"Old Coast Guard Station and Golden Gate Bridge" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Presidio of San Francisco

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The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area protecting 82,027 acres of ecologically and historically significant landscapes surrounding the San Francisco Bay Area.

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maps

Trails Map of Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Visitor Map

Trails Map of Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Trails Map of Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Trails Map

Trails Map of Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Visitor Map of Marin Headlands at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Marin Headlands

Visitor Map of Marin Headlands at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of the Southern area of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - South

Official Visitor Map of the Southern area of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of the Northern area of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - North

Official Visitor Map of the Northern area of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Overview

Official Visitor Map of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Vintage 1957 USGS 1:250000 Map of San Francisco in California. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Vintage USGS - San Francisco - 1957

Vintage 1957 USGS 1:250000 Map of San Francisco in California. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Vintage 1958 USGS 1:250000 Map of Santa Rosa in California. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Vintage USGS - Santa Rosa - 1958

Vintage 1958 USGS 1:250000 Map of Santa Rosa in California. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

brochures

Brochure 'The Natural Presidio' of Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - The Natural Presidio

Brochure 'The Natural Presidio' of Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Downtown and Around the Park Shuttles for Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Downtown and Around the Park Shuttles

Brochure of Downtown and Around the Park Shuttles for Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Battery Chamberlin at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Battery Chamberlin

Brochure of Battery Chamberlin at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Buffalo Soldiers at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Buffalo Soldiers

Brochure of Buffalo Soldiers at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Buffalo Soldiers - Guardians of California National Parks - at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Buffalo Soldiers - Guardians of California National Parks

Brochure of Buffalo Soldiers - Guardians of California National Parks - at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Patriotism and Prejudice - Japanese Americans and World War II - at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Patriotism and Prejudice

Brochure Patriotism and Prejudice - Japanese Americans and World War II - at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Pioneers of Flight at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Pioneers of Flight

Brochure Pioneers of Flight at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Los Pioneros de la Aviación at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Los Pioneros de la Aviación

Brochure Los Pioneros de la Aviación at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Under Three Flags at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Under Three Flags

Brochure Under Three Flags at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Bajo Tres Banderas at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Bajo Tres Banderas

Brochure Bajo Tres Banderas at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure The 1915 World’s Fair at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - The 1915 World’s Fair

Brochure The 1915 World’s Fair at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure 1906 Earthquake - The U.S. Army’s Role - at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - 1906 Earthquake

Brochure 1906 Earthquake - The U.S. Army’s Role - at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Frequent Flyers of the Presidio at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Frequent Flyers of the Presidio

Brochure Frequent Flyers of the Presidio at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Presidio Insects and their plant hosts at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Presidio of San Francisco - Presidio Insects and their plant hosts

