical Park Visitor Center The visitor center contains exhibits and information about the Reconstruction era in the low country, as well as information about visiting the various units of the park. The visitor center is located across the street from the Beaufort Arsenal on Craven Street Brick Baptist Church A two story brick building flanked by large live oak trees Brick Baptist Church, located on the Penn Center National Historic Landmark District, was home to the Penn School between 1862-1865 The Old Beaufort Fire House A one story brick building with large arched windows The Old Beaufort Firehouse, located in downtown Beaufort, serves as the park headquarters and visitor center A Ranger Guided Tour at Brick Church A park ranger holds a sign while talking to young people. Ranger guided tours and programs are a great way to explore Reconstruction Era National Historical Park Camp Saxton A Park Ranger points at the ruins of a tabby wall with three people looking on Camp Saxton it partly located on SCDNR and US Navy Property. It was here that Black soldiers during the Civil War took their first steps towards citizenship. Darrah Hall A crowd of people stand in front of a large white wooden building Darrah Hall is the oldest building on the campus of the Penn Center, and serves as the base of operations for the park in the Penn Center National Historic Landmark District The Penn Center A large crowd of people gather in a field. In the foreground is an NPS sign The Penn Center is one of the park's partners to help preserve and tell the story of education during the Reconstruction Era Reconstruction During Reconstruction, the Federal government pursued a program of political, social, and economic restructuring across the South-including an attempt to accord legal equality and political power to former slaves. Reconstruction became a struggle over the meaning of freedom, with former slaves, former slaveholders and Northerners adopting divergent definitions. Faced with increasing opposition by white Southerners and some Northerners, however, the government abandoned effor Picture depictsing former slaves and free blacks voting following the passage of the 15th amendment “Sad Evidences of Bravery and Patriotism…” - The 54th Massachusetts in Beaufort, South Carolina The 54th Massachusetts Infantry operated in and around Beaufort, South Carolina for much of the summer of 1863. A tan colored mansion surrounded by Live Oak Trees “An Absolute Massacre” – The New Orleans Slaughter of July 30, 1866 Throughout Reconstruction, some white southerners resisted Black citizenship and political participation through violence. New Orleans was the scene of one such incident, where on July 30, 1866, former Confederates attacked a constitutional convention in the city. Painting of Andrew Johnson watching black citizens murdered. Ulysses S. Grant & the 15th Amendment In the immediate aftermath of the American Civil War, Ulysses S. Grant was skeptical of any plan to make African American men eligible voters. He soon realized, however, that military service and loyalty to the Union made black men worthy citizens and voters. By the time he was elected president, Grant was ready to support ratification of the 15th Amendment. Original text of the 15th Amendment A Great Inheritance: Introduction The abolition movement was one of the leading factors in the formation of the 19th century women’s rights movement. This series explores the connections between the abolition movement and the women’s rights movement to reveal the relationship between the two campaigns. Black and white photo of a tall building. Site of the 1869 AERA meeting. Library of Congress A Great Inheritance: Abolition and the Women's Sphere Prior to the 1830s, American antislavery organizations were formed and controlled by white men. This changed in December of 1833 when African American men were invited to participate at the first convention of the American Anti-Slavery Slavery Society (AASS) held in Philadelphia. Some women were also invited to the convention, but as spectators rather than as members. Excluding women from full participation was customary of the period’s social conventions. Drawing of the exterior of a five story, rectangular building A Great Inheritance: Conclusion and References The abolition movement helped form and influence those who built and led the women’s rights movement. The beliefs and practices of the abolition movement provided a backdrop against which antislavery women could challenge gender roles and leave the woman’s sphere to enter the public sphere. Black and white drawing of the exterior of a building, three stories with a peaked roof A Great Inheritance: Abolitionist Practices in the Women's Rights Movement Some abolitionist women found the confidence needed to reject social conventions and participate in public activities by denying the authority of clerical rules. Abolitionist feminists also found resolve to contradict gender roles in the abolitionist belief of the common humanity of all people. The belief in common humanity was used by abolitionists to argue for the definition of African American slaves as people, not property. Color drawing of Pennsylvania Hall, a three story building with peaked roof A Great Inheritance: The Abolition Movement and the First Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls The Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention is regarded as the beginning of the US women’s rights movement. The organizers of the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls were neighbors, friends, and relatives who decided to arrange the convention over their shared convictions. Each had backgrounds in the abolitionist movement