Brochure Presidio Insects and their plant hosts at Presidio of San Francisco at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/prsf/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presidio_of_San_Francisco The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area protecting 82,027 acres of ecologically and historically significant landscapes surrounding the San Francisco Bay Area. For 218 years, the Presidio served as an army post for three nations. World and local events, from military campaigns to World Fairs and earthquakes, left their mark. Come enjoy the history and the natural beauty of the Presidio. Explore centuries of architecture. Reflect in a national cemetery. Walk along an historic airfield, through forests or to beaches, and admire spectacular vistas. The Presidio lies at the north end of San Francisco at the south end of the Golden Gate Bridge. It can be reached from the north by crossing the Golden Gate Bridge and taking the first exit from Highways 1 and 101; from the east by way of Lombard Street (Highway 101); and from the south via Highway 1 and exiting just before the bridge. William Penn Mott Jr. Presidio Visitor Center The visitor center is the go to place to find out what is happening and what there is to do in the Presidio. Discover the Presidio through a large relief map, inspiring video, engaging exhibitions on history and nature, interactive tools, and knowledgeable staff that can help you uncover the incredible array of experiences possible here. San Francisco National Cemetery Rows of grave markers in the green grass of the cemetery as light shafts through misty trees. San Francisco National Cemetery in the Presidio offers a place to contemplate service to your country. Coastal Bluffs Rocky bluffs above the blue ocean covered with yellow flowers in the foreground and and trees. The coastal bluffs of the Presidio still retain a wild feeling within the city. Montgomery Street Barracks A long row of red brick barracks with green lawns in front extends into the distance. The brick barracks on Montgomery Street showcase military architecture from the late 1800s. Historic Forest Scattered Monterey Cypress trunks with green grass and fern cover at their bases. The planted historic forests offer tranquil places to walk. Wind Surfers at Crissy Field A kite boarder with yellow kite on beach with wind surfers behind on the blue bay. On windy days, Crissy Field is a popular wind surfing and Kite boarding location. Crissy Field White building with red roofs on Crissy Field with blue bay and orange bridge with fog behind. Crissy Field is a popular spot to wak and run while viewing the bay and changing fog conditions.l Military Nurses in the Philippines During World War II, women signed up with the Army and Navy Nurse Corps for service in the Philippine Islands. Of the 99 nurses known to have served in or at Bataan, 22 escaped before the final fall of the Philippine Islands in 1942. The remaining 77, the largest group of women Prisoners of War in American history, were repatriated in 1945. 1945. U.S. Army Nurses climb into trucks as they leave Manila Irvin McDowell Born in Columbus, Ohio, Irvin McDowell (1818–1885) initially attended the College de Troyes in France before graduating from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1838. After completing his education, McDowell served as a tactics instructor at the Academy before joining John E. Wool's staff in the Mexican War. Irvin Mcdowell Major Dana Crissy Crissy Field, located in the Presidio of San Francisco, is named after Major Dana H. Crissy. In the early 1900s, Presidio coast artilleryman Dana H. Crissy was full of ambition and fascinated by the new invention of human flight. Imagine the sensation of being lifted into the air, just above the ground, and magically transported somewhere else. Major Dana Crissy Key Messages from 2019 Plant Pathogen Symposium This June, scientists and land managers from as far as Australia and New Zealand gathered at the Presidio’s Golden Gate Club for “Healthy Plants in a World with Phytophthora: the seventh Sudden Oak Death Science and Management Symposium." Explore key messages from the event to learn about what San Francisco Bay Area Parks and nonprofit partners are doing to manage these potentially destructive fungal pathogens. Participants gather around a table covered in plants. Adolphus Washington Greely A man of eclectic talents and persuasions, Alolphus Washington Greely (1844-1935) was one of the most ambitious figures of his day. Though primarily remembered for his famous North Pole expedition, Greely’s colorful career also included service in the Union army during the Civil War and, later, as commander of the U.S. Army’s Pacific Division. Alolphus Washington Greely Western Pond Turtle Monitoring at Muir Beach Reveals Interesting Growth Trends The month of August was turtle trapping season at Muir Beach. Six captive-raised western pond turtles released in 2017 were recaptured using modified catfish traps. Natural Resources Division staff and interns went out each weekday to check the traps and place new mackerel bait in their pouches. This year’s trapping success increased from 2017, when one turtle evaded trapping for three weeks! Western pond turtle on a log sticking almost vertically out of the water Connecting the Dots: The Anza Trail in Sonora The Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail enters the US at Nogales, Arizona, beginning a 1200-mile stretch of historic trail through the deserts and mountains of Arizona and California. However, the origins of Anza expedition of 1775-76 are in Sonora, Mexico. The people on this historic journey were recruited from the mining towns and farmlands of Sonora and Sinaloa. Anza Trail staff had the opportunity to trace the trail in Mexico with host country partners. Four riders on horseback in front of a white church The Civil War at Golden Gate The National Park Service is commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Civil War (1861 – 1865.) We acknowledge this defining event in our nation’s history and its legacy in continuing to fight for civil rights. Fort Point Military Intelligence School at the Presidio By the late 1930s, as diplomatic relations between the United States and Japan deteriorated, the U.S. Army established the 4th Army Intelligence School at the Presidio. The army converted hanger Building 640, on Crissy Field, into classrooms and a barracks for a language school which trained Nisei – Japanese Americans born to parents who had come to the U.S from Japan – to act as translators in the war against Japan. historic photo of Japanese-American solders studying at tables Post to Park Transition When the Golden Gate National Recreation Area was formed in 1972, the Presidio was designated to be part of the system if the military ever closed the base. This foresight became a reality in 1989, when Congress decided to close the post as part of a military base reduction program. On October 1, 1994, the Presidio officially ended over two hundred-years of military service to three nations and was transferred to the United States National Park Service. Post to Park Poster Spanish American War - "A Splendid Little War" On April 21, 1898, the United States declared war against Spain. It would be the first overseas conflict fought by the U.S. It involved major campaigns in both Cuba and the Philippine Islands. Remember The Maine pin Presidio of San Francisco Architecture The Presidio of San Francisco represents one of the finest collections of military architecture in the country and reflects over 200 years of development under three different nations. Enlisted family housing National Parks Pitch In to Help Save Monarch Butterflies As scientists and citizen scientists have noted, insect populations are plummeting across the globe. Monarch butterfly populations are no exception. Recent counts show that the western population has experienced a precipitous drop. As of 2018, the population of monarchs overwintering along the California coast stands at just 0.6% of what it was in the 1980s. Monarch butterflies among eucalyptus leaves, viewed through a scope Plot Twist in the Presidio Last year, Presidio ecologists installed a webcam above a red-tailed hawk nest to capture the action during the upcoming breeding season. Thousands of viewers tuned in to watch as the resident pair of hawks fixed up their nest, laid eggs, and raised two healthy chicks. This year’s breeding season started off much the same as the last. But then a pair of great horned owls also began visiting the nest. Cue the drama. Red-tailed hawk facing off with a great horned owl, both with their wings outstretched How will Climate Change Affect Bay Area National Park Birds? The National Audubon Society has created research summaries for 274 national park units that describe how projected changes in climate under different emissions scenarios are likely to affect local bird populations. Hummingbird and house finch on the same branch Patriotism and Prejudice: Japanese Americans and World War II One of the most poignant and sadly ironic home front stories of World War II has deep connections to the Presidio. Even as Presidio officers issued orders to relocate Americans of Japanese ancestry to internment camps after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December, 1941, a secret military language school trained Japanese American soldiers only a half mile away. Japanese Americans being processed for relocation. Estimating Population Size of a Rare Damselfly to Support Reintroduction Efforts Estimating the population size of a rare species is incredibly useful for their management and conservation. One of the rarest Odonates (damselflies/dragonflies) in the U.S., the San Francisco forktail damselfly occurs in only a few sites around the Bay Area, including the Presidio’s Fort Point. Damselfly with an identifying number on its wing Water Quality Monitoring in the Presidio of San Francisco Water quality is an indicator of the condition of aquatic habitat and is also an important indicator of the overall health of watersheds. In partnership with the Presidio Trust, National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program staff conduct monthly water quality monitoring at 16 sites in the Presidio to determine long-term trends in water quality parameters. These include water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate (as nitrogen), phosphate, and coliform bacteria. Water quality technician wades through deep stream while collecting samples at Mountain Lake Seventh Sudden Oak Death Science & Management Symposium: Key Messages This June, scientists and land managers from as far as Australia and New Zealand gathered at the Presidio’s Golden Gate Club for “Healthy Plants in a World with Phytophthora: the Seventh Sudden Oak Death Science and Management Symposium." Trays of young plants in a greenhouse Marin County Vegetation Map & Landscape Database Project Underway, With Plans to Expand A broad coalition of Marin County land management agencies and other partners have joined forces to meet their common need for a fine-scale vegetation map and landscape database. The first phase of this project will create digital aerial photos at a resolution of six inches, and three-dimensional landscape imagery through LiDAR surveys. LiDAR imagery of a segment of a Sonoma County river, highlighting flood risk areas Lizards Get a Helping Hand in the Presidio Western fence lizards are important consumers of invertebrates. They are also a food source for larger predators themselves. However, over a decade of surveys and citizen science observations, they have only been found in the western part of the Presidio. Close-up of a western fence lizard Wintering Monarch Butterflies at the Presidio Monarch butterflies have begun their migration to wintering sites in California, including Rob Hill Campground in the Presidio. Monarch numbers have been low at this site over the last 20 years, but the last two years have shown record numbers. Monarch butterfly perched on a cluster of red berries Transformative Quartermaster Reach Restoration Project to Begin in the Presidio The Presidio Trust, Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, and Golden Gate National Recreation Area have worked to restore the Tennessee Hollow Watershed for over two decades. However, one key part of the watershed, where the creek connects to Crissy Marsh, remains buried under a sea of pavement and confined to a 72-inch storm drain. Next month, that will start to change. Artists rendering of a restored Quartermaster Reach Marsh John Harris Fights Back Against Discrimination In the late 19th century, a new California civil rights law was put to the test after San Franciscan John Harris was turned away from Sutro Baths because he was black. His experience provided a unique opportunity to see if the recently ratified legislation, meant to ensure equal access in public places, could actually compel change. News Headline The Panama-Pacific International Exhibition The vast fair, which covered over 600 acres and stretched along two and a half miles of water front property, highlighted San Francisco’s grandeur and celebrated a great American achievement: the successful completion of the Panama Canal. Nine years earlier, San Francisco experienced a terrible earthquake, declared one of America’s worst national disasters. The city overcame great challenges to rebuild and by the time the Exposition opened in 1915. View of the South Gardens and the Tower of Jewels, 1915 1906 Earthquake and the Army In the early dawn light of April 18, 1906—at 5:12 a.m.