and were dedicated to the anti-slavery cause which prepared them to organize the first women’s rights convention in 1848. Portrait of Lucretia Mott wearing a bonnet A Great Inheritance: Prejudice, Racism, and Black Women in Anti-Slavery Societies The establishment of Female Anti-Slavery Societies in the 1830s facilitated the formal beginnings of women’s political participation in the abolitionist movement. One women’s antislavery society that formed in the wake of the first American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) convention was the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society (PFASS). The AASS organized itself as an interracial organization, and PFASS was founded in the same manner. A Black woman kneels, her hands are chained and raised asking for help "Am I Not A Woman" A Great Inheritance: Reflected Shortcomings in Abolition and the Women's Rights Movement It is a disservice to consider the abolitionist movement for all of its triumphs and none of its problems. It is likewise naïve to consider the positive influences of abolition on the women’s rights movement without acknowledging the negative. The following is an examination of the problems within the abolition movement and how these issues are reflected in the early women’s rights movement. Series: A Great Inheritance: Examining the Relationship between Abolition and the Women’s Rights Movement This series was written by Victoria Elliott, an intern at Women's Rights National Historical Park. The abolition and women’s rights movements are deeply connected. This series looks at the connections, as well as how the movements differed for Black and white women. Drawing of a Black woman kneeling, her hands chained. Text: "Am I Not A Woman And A Sister?" Penn School's Founders at Rest The founders of the Penn School, Laura Towne and Ellen Murray, are both memorialized in stone at Brick Baptist Church on St. Helena Island in South Carolina. Ellen Murray's funeral took place in nearby Darrah Hall, and she is buried on the church grounds. Two stone markers resembling large graves sit beneath moss draped oak trees A Short Overview of the Reconstruction Era and Ulysses S. Grant's Presidency Read this essay for a short introduction into the basics of the Reconstruction era and President Ulysses S. Grant's role in promoting civil and political rights for African Americans. painting of African American family during the Reconstruction Era. Andrew Johnson's Inauguration Andrew Johnson Inauguration Group of men in a room inaugurating Andrew Johnson Event Recap - Stories of Service: Empowering Youth and Young Adults to Be the Future Face of Volunteering in National Parks The National Park Service Youth Programs Division co-hosted a virtual event, “Stories of Service: Empowering Youth and Young Adults to Be the Future Face of Volunteering in National Parks” on November 10, 2021 with the National Park Service Volunteers-In-Parks Program (VIP) in partnership with the National Park Foundation (NPF). A diverse panel shared their stories of volunteering in parks and the impacts these experiences have had on them. Screenshot of speakers and panelists from Nov. 10 Volunteers Event Civil Rights and the Civil War in the National Capital Area The Civil War showed the cracks in the loosely held peace between the North and South. As the end of slavery through the Emancipation Proclamation established a reason for African Americans to join the fight, the stage was set for African American men to fight for their own freedom and rights as citizens of America. An unidentified African American soldier sits with a leg crossed over the other for his portrait. Reconstruction in the National Capital Area The legacy of Reconstruction is filled with triumph and trials, gains and losses. Though the era resulted in the dawn of the Jim Crow era, it did see a rise in Black political and social representation and power. Read more about the Reconstruction era in this timeline following the history of civil rights in America. Group portrait of African American legislators during Reconstruction. 54th Massachusetts Regiment The 54th Massachusetts Regiment, the first regiment of African Americans from the North to serve during the Civil War, bravely assaulted Battery Wagner in Charleston Harbor. Their bravery increased Northern efforts to enlist African Americans. By war's end, over 180,000 African Americans fought in the US Army, roughly 10% of the fighting men. Crop of mural depicting the 54th Regiment's assault of Battery Wagner, focus on death of Col Shaw Intern Spotlight: Nina Pulley Meet Nina Pulley, a Greening Youth Foundation intern currently working on park planning with the Pacific West Regional Office. Nina at Mount Rainier National Park Reconstruction Era African American Schools in the South Learn about the development of Black post-emancipation schools in the South as part of the legacy of Black communities’ dedication and commitment to ensuring civil rights. Ten case studies highlight Reconstruction Era education stories and sites in and around national parks. Sepia-toned image of students standing outside of a small, white wooden school building. Plan Like A Park Ranger: Visiting Reconstruction Era National Historical Park Top ten tips for planning a trip to Reconstruction Era National Historical Park in Beaufort, South Carolina. A ranger hands three brochures out over a counter. Series: A Timeline of Resistance: The Perseverance of African Americans from the Revolutionary War to the Civil Rights Era The story of African American’s fight for equality did not begin or end with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. In the National Capital Area, dedicated activism and