—the ground under San Francisco shook violently for a less than a minute. Though damage from the earthquake was severe, the ensuing fires were truly catastrophic. Thirty broke out almost immediately, burned for three days, and destroyed over five hundred blocks in the heart of the city. Soldiers from the presidio walking in the rubble from the earthquake Rare Bees Return to Restored Presidio Sand Dunes Presidio Trust stewardship staff have discovered a sizeable colony of rare silver digger bees in newly restored Presidio sand dunes. Significant numbers of this species haven’t been spotted in San Francisco since 1928. The sand-loving bees returned to the area after stewardship staff removed invasive ice plant, allowing the original sand dune ecosystem to flourish. Siver digger bee in flight Ancient Redwoods Planted in the Presidio The Presidio Trust and guests from the Archangel Ancient Tree Archive planted 75 redwood saplings in the Presidio of San Francisco on December 14th. The special saplings are coast redwoods, the world's tallest trees. They are also clones from ancient specimens, donated for this effort. Two volunteers digging a hole for the redwood sapling that is sitting in a container beside them Check Out the Presidio’s New Hawk Cam! You can now peek in on a mating pair of red-tailed hawks nesting high up in one of the Presidio’s blue gum eucalyptus trees. The pair are regular residents at the site, and have returned to this same nest over the past few years. Red-tailed hawk in its nest, looking up towards the camera Mates for a Rare Manzanita Offer Hope for Its Future The Franciscan manzanita was considered extinct in the wild for seven decades until a single plant was discovered in the Presidio in 2009. The plant was saved and is now protected but it cannot reproduce without "mates". Last year, the Presidio Nursery worked with the UC Berkeley, East Bay Regional Parks, and San Francisco botanical gardens to grow plants from their collection of original Franciscan manzanitas, saved from other areas of San Francisco. A blooming Raven's manzanita planting Streamflow Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Area The amount of water flowing in a stream, or streamflow, is among the most useful factors available for understanding watershed and stream health. The San Francisco Bay Area Network Inventory and Monitoring Program and its partners monitor streamflow in selected streams at Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Pinnacles National Park, Point Reyes National Seashore, and the Presidio of San Francisco. Brisk winter flows in Redwood Creek Stickleback Help with Mountain Lake Mussel Reintroduction California floater mussels are native freshwater filter feeders that consume algae and improve water quality in the shallow lakes and slow moving streams they inhabit. For the past few years, the Presidio Trust has been partnering with Missouri State University to raise this rare species in captivity for reintroduction into Mountain Lake. This year, biologists started a new approach to complement captive rearing that involves the mussel's larval host fish. Close-up of stickleback fin with small white dots visible Adelbert von Chamisso French-born explorer and naturalist Adelbert von Chamisso (full name: Louis Charles Adélaïde de Chamisso de Boncourt) (1781-1838) visited the San Francisco Bay area in the early nineteenth century. During his time in California, Chamisso studied a number of indigenous plant and animal species and his inventory is considered a valuable ecological record to this day. Adelbert Chamisso Charles Young - Buffalo Soldier Leader among the legendary "Buffalo Soldiers", Charles Young (1864-1922) served in the segregated U-S Army of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Charles Young, Buffalo Soldier Corridos: Stories Told Through Song The corrido is a traditional Mexican song style that has evolved over the past 200 years in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. Corridos are all about storytelling. They tell of battle victories (and loses), individuals taking on the establishment, the lives of great or notorious people, and – perhaps the most ancient type of story in human history – the epic journey. Learn about this enduring tradition and listen to a corrido about the Anza Expedition of 1776 A woodcut illustration of four people singing and a man playing guitar Presidio Bee Discoveries Inspire Joy and Concern Earlier this spring, ecologists made a happy observation in the restored 2-acre patch of dunes at Rob Hill in the Presidio of San Francisco. For the second year in a row, large numbers of locally rare silver digger bees were busily digging nests and visiting flowers among the dunes. But a recently completed inventory revealed that some other bees in the park may not be doing as well. Close-up of a black-tailed bumble bee visiting a flower. First Pupping Season Underway for New Presidio Coyote Pair Last winter, an unknown female coyote passed through the Presidio of San Francisco. Presidio Ecologist Jonathan Young was able to put a temporary GPS collar on her before she left. Last summer, she returned with a mate and drove out the resident alpha coyote pair. Their battle was captured on a restaurant security camera. Now coyote 15F, the new alpha female, and her mate are probably caring for their first litter of pups in their new Presidio territory. Alpha female coyote 15F, sporting a GPS collar and red ID tags in each of her ears. Pollinators - Hummingbirds Hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) are amazingly adapted pollinators, and they play an important role in pollination. A flying hummingbird hovers next to a red flower Concepcion Arguello & Nikolai Rezanov: A Presidio Love Story In the late eighteenth century, a young Spanish girl and a Russian explorer fell in love at the Presidio. Though challenged by different languages and cultures, the romance of Maria de la Concepcion Marcela Arguello and Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov spawned a legend that continues to capture the hearts of people today. Painting of Maria de la Concepcion Marcela Arguello & Nikolai Petrovich Rezanov Army Nurse Corps Congress established the Army Nurse Corps in 1901. Nurses were the first women in the Army and U.S. Army General Hospital at the Presidio was the first Army hospital to employ them. By 1902, 41 nurses were part of the hospital staff. African American nurses at Camp Sherman, 1919. The U.S. Army’s San Francisco Port of Embarkation in World War II During World War II, more than 4,000 voyages by freighters and over 800 by troopships emanating from the San Francisco Port of Embarkation carried nearly 1,650,000 soldiers and 23,600,000 ship tons of cargo to support the efforts of General MacArthur in the Southwest Pacific Area and Admiral Chester Nimitz, Commander in Chief of the Pacific Ocean Area. Photo of NPS welcome sign. Places of World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area World War II dominated the social, economic and political landscapes of the mid-20th century, setting in motion momentous events that still shape the world we live in today. The communities that ring the San Francisco Bay were irrevocably altered by that wartime era and still bear its visible marks in the remains of military bases and coastal defense fortifications, ships and shipbuilding facilities, worker housing and day-care facilities. This travel itinerary highlights 31 Chinatown, San Francisco Not Your Ordinary Culverts: Bringing Native Oysters Back to the Presidio This year the Presidio is expanding the wetlands along its northern waterfront at a site known as Quartermaster Reach. The project will allow water to flow through new culverts, or underground water tunnels, beneath Mason Street. This will create seven acres of new habitat for birds, plants, and other native species. But the culverts for this project will not be your usual culverts. They’ll also help create habitat for native Olympia oysters. Close-up of tiny Olympia oysters. New Marshland and Trail Open in the Presidio on December 11, 2020 On November 13, the Presidio Trust removed an earthen berm and some sheet pilings that were preventing water from flowing through new culverts (and oyster habitat!) beneath Mason Street. As the tide rose, salt water from the Bay and Crissy Marsh flooded through for the first time to meet the fresh water of the Tennessee Hollow Watershed. Now, visitors can get their first up-close look. Socially distanced people in safety gear, planting wetland plants in a barren, muddy landscape. Scientist Profile: Alex Iwaki, Hydrology Monitor "While I was in college, I didn't want to go back home for the summer to work at the local grocery. I applied for a bunch of environmental internships and got a fisheries internship in Colorado. I had no prior experience or any interest in fish, but I thought 'why not?' I went out there, learned a lot, and had an amazing time. After the fisheries internship, I knew I wanted to continue to work in natural sciences." Alex Iwaki San Francisco: Where the Plates Meet The San Francisco Bay Area sports “coasts with abundant marine and terrestrial resources, a sheltered deep-water harbor, hills and mountains with plentiful forests, and streams and rivers providing water and transportation routes, including to the goldfields of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.” As a result, it has attracted people to it for millennia. But why does the area feature such enchanting diversity in the first place? Coastal rock formation featuring four differently colored and textured types of rocks. New Perspectives On Old Teachings "In a few hours, I will be surrounded by our community of volunteers, who have come to celebrate ‘Eid’ in the parks, a festival that marks the end of Ramadan and is celebrated by Muslims across the world. On this special day, my reflection takes me back to when I first learned about the five pillars of Islam. While in my childhood, these duties were confined to the mosque and my community, in my adulthood, I started to see these pillars show up in my connection with nature." Two women holding an enormous, overflowing bag of freshly pulled weeds. California Ringlets Get Helping Hand Returning to Presidio Grasslands The California ringlet was last seen in San Francisco’s Presidio in 2007. Grassland habitat loss and degradation from before the Presidio became a park contributed to its extirpation. Now, after more than two decades of grassland restoration, the time is ripe for this lost butterfly to return. But the California ringlets can't return on their own. They are about the size of a quarter, and they're weak flyers. So this spring, the butterflies have been getting a helping hand. Small butterfly the color of dried grass. San Francisco Bay Area Network 2019 Long-term Monitoring Updates The San Francisco Bay Area Inventory & Monitoring Network has created a new product for sharing our science with the Bay Area parks community: an immersive, multimedia StoryMap! Discover key highlights from the 2019 monitoring season along with striking photos, interactive maps, annotated graphs, audio recordings, and more. Person sitting among ferns beside an enormous tree, recording owl data. Leonard Foulk Sgt. Leonard Foulk fought and was blinded during the Battle of Attu. He recovered at Letterman General Hospital in the Presidio of San Francisco. At the Presidio, we was paired with a guide dog and received the Bronze Star for his service. A man in uniform hugs a dog against his chest Letterman Hospital and the HIV Epidemic Parklands of Golden Gate National Recreation Area incorporate San Francisco, San Mateo and Marin counties. All of which, envelope overlapping military histories, and social movements that influenced each other. This included military bases and the Presidio’s Letterman Army Hospital. LGBTQ military personnel faced the military ban, discrimination and in 1981: the HIV/AIDs epidemic. Letterman Army Medical Center was a 550-bed hospital Rare Damselflies in Distress: Scientists Work to Sustain an At-Risk Species in the Presidio This year has been a roller coaster for scientists keeping tabs on the Bay Area’s most at-risk insect—the San Francisco forktail damselfly. They’ve had some good news—the first population estimate in five years revealed stable numbers despite the drought—but also been confronted with diminishing water levels threatening the species' remaining stronghold near Fort Point like never before. Iridescent black, green, and blue insect with a long, slender abdomen and long, folded wings. Can San Francisco Parks Support the Reintroduction of California Quail? It’s ironic: the official bird of San Francisco and the State of California, the native California quail, is locally extinct within the city of San Francisco. Land managers have mused about reintroducing the iconic species. But what would it take? Adult quail mid-stride. © er-birds / Photo 101950384 / 2021-11 / iNaturalist.org / CC BY-4.0 Biologists Seek to Reintroduce More Genetically Robust Stickleback Population at Presidio’s Mountain Lake Should a reintroduced wildlife population come from one source population, or from several? This question is actively debated among conservation biologists. Presidio Trust biologists tried the former approach in 2015 when they first reintroduced threespine stickleback into Mountain Lake from a population in nearby Lobos Creek. Now, after what may have been a disease-related die-off in 2020, they will draw on three local stickleback populations for a second reintroduction. Small olive fish with spines on its back. The Presidio Raptor Cam Returns: Nesting Red-tailed Hawks Hatch Two Chicks! In 2018, the Presidio of San Francisco’s live “Hawk Cam” was established above a nest located 100 feet up in one of the blue gum eucalyptus trees near the Main Post. Over a few seasons, it’s given all of us an up-close and personal look at nesting raptors in the park – and it’s back. The same breeding resident pair of hawks have returned to their nest four years later – and two chicks hatched starting on Easter weekend! Overhead view of red-tailed hawk parent with two fluffy white chicks half-under its breast. San Mateo Fine Scale Vegetation Map Complete Fine scale vegetation maps are precise snapshots of plant communities (and other land cover types) across a landscape at a given time. They're also invaluable tools for land stewards. A coalition of agencies and partners just completed such a map of San Mateo County, plus federal lands in San Francisco. It shows 106 land cover types with 97,582(!) polygons and depicts the landscape as it was in 2018, when the project team acquired the map's foundational aerial imagery. Screenshot of a web map interface. The map is titled 'San Mateo Fine Scale Vegetation Web Map'. The Men of Baker Street In 1918, the United States Army learned that the Presidio of San Francisco was home to men who desired other men. The Men of Baker Street were incarcerated on Alcatraz Island for five months awaiting their courts-martial. These courts-martial found all six soldiers guilty and dishonorably discharged. They forfeited all pay, and five were sentenced to be “confined at hard labor” for sentences ranging from 2-10 years. Botany News – July 2022 This July, the Invasive Species Early Detection team mapped invasive plants at John Muir National Historic Site and at Rancho Corral de Tierra and the Presidio of San Francisco in Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Yellow star thistle, Algerian sea lavendar, and Oppositeleaf Russian thistle emerged as noteworthy early detections. Meanwhile, the Plant Community Monitoring team surveyed freshwater marsh plots and shine a spotlight on the ecological benefits of poison oak. Two people look down through dense bunches of tall sedges. One holds a tall yellow device. Botany News – August 2022 Internship projects, invasive species early detection surveys across Golden Gate, and plant community surveys in squishy salt marshes and dense Douglas-fir forests are among the features in this August issue of Botany News. You'll also find info on two high priority invasive plants to look out for, parrot's feather and old man's beard, and a native species spotlight on the beautiful, sturdy, and ecologically and ethnobotanically significant blueblossum ceanothus. Cluster of small light bluish-purple flowers at the tip of a branch covered in glossy green leaves. Botany News – September 2022 You'll find coastal wetland wonders, Point Reyes post-fire monitoring, September invasive species surveys in the Presidio, and salt marsh plant community surveys featured in this issue. Noteworthy invasive species profiles include false ice plant and oxeye daisy, and don't miss a native species spotlight on the sticky, strangely shaped Point Reyes bird’s-beak, a threatened species in California! Two people collecting and recording data by a road, with a view of the San Francisco Bay beyond. 50 Nifty Finds #4: Getting In the Zone For more than a century the National Park Service (NPS) has won awards and honors for its work preserving cultural and natural resources and sharing the diverse stories of American history. One of its earliest honors came from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco, California, in 1915. But wait…The NPS was created in 1916, right? How could it win an award before it existed? Round bronze medal featuring nude man and woman Botany News – Winter 2022-2023 Meet GIS Intern Shea Nolan, get a peek at post-field season indoor botany, and test your invasive species ID skills in this fall-winter issue. Also catch invasive species profiles of two grassland troublemakers, <em>Bromus tectorum</em> and <em>Rytidosperma penicillatum</em>, and a native species profile on the charming redwood forest floor groundcover <em>Oxalis oregana</em>. Microscope view of yellowed grass spikelets with long, needle-like awns. Doña Juana Briones A Mexican-American pioneer, businesswoman, healer, and landowner, Doña Juana Briones de Miranda (1802-1889) lived in the San Francisco Bay area under the flags of three different nations. She was one of the first three settlers in Yerba Buena before it became San Francisco Portrait of Juana Briones as woman Eda Blankart Funston A courageous and dedicated woman by the standards of any period, Eda Blankart Funston (1877-1932) was a particularly remarkable figure in her day. Blankart Funston John Pershing The foremost military leader of his time, John J. "Black Jack" Pershing (1860-1948) served the United States in the Indian Wars, the Spanish-American War, the Philippines, the Mexican Intervention, and the First World War. John Pershing William H. Thompkins A member of the African-American 10th Cavalry commonly known as the "Buffalo Soldiers," Private William Thompkins served in the Spanish-American War. William Thompkins Feasibility and Hope: Planning the Return of California Quail to the Presidio The Presidio Trust is in the planning phase for a reintroduction of California quail. Quail used to be abundant in the Presidio. However, habitat loss and predation by feral cats led to their decline. By 2008, the last remnant of a once-thriving natural population was gone. The Trust is now planning to bring back the ecosystem services and experiences they once provided by returning quail to the Presidio. Male quail with a distinct black face and forehead feather plume, perched on top of a post.
The Natural Presidio National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area To see a world in a grain of sand, And a heaven in a wild flower, Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, And eternity in an hour —William Blake Nature in the City? Spanish and Mexican era grazing and farming transformed the natural Presidio. Painting by Beechey, 1826 By the early 1900s buildings and forest began to blanket the Presidio. Bob Bowen Collection A Surprising Diversity of Life…And A Refuge for Rarities Above left to right: The Presidio hosts a rich array of insects including the West Coast Lady, the western fence lizard and other reptiles, over 200 species of birds like the colorful Wilson’s warbler and the locally rare gray fox. (rev. 9/11) The natural history of the Presidio is a story both of change and constancy. The lands at the Golden Gate were forged over millennia by powerful geological events and shaped by wind and fog. Grasslands, sand dunes, and woodlands were rimmed with saltwater marshes, lakes, and creeks. This environment supported a mosaic of plant communities and diverse wildlife, including grizzly bears and tule elk. Over time, people shaped the wilds, from the Ohlone Indians who used fire to clear brush, to the successive Spanish, Mexican, and American settlers who established a presidio, or fort, at the bay. The greatest transformation took place in the 19th and 20th centuries as the U.S. Army expanded its military post with roads, batteries and bunkers, homes, and even a planted forest. In fact, the existence of natural areas of the Presidio owes to its former status as an Army post, which prevented the kind of urbanization seen elsewhere in San Francisco. Despite sweeping changes to its landscape, rare gems of San Francisco’s natural history endure in the Presidio. As the park evolves today to welcome park activities, its remnant wild natural areas are being restored and shared with visitors. This guide describes the conditions that created the Presidio’s unique plant and wildlife treasures, and illustrates jewels of the park’s natural heritage. to the surface along faults. Though serpentine soils are poor in nutrients and high in toxic metals, the endangered Presidio clarkia and Raven’s manzanita, among others, have San Francisco is known for its unique adapted and thrive. Sand dunes that are dry, weather patterns and changeable Medinutrient poor, and ever-shifting with the terranean climate. Temperate wet winters wind are home to rare species such as the typically occur between November and San Francisco lessingia and dune gilia that April. Summer dry spells can last up to have adapted to survive in these conditions. seven months, with moisture coming only with cool ocean fog. Coastal hills and valleys create many microclimates. Within an hour on the Presidio, you can walk through sheltered woodlands, moist creek corridors, windy coastal bluffs, and warm dunes. These conditions promote amazing plant diversity. The Presidio’s plant and wildlife diversity is largely a result of natural realities above and below: weather and geology. The Presidio’s main soil types include serpentine and sand. Serpentinite, California’s state rock, is green-gray, smooth, and scaly, evoking images of its namesake. It forms Presidio clarkia (left) lives only on serpentine soils deep below the earth’s crust and is pushed and San Francisco lessingia (right) requires dunes. 1 101 KEY ? Fort Point Coastal Dune Scrub Mixed Coastal Bluff Scrub, ? Warming Hut Linc Coastal Bluffs ol n Bl vd. Marine Sanctuary ? Visitor Center rissy Marsh C Crissy Fie ld Mason Fort 101 Street Doyl e Driv e Lin oln Visitor ? Blv d. Center Main Scott 1 National Cemetery 101 c Post L o m a rd b o id . Blvd oln Golf Course Mountain Lake ue l l o Av e . Linc Inspiration . 1 i o Av e. vd Arg Presidio Hills ? P re s gt Bl Baker Beach in n h as W St. Coastal Scrub, Coastal Prairie Aquatic Habitats Wetlands Riparian Forests Coastal Prairie Oak Woodland Trail Road Visitor Information Habitat Restoration Area Point Lobos Creek Valley Presidio plant communities before 1776 Use this map to explore the natural areas of the Presidio. Designated as part of a United Nations International Biosphere Reserve, it holds an incredible diversity of life. The park’s 1,000 acres of open space shelter 300 native wildflowers, trees, and other plants growing in 14 distinct native plant communities. In fact, 15 of the Presidio’s plant species are designated as rare, threatened, or endangered. A Surprising Diversity... (Continued) Because animals rely on plants for food or shelter, plant diversity supports an abundance of wildlife. The Presidio is home to more than 350 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and fish. Visitors A New Chapter: Restoring a Living Sanctuary In 1994, the Presidio became a national park site. Its lands are
Free! DOWNTOWN Shuttle PresidiGo Around the Park Shuttle IE S TO TIB GG T UR ON FE RR FE & IES RR VA L IES TO LEJ O SAU TO SAL LA ITO RR M DRUM Y O M ER B A Y BATT ER SA T FR O N S D A V IS E N SO M T KE A RN G RA N M O N TG B A N TRANSBAY TERMINAL STOP A M R IS D S IO (MAIN@HOWARD) M O S O H RCADER O TO N ST O CK L PO W EL N M A SO R TAY LO JO N ES POLK FE TO FERRIES H W O RT HY DE LE AV EN CH LA RK IN PO LK GUL AV E N ES S VA N H KL IN IA FR A N NA O CTAV ANAN LA G U BU CH RE ER ER W EB ST SC O TT IC K D ER O Y BA AV E ID IO LY O N PR ES UT EL W A LN LA U R LO CU ST CE E S PR U M A PL RY C H ER A D IV IS BA KE R ER BROD A VETERANS OLN L IN C PRESIDIO HILLS ROUTE OM LS ION FO AT ST CRISSY FIELD ROUTE T How about a ride around the Park? R AROUND THE PARK Shuttle Free! A LOIN T DER R L U FA RR EL N N G EA RY LE J A PA O M T S D ZION N TOW 38R 2N L 76X PO ST Y ER M O ON TG ATI N T S O SU TT ER 1 UNION SQUARE EA BU SH B CL AY EM CIS ST. FRAN L HOSPITA PI N E A 45 RN IA IN CA LI FO TS TE M EN TO D A RC N IO EM TAT S BA A SA CR A FERRY BUILDING O ER N M PLAZA ALTA PARK TTE LAFAYE PARK AT O W S 1 CL AY PACIFIC CALIF. NTER MED. CE CHIN T C LI C N JA CK SO N IN G TO W A SH SU TUNNEL FR A PA CI FI RT BA H URE HTS AY BROADW DWAY AY BW 41 O VA LL EJ RIE FER (DRUMM@CALIFORNIA) 1S NIA CALIFOR HEIG IFIC BR O A G RE EN O EMBARCADERO BART STOP T D E H HEIG UN ET C B CH BEA U N IO N E STR ION NOR (VAN NESS @ UNION) 10 1 4T TERRAC O N O SIDI PA C EM 3R PRESIDI IN G TO PRE LOW 45 E BAY IS PE IDIO SON W A SH PARK MOUNTAIN LAKE 41 28 C S ES JA C K LAKE HOL MUNI 41, 45 1 FF ACLIFF COW 43 RG U EL I D U N IO N PRESIDIO OFFICERS’ CLUB PR BAKER BEACH LO N BLVD D B LV SH G TO N W IC H G RE EN T FI LB ER H CI SC O UT CH ES TN R C O LO M BA RD TOWE COIT LU W IC H M G RE EN BU T S FI LB ER VAN NESS STOP H GEORGE E REC MOSCON CENTER O FI LL M RA IO ST EI N ID PI ER CE EC K P RD H A LL NS TO N GI Y ER OM ST TG N PO FU ON AI M M LN S RE TH FR A N 43 N Y CO MA A A E WA N B LIN CE SON RV AN TE CH S A BE PA L A C E T IN PO INE O RT H O 76X O F F N RG ARTS AS INA BAY INBOUND ONLY MAR O RI N CI SC C H FR AOUTBOUND ONLY A R D CH ES TN U T RD SO LO M BA N JE FF ER LO M B A R PRESIDIO HILLS SA Subway Line + Station O BB Metro Line + Station (subway) BA ER 28 KO Key Presidio Stops + Transfer Points D 28 FOR Route + Stop Presidio Visitor Center CA N MASO PKWY SIDIO PRE G D C I F I C E A N 43 R Y FIEL PRESIDIO HILLS ROUTE A CRISS CRISSY FIELD ROUTE SO N N O RT L NATIONA UM MUSE RITIME SON T MA GOUG A A M A RI N 1 AROUND THE PARK Routes: Weekends 9:30 AM 3:00 10:30 3:30 11:30 4:00 12:00 PM 4:30 12:30 5:00 1:00 5:30 1:30 6:00 2:00 6:30 2:30 7:00 6:15 6:30 6:45 7:00 7:30 8:00 8:30 ANS ERM F FISH BE A CH H A TR W PO IN JE FF ER PA R K GREEN MARIN N BLV D 101 3:30 4:00 4:30  4:45 5:00  5:15 5:30  5:45 6:00 FR S . F. MARITIME N AT I O N A L HISTORICAL FORT N MASO ER CENT CRISSY FIELD MUNI 43 28 Weekdays 6:10 AM 9:00 7:00 9:15 7:15 9:30 7:30  10:00 7:45  10:30 8:00 11:30 8:15 12:30 PM 8:30  1:30 8:45 2:30 PIER 39 PRESIDIO HILLS (SPORTS BASEMENT 610 MASON STREET) OL Z DOWNTOWN Bike Rentals LINC A Golden Gate Transit MUNI 28, 76X (215 LINCOLN BOULEVARD) (210 LINCOLN BOULEVARD) Weekends 9:00 AM 2:30 10:00 3:00 11:00 3:30 11:30 4:00 12:00 PM 4:30 12:30 5:00 1:00 5:30 1:30 6:00 2:00 6:30 5:45 6:00  6:15 6:30 7:00 7:30 8:00 DOWNTOWN Route + Stops: TRANSBAY TERMINAL STOP R  = Pass required (PresidiGo Pass or MUNI Passport); Bold = PM PRESIDIO TRANSIT CENTER PRESIDIO VISITOR CENTER MUNI 29 3:00 3:30 4:00 4:15 4:30  4:45 5:00  5:15 5:30  AT W Weekdays 5:45 AM 8:30  6:30 8:45  6:45 9:00  7:00 9:30 7:15 10:00 7:30  11:00 7:45  12:00 PM 8:00  1:00 8:15  2:00 LC E A A PRESIDIO TRANSIT CENTER The PresidiGo Downtown shuttle offers a free and DOWNTOWN convenient way for visitors to travel between the Presidio and downtown San Francisco seven days a week. Each one-way trip takes about 25 minutes. All shuttles feature wheelchair lifts and bike racks. PresidiGo Downtown Shuttle GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE TOLL PLAZA Departures from O Departures from Need a Ride Downtown? Golden Gate Transit MUNI 28, 76X CRISSY FIELD www.presidio.gov/shuttle Live Shuttle Tracking PRESIDIO TRANSIT CENTER DEPARTURES Both PresidiGo AROUND THE PARK shuttle routes are always free and run two continuous 30-minute loops. Both routes originate at the Presidio Transit Center (215 Lincoln Boulevard) and connect with MUNI and Golden Gate Transit. They operate on a weekend schedule on federal holidays. CRISSY FIELD 7:30 AM 8:00 8:30 9:00 9:30 10:00 10:30 11:00 11:30 12:00 PM 12:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00 3:30 4:00 4:30 5:0