self-determination has been documented since the Revolutionary War through the present day. This series consists of six articles that outline distinct timelines of resistance and activism in the fight for freedom. A young African American girl gazes at the camera holding a banner for the March on Washington Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory 'Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory' is a painting by Gullah artist Sonja Griffin Evans. Sonja created the painting for the One Year Anniversary of Reconstruction Era National Historical Park. Watch the video and read the article to learn more about the inspiration for the painting from Sonja. Two soldiers and a group of people listing to a military general reading. Series: Poems by Ellen Murray Very few of Ellen Murray’s writings have been identified or published. However, not all of Ellen Murray’s writings remained private. Between 1861 and 1865, she wrote at least fourteen poems that she had published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard, a prominent abolitionist newspaper. Her poems offer a glimpse in the world and perspective of one of Penn School’s founders. Ellen Murray sits in a chair with a book next to two students. Dues Eversor! This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Dues Eversor!" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on November 16, 1861. The front page of the National Anti-Slavery Standard from November 16, 1861. Our Watchword This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Our Watchword" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on May 10, 1862. The front page of the National Anti-Slavery Standard from May 10, 1862. Tamar's Prayer This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Tamar's Prayer" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on August 2, 1862. The front page of the National Anti-Slavery Standard from August 2, 1862. The Martyr of December 2, 1859 This poem is part of a series written by Ellen Murray, co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "The Matyr of December 2, 1859" was originally published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on October 26, 1861. Image of the front page of the National Anti-Slavery Standard newspaper from October 1861. Sunset on Edisto Beach, SC This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Sunset on Edisto Beach, SC" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on July 11, 1863. The front cover of the National Anti-Slavery Standard from July 11, 1863. God With Us This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "God With Us" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on April 18, 1863. The front page of the April 18, 1863 edition of the National Anti-Slavery Standard. The First Day of January, 1863 This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "The First Day of January, 1863" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on December 27, 1862. Front page of the December 27, 1862 edition of the National Anti-Slavery Standard. Half-Way This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Half-Way" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on October 4, 1862. The front page of the October 4, 1862 edition of the National Anti-Slavery Standard. Going Home to Edisto This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Going Home to Edisto" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on March 18, 1865. The front page of the March 18, 1865 edition of the National Anti-Slavery Standard. Olustee This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Olustee" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on December 17, 1864. The front page of the National Anti-Slavery Standard from December 17, 1864. The Freed Land This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "The Freed Land" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on August 13, 1864. The front page of the Anti-Slavery Standard from August 13, 1864. Col. Robert G. Shaw This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Col. Robert G. Shaw" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on August 22, 1863. First page of the National Anti-Slavery Standard from August 22, 1863. Moonlight on Edisto Beach This poem is part of a series by Ellen Murray, a co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. "Moonlight on Edisto Beach" was first published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard on July 18, 1863. The front page of the July 18, 1863 edition of the National Anti-Slavery Standard. Introduction to Poems by Ellen Murray An introduction to a series of poems from 1861 to 1865 written for the National Anti-Slavery Standard by Ellen Murray, co-founder of the Penn School on St. Helena Island, SC. Ellen Murray sits in a chair with a book next to two students. The 1st South Carolina Volunteers By the end of the American Civil War, approximately 180,000 Black men had enlisted in the United States Army to defeat the rebellion and end slavery. Their story began here, as the origins of more than 160 years of continuous Black military service took root on the humid and moss-draped shores of South Carolina. A regiment is lined up marching. The Legacy of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers The 1st South Carolina paved the way for others, like the 1st Louisiana Guards and 1st Kansas Colored Infantry, the 54th Massachusetts Infantry, and eventually 180,000 Black men in the US Army during Civil War. Black people have continuously served in the United States Army for over 160 years in the footsteps of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers.

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