Battery Chamberlin National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Golden Gate National Recreation Area Practice firing of an original 6-inch gun mounted on a disappearing carriage, around 1910. A voice bellows, "Load!" Like integral parts of the gun they are loading, thirteen soldiers spring into action. The first yanks open the breechblock (door) at the rear of the barrel, allowing the next to shove the seven-foot sponge in and out of the firing chamber. Two men San Francisco History Center, SF Public Library Baker Beach, 1905 bring forward the 100-lb. shell on a ladle, followed by another with a long pole who rams the shell into the barrel's breech. The bag of gunpowder is heaved in behind, and the breechblock is swung shut and locked. Still another soldier trips a lever, and the gun springs up on massive arms, above the wall behind which it was hidden. The sergeant shouts "Fire!" and tugs on the long lanyard attached to the rear of the gun. There is a deafening boom, a tongue of flame, and a huge cloud of smoke! The shell speeds toward a target mounted on a raft seven miles out to sea. The gun recoils, swinging back and down, behind the wall of the battery the men stand poised to reload. Sweating in their fatigues, they silently thank the sea breeze for cooling them. Only thirty seconds have passed, and they are once again reloading the gun. Gun drill at Battery Chamberlin around 1942. One soldier loads the gun powder bag as another with shell ladle withdraws. A New Era of Defense 7/06 New weaponry and ironclad ships forced brick forts and cannonballs into obsolescence during the Civil War. Secretary of War William C. Endicott authorized the construction of a new system of defenses to guard U.S. ports against foreign naval attack. Rifled guns, which fired bullet-shaped projectiles, replaced the old smoothbore cannon. Concrete batteries, armed with rifled guns, were built at all major American ports between the 1880's and the 1910's. The largest of the new guns installed at the Presidio in the 1890s,like this one at Battery Godfrey, had 12-inch bores. San Francisco History Center, SF Public Library Observers at several remote posts sighted on moving targets and telephoned angles to a plotting room. Here, officers triangulated the target’s position and relayed aiming orders to the gun crews. Guns on the Beach Battery Chamberlin’s guns protected underwater mines like this one. World War II Red Cross Cookie Brigade visits Battery Chamberlin during the war. Battery Chamberlin Today Battery Chamberlin, the last Endicottera battery built at the Presidio, was completed in 1904 and initially armed with four 6-inch guns. These guns were mounted on disappearing carriages, which allowed the gun and crew to be hidden behind a concrete shield during aiming and loading. The battery protected underwater minefields located outside the Golden Gate from enemy minesweepers and moderatesized warships. Its guns had a range of 8 miles and each could fire at the rate of two rounds per minute. Most of the guns around the Golden Gate ranged in size from 3 inches up to 12 inches in diameter and could strike battleships up to 15 miles out to sea. After Pearl Harbor, the West Coast was on high alert for an expected Japanese attack. The Sixth Coast Artillery Regiment, Battery "D," manned the guns at Chamberlin, which were hidden from aircraft by camouflage netting. The soldiers had to be ready to defend at a moment's notice. They slept in cramped makeshift bunks in the battery’s magazine (ammunition storage room). A mess hall and additional underground barracks were built, but the attack never came. batteries disarmed, and the guns scrapped during “Operation Blowtorch.” A new era of air and missile defense had arrived, ushering in the Cold War and nuclear brinkmanship with the Soviet Union. World War II proved the superiority of air power as well as amphibious attack, and made stationary defenses like battery Chamberlin obsolete. In 1948, the Coast Artillery Corps was deactivated, all the Today, you can take part in demonstrations of a 50-ton rifle and relive the duties of a soldier preparing for imminent attack. The underground magazine is now a museum, with photos and exhibits on the coastal defenses of San Francisco. Here you can contemplate the role these men and weapons played in our nation's security. Battery Chamberlin's original guns were removed in 1917 for use in World War I, but the battery was modified and two 6-inch guns on simple “barbette” carriages were again mounted in 1920. By the mid-1920s, many of the “smaller” guns were removed from their batteries, but in 1929 the largest seacoast guns made were mounted on either side of the Golden Gate—16" guns with an accurate range of 25 miles! Cramped sleeping quarters in Chamberlin’s shell room, 1942. National Park Service volunteers maintain and interpret the historic gun. Talk to any staff member about volunteer opportunities. Battery Cham
Buffalo Soldiers National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area Painting courtesy Arthur Shilstone Origins of the Buffalo Soldiers In 1866, Congress established six all-Black regiments, each of about 1000 soldiers, to help rebuild the country after the Civil War and to patrol the remote western frontier. These regiments were the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry. The four infantry regiments reorganized to form the 24th and 25th Infantry in 1869. Although the pay was low for the time, only $13 a month, many African Americans enlisted because they could make more in the military than elsewhere, and it offered more dignity than typically could be attained in civilian life. How the Buffalo Soldiers Got Their Name According to legend, Native Americans called the Black cavalry troops “buffalo soldiers” because of their dark curly hair, which resembled a buffalo’s coat. Aware of the buffalo’s fierce bravery and fighting spirit, the African American troops accepted the name with pride and honor. On the “Western Frontier” Buffalo Soldiers played an important role in protecting settlers, building forts and roads, and mapping the wilderness as the U.S. settled and developed the West. Although the Buffalo Soldiers are best known for engaging conflicts with the region’s native people, they also fought Mexican and Anglo bandits, escorted stage coaches and paymasters, and on one occasion, stood between Indian peoples and Texas militia. By the 1890s, Black soldiers comprised 20 percent of America’s frontier cavalry and performed exemplary service within a military that remained segregated until President Harry S. Truman finally ordered it integrated in 1948. By the end of the Indian Wars, 18 Medals of Honor and 12 Certificates of Merit were awarded to Buffalo Soldiers for their valor, endurance, and courage. African American units had the lowest desertion rate in the Army. Remember the Maine! By the end of the 19th century, the Spanish empire was crumbling as two of its island colonies, Cuba and the Philippines, struggled for independence. After the U.S. battleship Maine mysteriously exploded in Cuba’s Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898, the U.S. President and Congress yielded to popular sentiment and declared war on Spain. Military campaigns soon began on both islands. Troop E. 9th Cavalry at the Presidio before embarking for the Philippines, 1899. U.S. Army Military History Institute (rev. 12/07) Seasoned troops of the 9th Cavalry were among the first to arrive in Cuba, where they and the 10th Cavalry fought beside Theodore Roosevelt’s volunteer “Rough Riders,” helping them to storm San Juan Hill. During the seven-month war, five Buffalo Soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor and 28 received Certificates of Merit. While these men fought colonialism overseas, their families at home suffered from racial discrimination, lynchings, and riots. Troop C, 9th Cavalry at Camp Lawton, Seattle, 1900, preparing to embark to the Boxer Rebellion in China. The conflict in China was resolved before the company arrived, and Troop C was then diverted to the Philippine War. T. Preiser, Special Collections, Suzzallo Library, University of Washington. War in the Philippines After the Phillippines became a U.S. possession, following the American defeat of Spain in 1898, Filipino nationalists began a campaign for independence against their former allies. Buffalo Soldiers were now called to action against Filipino forces during the bloody three-year war that ensued. In 1899, companies from all four African American regiments reported to the Presidio of San Francisco to embark for the Philippines. While in the Philippines Black troopers trekked over mountains and through jungles to track and fight elusive nationalists, to guard communication lines and to escort supply trains. 9th Cavalry at the Presidio Buffalo Soldiers began returning from the Philippines in 1902, passing through the Presidio on their way to new assignments. Four troops of the 9th Cavalry remained at the Presidio until 1904; the first African American units posted on regular garrison duty at the post. During this period, 9th Cavalry soldiers served as presidential Escort of Honor for Theodore Roosevelt when he visited San Francisco in 1903. This was the first time African American troops were given this honorable role. Members of the 24th Infantry on mounted patrol, Yosemite National Park, 1899. The first national parks were patrolled by Army cavalry troops before there was a National Park Service. In May 1903, Captain Charles Young led 9th Cavalry troops from the Presidio to Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant (Kings Can-yon) national parks. These were the first Black units to patrol the parks for an entire season, and the first time a Black officer served as acting superintendent of a national park. Under Young’s command, troops at Sequoia accomplish
Buffalo Soldiers National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Guardians of California National Parks California A lthough African American soldiers have fought in America’s wars since the Revolution, they were not permitted to enlist in the Regular Army until Reconstruction. By 1869, Congress had established four all-black regiments: the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry. The soldiers of these regiments would become known as the Buffalo Soldiers. The salary, $13 per month, was low for the 1870s, but still paid better than the menial jobs commonly available to African Americans. Moreover, the military provided a dignity not typically afforded by civilian life. How the Buffalo Soldiers Got Their Name According to legend, Native Americans called the troopers “buffalo soldiers” because their dark, curly hair resembled a buffalo’s coat. The Native Americans revered the buffalo for its fierce bravery and fighting spirit, so the nickname can also be considered a sign of respect. The soldiers accepted the title with pride and honor. Indian Wars Following the Civil War, the U.S. turned its attention to developing the American frontier. The Buffalo Soldiers fought in campaigns against native tribes, pursued bandits, improved roads, escorted the mail, scouted and mapped. Their work to secure the frontier was performed in the face of hostile conditions, not only in terms of extreme climates and terrain but also significant racial tension. Cover from left to right: 9th Cavalry in Yosemite, 1904. NPS; Unidentified cavalry in forest. NPS; 9th Cavalry in Yosemite, 1903. Courtesy of the Nevelle Hawkins Silliman Collection; Buffalo soldier on Giant Forest Road, Sequoia 1903. Courtesy of the National AfroAmerican Museum and Cultural Center. Wilberforce, Ohio. In Cuba & the Philippines Cavalry encampment, likely en route to Sequoia National Park, 1903. Photograph from the collection of Charles Young. Courtesy of the National Afro-American Museum and Cultural Center, Wilberforce, Ohio After the U.S. declared war on Spain in 1898, Buffalo Soldier troops went to Cuba. They fought in the Battle of San Juan Hill alongside white regiments and Theodore Roosevelt’s volunteer “Rough Riders.” The Spanish-American War presented a conflicted situation for African American soldiers, in which they fought on behalf of their country abroad yet lacked equal rights at home. The Army in the National Parks Before the creation of the National Park Service in 1916, the Army was responsible for patrolling Yellowstone, Sequoia, and Yosemite—our first national parks. They protected the lands for the enjoyment of visitors and laid the foundations for the future national park system. Beginning in 1891, soldiers spent the summer blazing trails, constructing roads, creating maps, evicting grazing livestock, extinguishing fires, monitoring tourists, and keeping poachers and loggers at bay. The soldiers’ expeditionary frontier experience, as well as their sense of responsibility and service, lent itself toward duty in the parks. After Spain’s defeat, an insurgent movement emerged in the U.S.occupied Philippines. All four Buffalo Soldier regiments participated in the ensuing Philippine Insurrection. The troops began to return in 1902, passing through San Francisco to their new assignments, which included garrison duty at the Presidio and guard duty at Yosemite, Sequoia and General Grant (Kings Canyon) National Parks. The Buffalo Soldiers patrolled the parks during three summers, entrusted with the same duties as the units that preceded and followed them. In 1899, the 24th Infantry spent about a month in Yosemite and Sequoia. In 1903 and 1904, 9th Cavalry troopers were in the parks for the entire summer, leaving from San Francisco in 1903 and from the Presidio of Monterey the following year. Member of the 24th Infantry on mounted patrol in Yosemite, 1899. NPS, Yosemite Research Library. The Route to the Parks Troops typically left for the parks in May and returned in November. For each park, some 100 troopers and their officers paraded on horseback through San Francisco, followed by mules and wagons. The journey would take them down historic El Camino Real and across the Diablo Range to the San Joaquin Valley and Sierra Nevada. The soldiers traveled about 280 miles over 13 days to get to Yosemite and 320 miles over 16 days to get to Sequoia. They camped near racetracks, roadhouses, and rivers. If they had leisure time, they patronized restaurants and saloons. Apart from San Francisco and San Jose, northern California at this time was predominantly rural. The Santa Clara and San Joaquin valleys began as centers of Native American populations, and then experienced waves of Spanish settlement, the boom of the Gold Rush, and the growth of agriculture. Meeting Locals The Army’s arrival in town drew attention, and the years of the Buffalo Soldiers were no exception. In some communities, the very concept of the national
Patriotism and Prejudice Japanese Americans and World War II National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area Military Intelligence Service Language School students focus on instruction in their classrom at Crissy Field. � One of the most poignant and sadly ironic home front stories of World War II has deep connections to the Presidio. Even as Presidio officers issued orders to relocate Americans of Japanese ancestry to internment camps after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December, 1941, a secret military language school trained Japanese American soldiers only a half mile away. The loyalty, sacrifice, and accomplishments of the Japanese American soldiers trained at the Presidio and elsewhere were recognized at the highest levels, but the nation forced their families to endure a very different sacrifice as the army uprooted and ordered them into camps far from home. MIS Language School Events in the late 1930s in the Far East and Pacific Basin increasingly signaled the possibility of war. In response, the U.S. Army established the 4th Army Intelligence School at the Presidio of San Francisco in November of 1941. The school trained Nisei—Japanese Americans born to parents who had come to the U.S. from Japan—to act as translators in the war against Japan. The army converted a hanger at Crissy Field into classrooms and a bunk house. The hangar looked nothing like a traditional school; outsiders were told it was a laundry. The students studied in their make-shift classrooms, played volleyball for recreation, and walked to the nearby Bakers and Cooks School in Building 220 three times a day for meals. Looking out their window in late December 1941, the 60 students could see damaged ships returning after the Pearl Harbor attack of December 7. The yearlong training program was then shortened to six months. Soldiers trained at the MIS were sent to all the major battlefields in the Pacific. After the first class graduated, the school moved to Minnesota. Its 6,000 graduates worked with combat units interrogating prisoners, translating intercepted documents, and using their knowledge of Japanese culture to aid the U.S. occupation after the war. General Douglas MacArthur’s chief of staff said, “The National Archives Nisei saved countless Allied lives and MIS Nisei interrogates a captured Japanese soldier. � shortened the war by two years.” War Hysteria! MIS Association of Northern California Fear and war hysteria swept the country in the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor. People feared that the Japanese Imperial forces might attack the West Anti-Japanese sentiment seen on storefront in 1930s. � 6/07 Coast of the United States. There was also a widespread (but false) belief that disloyal Japanese American residents in Hawaii had assisted in the Pearl Harbor bombing. In California, long-held racist attitudes against Japanese Americans augmented the war passions. Reacting to public pressure, California Governor Culbert L. Olson and Attorney General (later Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court) Earl Warren argued that Japanese Americans were a security risk and that those who were loyal could not be distinguished from those who were disloyal. Internment U.S. Army Lt. General John L. DeWitt � Go for Broke! Nisei at Manzanar pledge loyalty to the U.S. and are sworn in as 442nd volunteers in 1943. Legacy At the Presidio, Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt, commander of the Western Defense Command, relied more heavily on information from civilian politicians than on military intelligence or FBI reports. Writing to Secretary of War Henry Stimson, he referred to Japanese Americans as potential enemies, and claimed that military necessity required excluding ethnic Japanese from the West Coast. Stimson urged President Franklin D. Roosevelt to act, and on February 19, 1942, Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066. In addition to serving as interpreters and interrogators–and despite the internment of their families—many Japanese Americans served the war effort. Nisei soldiers from the internment camps enlisted to fight, and formed a Japanese American combat unit—the 442nd Regiment—in the segregated U.S. Army. This unit joined with another group of Nisei volunteers from Hawaii who had already fought in North Africa and Italy. The exploits of the 100th/442nd are the stuff of legend. They liberated towns in France, rescued other American soldiers, and lived up to their slogan, Senator Spark Matsunaga, a veteran of the 100th/442nd, said of the regiment in 1981, “In their courage and loyalty we can find strength and determination to continue our seemingly endless battle against discrimination and injustice…” In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed an act granting reparations to Japanese Americans interned by the United States government during World War II. Today, two internment camps—Manzanar, From his office in Building 35 at the Main Post, Gene
Pioneers of Flight National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presi io of San Francisco Gol en Gate National Recreation Area GGNRA Park Archives Crissy Airfield in 1919. Death-Defying Firsts at Crissy Fiel GGNRA Park Archives Pilo s ook heir families up o prove ha aircraf were safe. “Father of Aerobatics” Frank Marrero Collection Lincoln Beachey flies his “Li le Looper” in 1913. Success or Failure? Have you ever been scared during an airplane flight? Most of us have at one time or another even in today’s very safe aircraft. However during the pioneering days of flight every trip was death-defying and possibly one’s last. The early pilots flying in and out of Crissy Field performed many aviation firsts putting their life on the line every day to prove that airplanes were useful and reliable. Their contributions and commitment played a key role in making air travel safe and routine for all. In 1919 the army built an airfield on the Presidio to Even in the early years of aviation Lincoln Beachey the father of aerobatics knew that airplanes would one day be reliable and commonplace transportation. To promote this belief he flew anytime he could find an audience. And it wasn’t hard. Crowds flocked to see his stunts and if he would survive them. Beachey was the first person to fly upside down and to perform a tail slide and a spin recovery. So when the Panama-Pacific International Exposition opened in San Francisco he became a advance the military potential of airplanes proven by their success in World War I. But even before the airfield’s completion in 1921 it had already seen aviation history being made. As early as 1915 crowds gathered here to see if the “father of aerobatics” perform daring feats at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Standing on the grass of Crissy Field today we can only imagine the wild cheers as the first flight around the world landed or the fearful good-byes as the first flight to Hawaii departed. Crissy Field saw all these daring landmark events and more. main attraction flying over what would become Crissy Field. While performing stunts here in a new early monoplane its wings collapsed. Beachey was unable to escape the harness that held him to the sinking plane. He ultimately drowned in the bay between Crissy Field and Fort Mason. On October 8 1919 the First Transcontinental Reliability and Endurance Test captivated the nation when 46 pilots departed Roosevelt Field Long Island headed west and 15 planes left the yet unnamed airfield at the Presidio for the east coast. Three days later at Roosevelt Field New York a tired Captain Lowell H. Smith ended the first military flight to span the continent. Of the 61 planes in the test only nine finished the flight and nine men died enroute. Among those killed was Major Dana Crissy commander of Mather Field in Sacramento. Moved by the loss of his friend Major Hap Arnold commander of the Presidio airfield requested it be named Crissy Field. GGNRA Park Archives Major Dana Crissy was survived by his wife and wo children. (rev. 06/11) Magellans of the Air The world watched with excitement as four Douglas World Cruisers and their pilots made a daring attempt to fly around the world in 1924. The Seattle Chicago Boston and New Orleans lifted off from Clover Field Seattle Washington on April 6 commencing their historic around-the-world flight. Early on the Seattle crashed into a fog-shrouded mountain in Alaska placing Captain Lowell H. Smith the first army pilot to fly coast to coast in command of the mission. Later the Boston was lost at sea. Near the end of their journey the courageous pilots received a hero’s welcome at Crissy Field. When the surviving aircraft finally returned to Clover Field on September 28th the Chicago and New Orleans had covered 26 345 miles in 172 days. National Archives an Recor s A ministration Crowds of housands gree around- heworld fliers a Crissy Field. Surviving the Pacific Righ : Inspec ing he PN-9 a Crissy Field, af er being forced down. No e he damaged righ wing ip. NPS S aff Drawing Sails were cu from he canvas wings. Hawaii State Archives Islanders honored “Bird of Paradise” pilo s wi h fea her capes reserved for Hawaiian royal y. Crissy Fiel To ay Crowds once again flock o see hings fly a opening day of he res ored Crissy Field. Prin ed on recycled paper using soy-based ink National Archives an Recor s A ministration After the around-the-world flight which made short hops between the northern continents the nation engaged the next big challenge— long distance flight crossing entire oceans. In August of 1925 Navy Commander John Rodgers led two seaplanes down the ramp into the bay at Crissy Field to meet that challenge. After crossing six miles of the bay at full throttle the PN-9 planes finally became airborne and sped west towards Hawaii at 115 miles per hour. Within five hours an oil leak forced one plane down. But Commander Rodgers and his crew flew on alone. M
Los Pioneros de la Aviación National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area GGNRA Park Archives Los primeros vuelos en Crissy Field GGNRA Park Archives Los pilotos llevaron a sus familias para comprobar la seguridad de los aviones. El As de la Aero-Acrobacia Frank Marrero Collection Lincoln Beachey vuela su "Little Looper" en 1913. ¿Exito o Fracaso? ¿Alguna vez has experimentado mucho miedo durante un vuelo? En algún momento de nuestras vidas todos hemos tenido miedo, aún en la seguridad que ofrecen los aviones de hoy. Sin embargo, durante los primeros días de la aviación, cada viaje implicaba una experiencia desafiante y hasta quizás la última. Los primeros pilotos de Crissy Field realizaron maniobras de aviación innovadoras, arriesgando sus vidas para verificar si los aviones eran útiles y confiables. Sus aportes cumplieron una función fundamental para hacer del transporte aéreo una forma de viajar segura y cotidiana para todos. En 1919 el ejército construyó un campo de aviación en el Presidio para promover el potencial aéreo Aún en los comienzos de la aviación, Lincoln Beachey, el padre de la acrobacia aérea, sabía que los aviones llegarían a ser confiables y un medio de transporte normal. Para promover esta creencia, trataba de volar cada vez que tenía público. Y no resultó difícil. La multitud se agrupaba para ver sus piruetas en el aire y ver si era capaz de sobrevivir después de realizarlas. Beachey fue la primer persona en sobrevolar al revés, y en realizar otras piruetas. Así es que en la inauguración de la militar comprobado ya por sus éxito en la Primera Guerra Mundial. Pero aún antes de la culminación del campo de aviación en 1921, ya se podía ver el comienzo de la historia de la aviación. Ya ha comienzos de 1915, multitud de personas se reunían para ver si el "padre de la acrobacia aérea" realizaba alguna proeza en la Exposición Internacional de Panamá-Pacífico. Si nos paramos sobre Crissy Field hoy, sólo podemos imaginar la ovación de la multitud ante el aterrizaje del primer avión en recorrer el mundo, o los saludos temerosos de aquellos que despedían el primer vuelo con rumbo a Hawai. Crissy Field fue testigo de todos estos y más acontecimientos relevantes. Exposición Internacional de PanamáPacífico, se convirtió en la principal atracción al sobrevolar lo que hoy conocemos como Crissy Field. Al realizar estas acrobacias en esta nueva y prematura avioneta, las alas colapsaron. Beachey no pudo escapar de los arneses que lo ataron al avión que se hundía. Finalmente se ahogó en la bahía entre Crissy Field y Fort Mason. El 8 de octubre de 1919, El Primer Test Transcontinental de Seguridad y Resistencia captivó al país cuando 46 pilotos partieron de Roosevelt Field, Long Island, en dirección al oeste, y 15 aviones despegaron del aún sin nombre, campo de aviación en el Presidio en dirección a la costa este. Tres días después en Roosevelt Field, el agotado Capitán Lowell H. Smith culminó su primer vuelo militar al atravesar el continente. De los 61 aviones que participaron en este test, sólo nueve pudieron llegar a destino, y nueve hombres murieron. Entre los fallecidos se encontraba el Mayor Dana Crissy, Comandante del Campo de Aviación Mather en Sacramento. Conmovido por la pérdida de su amigo, el Mayor Hap Arnold, Comandante del campo de aviación del Presidio solicitó nombrar Crissy Field en su homenaje. GGNRA Park Archives El Mayor Dana Crissy dejó una esposa y dos hijos. (rev. 09/03) Los Magallanes del Aire El mundo presenció con entusiasmo el intento audaz de los cuatro Douglas World Cruisers y sus pilotos de volar alrededor del mundo en 1924. El Seattle, Chicago, Boston y el New Orleans, despegaron del campo de aviación Clover en Seattle, Washington, el 6 de abril, iniciando, así, su histórico vuelo alrededor del mundo. Un tiempo antes, el Seattle se estrelló contra una montaña escondida entre la niebla en Alaska lo cual puso al Capitán Lowell H. Smith, primer piloto militar en volar de costa a costa, en comando de la misión. Más tarde, el Boston se perdió en el mar. campo de aviación Clover el 28 de septiembre, el Chicago y el New Orleans ya habían recorrido 26.345 millas en 172 días. Casi al final de su travesía, los valientes pilotos recibieron una gran bienvenida en Crissy Field. Cuando el avión sobreviviente volvió al National Archives and Records Administration Miles de personas saludan en Crissy Field a los aviadores que recorrienron el mundo. Sobreviviendo el Pacífico Inspección del PN-9 en Crissy Field, después de realizar el aterrizaje de emergencia. Observen la punta dañada del ala derecha. Drawing by Will Elder Las velas se cortaron de las canvas de las alas. Hawaii State Archives Los isleños homenajean a los pilotos del "Ave del Paraíso" con capas hechas con plumas y reservadas exclusivamente para la realeza hawaiana. Crissy Field Hoy NPS Staff Photo Una vez más, la multitud se reu
Under Three Flags National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area Artist's conception of how the Presidio may have appeared in 1779 Over 200 Years of Military History The Presidio of San Francisco served as an almost continuously active military garrison for more than 200 years under the flags of three nations. Established in 1776 by Spanish soldiers and colonists, the Presidio became part of Mexico when that nation gained its independence in 1821. The first United States troops arrived at the post in 1846, and the Presidio began to develop into the country's most important Army post on the West Coast. Today the Presidio's architectural, historic, natural and scenic landscapes are preserved and protected as a national park for all to enjoy. Spanish Years: 1776 to 1821 For thousands of years before the Spanish arrived, the native Ohlone people lived on the San Francisco peninsula, where they hunted, fished and gathered plants. In 1769 a Spanish expeditionary force marched up the coast from Baja California, establishing presidios (military outposts) and missions on the way. During this journey the great inland harbor of San Francisco Bay was first seen by Europeans, and plans were made to fortify and settle the area. Mexican Years: 1821 to 1848 In 1821 the newly independent Republic of Mexico included Alta California as part of its territory. For the next 14 years Mexican soldiers served at the Presidio. In 1835 the post was temporarily abandoned when General Mariano Vallejo transferred the military headquarters north to Sonoma. Over time, the Presidio’s adobe walls slowly dissolved in the winter rains. American Years: 1848 to 1890 Gold! News of the discovery lured fortune seekers to California in 1848. San Francisco quickly grew in size and importance, prompting the U.S. government to establish a military reservation here. The Army Corps of Engineers built Fort Point, a fourtiered brick and granite fort, to protect the entrance of San Francisco Bay. The outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 emphasized the importance of a rich California and the harbor's military significance to the Union. The war thus stimulated the first major period of construction at the Presidio under U.S. dominion. Rev. 7/04 In June 1776 Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led a colonizing party of 240 soldiers and their families north from what is now southern Mexico. Under the command of Anza's lieutenant, Jose Joaquin Moraga, they built an adobe quadrangle and living quarters, and dedicated the Presidio de San Francisco on September 17, 1776. An additional 13-gun battery was completed in 1794 to defend the bay’s entrance. These presidial forces represented the northernmost expansion of Spanish rule in America. American forces landed at the new settlement of Yerba Buena in 1846, during the United States’ war with Mexico. (The town was renamed San Francisco the following year.) The ruins of the old Spanish fort were subsequently occupied and repaired by the U.S. Army's New York Volunteers. The Mexican flag was officially lowered over the Presidio in 1848, when a treaty transferred California to the United States. The Indian Wars of the 1870s and 1880s spurred further growth for the Presidio. Soldiers stationed here saw action against the Modoc Indians in the Lava Beds of Northern California and against the Apache Indians in the Southwest. A major tree-planting effort gradually beautified the post and tamed the blowing wind and sand. With the closure of many frontier outposts in the late 1800s, the Presidio again grew and was transformed into a modern military installation ideally situated for U.S. expansion into the Pacific. Printed on recycled paper using soy-based ink U.S. ARMY MILITARY HISTORY INSTITUTE Presidio’s Main Post area in 1898 during the Spanish American War. American Years: 1890 to 1941 Modernization of the Presidio in the 1890s included construction numerous of concrete gun batteries on the bluffs. By the 1910s, the Coastal Artillery Corps was stationed nearby at new Fort Winfield Scott, while the cavalry and infantry resided at the main post. The Presidio cavalry began protecting three new national parks in 1890: Sequoia, General Grant (later Kings Canyon) and Yosemite. They continued these patrols each summer until 1916, when park management was transferred to the newly created National Park Service. NPS, YOSEMITE RESEARCH LIBRARY American Years: 1941 to 1994 NATIONAL JAPANESE AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY American Years: 1994 to the Present The U.S. went to war with Spain in 1898. Large tent camps spread across the Presidio as troops awaited shipment to the Philippines during this short war and the following Philippine War. Returning sick and wounded were treated in the Army’s first permanent general hospital, later named Letterman. "Buffalo Soldiers" from the all-black 9th Cavalry served as the nation's first black Presidential Escort of Ho
Bajo Tres Banderas National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio de San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area La concepción de un artista sobre cómo se veía el Presidio en 1779 Más de 200 años de historia militar El Presidio de San Francisco fue una guarnición militar casi continuamente activa durante más de 200 años bajo las banderas de tres naciones. Establecido en 1776 por colonizadores y soldados españoles, el Presidio se convirtió en parte de México cuando este país obtuvo su independencia en 1821. Las primeras tropas de los Estados Unidos llegaron en 1846, y el Presidio comenzó a convertirse en el puesto militar más importante del país sobre la costa oeste. En la actualidad, los escenarios arquitectónicos, históricos y naturales del Presidio están siendo preservados como un parque nacional para que todos podamos disfrutarlos. Los años de dominio español: 1776 a 1821 Durante miles de años antes de que llegaran los españoles, las tribus de los ohlones habitaron la península de San Francisco, donde cazaban, pescaban y recogían plantas. En 1769 una fuerza expedicionaria española marchó en dirección norte desde Baja California estableciendo presidios (puestos militares) y misiones a lo largo del camino. Durante este viaje, los europeos vieron por primera vez el puerto interior de la Bahía de San Francisco y planearon la construcción y establecimiento de un área fortificada. Los años de dominio mexicano: 1821 a 1848 En 1821 la República de México recientemente independizada incluía Alta California como parte de su territorio. Durante los próximos 14 años los soldados mexicanos sirvieron en el Presidio. En 1835 el puesto quedó abandonado temporariamente cuando el General Mariano Vallejo transladó la base militar hacia el norte en Sonoma. Con el paso del tiempo, las paredes de adobe del Presidio empezaron a deteriorarse lentamente con las lluvias de invierno. Los años de los Estados Unidos: 1848 a 1890 Oro! Las noticias del descubrimiento de oro atrajeron a los cazafortunas hacia California en 1848. San Francisco creció rápidamente en tamaño e importancia, lo cual impulsó al gobierno a establecer una reservar militar en ese lugar. El Cuerpo de Ingenieros del Ejército construyó Fort Point, un fuerte de ladrillo y granito de cuatro pisos para proteger la entrada a la Bahía de San Francisco. El comienzo de la Guerra Civil en 1861 enfatizó la importancia de contar con una California rica además de la significancia militar del puerto para la Unión. Así, la guerra estimuló el primer período principal de construcción en el Presidio bajo el dominio de los EEUU. Rev. 7/03 En junio de 1776 el capitán Juan Bautista de Anza lideró un grupo de 240 soldados y sus familias hacia el norte desde lo que en la actualidad es el sur de México. Bajo las órdenes del teniente de Anza, Jose Joaquin Moraga, construyó una estructura cuadrangular de adobe y viviendas, e inauguró el Presidio de San Francisco el 17 de septiembre de 1776. En 1794, se completó una batería adicional de 13 armas para proteger la entrada de la bahía. Estas construcciones representaron la principal expansión septentrional del régimen español en América. Las fuerzas estadounidenses llegaron al nuevo establecimiento de Yerba Buena en 1846, durante la guerra de los Estados Unidos y México. (El pueblo recibió el nombre de San Francisco el año siguiente). Posteriormente, voluntarios del ejército de los Estados Unidos provenientes de Nueva York ocuparon y repararon las ruinas del antiguo fuerte español. La bandera mexicana fue arriada oficialmente del Presidio en 1848, cuando un tratado confirmó el traslado de California a los Estados Unidos. Las guerras Indias de los 1870s a los 80s aumentó el crecimiento del Presidio. Los soldados ubicados aquí presenciaron las acciones contra las tribus de los Modoc en el lecho de Lava al Norte de California y contra los Apaches en el Sudoeste. Una importante plantación de árboles embelleció el puesto y logró disminuir los vientos y la arena. Con la clausura de muchos puestos fronterizos a fines del siglo 19, el Presidio volvió a crecer y se transformó en una instalación militar moderna con una ubicación ideal para el expansión de los EEUU en el Pacífico. Impreso en papel reciclado con tinta a base de soja U.S. ARMY MILITARY HISTORY INSTITUTE El área del Puesto Principal del Presidio en 1898 durante la Guerra Americana-Española. Los años de los EEUU: 1890 a 1941 La modernización del Presidio en la década de 1890 incluyó la construcción de numerosas baterias de hormigón sobre los acantilados. Hacia fines de 1910, la Coastal Artillery Corps se ubicó en las proximidades de Fort Winfield Scott, mientras que la caballería y la infantería residieron en el puesto principal. La caballería del Presidio comenzó a proteger los tres nuevos parques nacionales en 1890: Sequoia, General Grant (luego Kings Canyon) y Yosemite. Continuaron con esta tarea cada verano hasta 1916, cuando la administración del
The 1915 World’s Fair National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area Bob Bowen Collection In 1915, the Presidio's bayfront and much of today's Marina District was the site of a grand celebration of human spirit and ingenuity, with a liberal dash of nationalism and civic boosterism thrown in. Known formally as the Panama-Pacific International Exposition of 1915, locals simply called it "The Fair." The fair was a milestone in San Francisco history, and left a lasting physical legacy that is still evident today. San Francisco 1906. A Fair Like No Other “The foundation color of the buildings is a soft gray and as it rises it is changed to the soft yellows picked out in places by blue and red and green and the eye is carried up and up by the architecture, spires and things, to the beautiful blue sky above.” —Laura Ingalls Wilder In 1903 President Theodore Roosevelt announced that the U.S. would complete a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, begun years earlier by a French company. The canal would cut 8,000 miles off the distance ships had to travel from the east coast to the west. No canal of this scale had been built before, and many said it could not be done. The geopolitical effects of the canal on the ascendancy of the United States on the world stage were profound. At the turn of the 20th Century, San Francisco was the largest and wealthiest city on the west coast of the United States. In 1906, a disastrous earthquake struck San Francisco. The ensuing fire was more devastating than the Chicago fire of 1871. Less than 10 years after most of San Francisco was destroyed, the proud city was rebuilt and its people were ready to hold a party, one designed to dazzle the world and showcase the new city. The scale and design of the fair were truly exceptional. The Palace of Machinery, the largest structure in the world at the time, was the first building to have a plane fly through it. The Horticulture Palace had a glass dome larger than Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome. The Tower of Jewels reached 40 stories skyward and held 102,000 pieces of multicolored cut glass that sparkled by day and were illuminated by intense electric lights at night. When the fog came in, 48 spotlights of seven different colors illuminated the sky to look like the northern lights. Even as San Francisco was rebuilding after the earthquake, local boosters promoted the city in a competition to host a world's fair that would celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal. The new San Francisco was the perfect choice, and Congress selected the city over several other aspirants, including New Orleans and San Diego. In order to build this grand fair, over 630 acres of bayfront tidal marsh, extending three miles from Fort Mason to east of the Golden Gate (today's Marina District and Crissy Field), were filled. On this new land, 31 nations from around the world and many U.S. states built exhibit halls, connected by forty-seven miles of walkways. There were so many attractions that it was said it would take years to see them all. Bob Bowen Collection Creating a Celebration Horticulture Palace. Showcasing Technology airplane. Lincoln Beachy, one of the best known pilots of the day, performed daring stunts in the Little Looper plane, including flying upside down and intentional stalls and recoveries, to demonstrate the reliability of aircraft. Sadly, Beachy crashed and died during one of his shows in an experimental monoplane. The Panama-Pacific International Exposition looked to the future for innovation. It was intended to showcase new technologies and how they were making the world a better place. Things we take for granted today—cars, airplanes, telephones, and movies—were in their infancy and were shown off at the fair, and some well known technological luminaries were involved in the fair. New farming and agricultural technologies were also introduced at the fair. Luther Burbank, creator of many new kinds of plants including the Burbank potato, Santa Rosa plum, Shasta daisy, and the fire poppy, was in charge of the Horticulture Palace. Author Laura Ingalls Wilder was particularly impressed with new dairy techniques. She wrote, "I saw…cows being milked with a milk machine. And it milked them clean and the cows did not object in the least." Lincoln Beachy flying the Little Looper at the fair. A Small World The Legacy Palace of Fine Arts. Every day at three o'clock, rain or shine, the calls of "Contact!" and "Clear!" could be heard, followed by the roar of an Reflecting breakthroughs in transportation and communication, visitors to the fair could seemingly go places and meet people from around the nation and the world, all in a day. They could stroll through California's "Big Trees" inside the Southern Pacific Railroad exhibit, or see the Oregon Exhibit Hall, with its replica of the Greek Parthenon with columns made of redwood trunks. They could spend the night in
1906 Earthquake National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior The U.S. Army’s Role Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area Bob Bowen Collection View looking north from the largest Presidio refugee camp near the site of Letterman Hospital SF Public Library On Wednesday, April 18, 1906, at 5:12 a.m., the ground under San Francisco shook violently for 65 seconds. Earthquake damage was severe, but the ensuing fires were truly catastrophic. Burning for three days, they destroyed over 500 city blocks in the heart of the city. Overcome by shock, panic, and confusion, over half of the city’s 400,000 people ended up homeless. Army troops stationed at the Presidio, now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, responded within hours. They maintained order, fought fires, established communications, gave medical treatment, and provided food, shelter and sanitation. The military response is a story of heroism and valor, order and organization, but also controversy as much of the initial Army response was improvised due to the lack of clear guidelines. Many fires broke out within minutes of the earthquake. They raged through the city for three days, destroying thousands of buildings. Contributing to the fires’ intensity were tinder box dry wooden buildings, leaking gas mains, and the lack of water due to broken pipes. With few alternatives, Army Artillery Captain Le Vert Coleman and General Frederick Funston outlined plans to create firebreaks by using dynamite. Their strategy was risky, but with the expanding fire, city officials agreed to let them proceed. Neither the San Francisco Fire Department nor the Army artillerymen were experienced with dynamite, and the explosions often spread the fires, rather than stopping them. The debate continues today regarding the damage caused or prevented by the dynamiting. Bob Bowen Collection As crowds took to the streets in the chaos that followed the earthquake, San Francisco Mayor Eugene Schmitz delivered a controversial edict: “The Federal Troops, the members of the Regular Police Force and all Special Police Officers have been authorized by me to KILL any and all persons found engaged in Looting or in the Commission of Any Other Crime.” Within two hours, Army troops marched in to help city authorities maintain order, enforce the mayor’s edict, and initiate civilian evacuations as the fires approached. Looters were shot, and by some accounts, poor people and minorities were preferentially targeted. Some citizens also complained that the evacuations were too rash, and that they were not given adequate time to collect their belongings. General Funston GGNRA Park Archives Bob Bowen Collection A Call to Action On the day of the earthquake, General Frederick Funston immediately ordered the mobilization of troops, took command of local relief and law enforcement, and directed the dynamiting of buildings to create firebreaks. Acting without state or national authority, Funston was later criticized for many of his actions. He was, however, instrumental in the establishment of communications, sanitation, medical facilities, housing and reestablishing general order to a destroyed city, and afterwards was generally regarded as a local and national hero. Establishing Communications GGNRA Park Archives San Francisco was cut off from the rest of the world by the earthquake. All telephone and telegraph lines were severed, making communication with loved ones impossible, and impeding fire fighting and relief efforts. The U.S. Army Signal Corps at the Presidio were put in charge of re-establishing communications. They quickly began mending and stringing communication cables through the burning city. Within a day they had a direct line between Army headquarters at Fort Mason and the Secretary of War in Washington. The new communication lines, 40 telegraph offices, and 79 phone offices set up by the Signal Corps provided crucial links between the city’s seven relief districts, the Mayor’s office, Federal offices, and key transportation points. The city depended entirely on military telegraph lines until May 10th. Even as Army troops marched into the city, Quartermaster Major Carroll A. Devol sent a telegram to the War Department requesting relief aid. Almost immediately, trains loaded with supplies began heading toward San Francisco. In the first three days, the Presidio issued 3,000 tents, 13,000 ponchos, 58,000 pairs of shoes, 24,000 shirts. Its on-site bakery distributed large quantities of bread. In addition to distributing food and clothing, the Army ran 21 official refugee camps. These camps were organized and maintained in military fashion, and were among the safest and cleanest of the refugee shelters. National Archives& Records Administration Providing for the refugees Treating the wounded and preventing disease With the city’s hospitals badly damaged, the Presidio’s Army General Hospital and an Army Field hospital sent from the East opened their doors to
Frequent Flyers National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area of the Presidio The Presidio of San Francisco has one of the greatest diversity of birds of any urban park in the world, with over 200 species identified here. A number of factors create this diversity, including the exceptionally wide variety of habitats found here—from open water and protected bay, to rocky and sandy shoreline, to tidal marshes, coastal scrub, grasslands, mixed woodlands and ornamental areas. Because the Presidio lies on a major bird migratory route, the Pacific flyway, it also hosts a variety of transient birds that stop over to rest and feed on their journey to and from places as far away as South America and the Canadian arctic. This combination of factors makes the Presidio a birder’s paradise with many different species to see throughout the year. Red-shouldered Hawk (juvenile) Allen’s Hummingbird Chestnut-backed Chickadee Woodland & scrub Common year-round Woodland & scrub Common spring & summer Woodland Common year-round Black Phoebe Hermit Thrush All terrestrial habitats Common year-round Oak & scrub Fairly common fall–spring Ruby-crowned Kinglet Woodland Common fall & winter Townsend’s Warbler California Towhee American Goldfinch Oak & Willow Fairly common fall–spring Oak & scrub Fairly common year-round Willow, scrub, grassland Fairly common year-round Habitats Native Oak & Willow Dune, Scrub & Grasslands Planted Forest & Ornamental Water and Wetland Trail Changing Habitats Bird diversity at the Presidio has shifted over the years as its habitats have changed. When Europeans arrived in the 1770s, the area was mostly dune scrub with few trees. The army planted the Presidio’s forest in the 1890s and a much greater variety of forest dwelling birds moved in. During the same period, the marshes along the bay were filled throughout the Bay Area, leading to a decline in shorebirds and waterfowl. The recreated tidal lagoon and marsh at Crissy Field has attracted those birds back to the Presidio. Egrets, Herons, Kingfishers and other water birds are commonplace once again. (rev. 9/11) For more information, on Presidio birds visit: www.nps.gov/prsf/naturescience/presidio-birds.htm N A T I V E O A K & W I L L O W Barn Swallow Scrub Jay All terrestrial habitats Common spring–fall Scrub and willow Common year-round White-crowned Sparrow Song Sparrow House Finch Low dense scrub and willows Fairly common year-round All terrestrial habitats Common year-round Red-tailed Hawk Anna’s Hummingbird Dark-eyed Junco All terrestrial habitats Common year-round All terrestrial habitats Common year-round Willow, oak, scrub, grasslands Common year-round Common Raven Hooded Oriole American Robin All terrestrial habitats Common year-round Willow, palms. landscaped areas Fairly common spring–summer All terrestrial habitats Common year-round Western Grebe Double-crested Cormorant Surf Scoter Oak, willow, scrub, grassland Common year-round Open salt water Common fall–spring Scrub Common year-round Greater Scaup Caspian Tern Tidal & fresh water Common year-round Tidal & fresh water Fairly common fall–winter Salt, tidal & fresh water Fairly common spring–fall Western Gull Least Sandpiper Willet Salt & fresh water Common year-round Salt & tidal water Fairly common fall–spring Salt & tidal water Common fall–spring Killdeer Great Blue Heron Great Egret Snowy Egret Tidal & fresh water Fairly common spring–fall EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Tidal & fresh water Fairly common year-round Black-crowned Night Heron (juvenile) Tidal & fresh water Fairly common year-round D U N E & S C R U B P L A N T E D A R E A S Open salt water Common fall -spring Mallard Fresh water, grasslands Fairly common year-round Printed on recycled paper. Salt & fresh water Fairly common year-round Northern Mockingbird Tidal & fresh water Fairly common year-round Brown Pelican Open salt water Common spring–fall www.nps.gov/prsf/ W A T E R H A B I T A T S
Presidio Insects National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Presidio of San Francisco Golden Gate National Recreation Area and their plant hosts Take a little time to slow down and take a closer look at the plants in the natural areas of the Presidio. Not only will you better appreciate the intricate beauty and variety of the native plants that grow here, but you also will become aware that they host a whole other microcosm, a myriad of insects for which the Presidio is their world. And the wide variety of habitats found here—from open water and protected bay, to rocky and sandy shoreline, to tidal marshes, coastal scrub, grasslands, mixed woodlands and ornamental areas—provide vital food and shelter to a great diversity of insects. In particular, bee diversity is very high at the Presidio, with 60 species identified in a recent study. These bees, as well as the many types of flies found here provide a critical role in pollinating our native plants. Butterflies Butterflies are a favorite of the insect world for their beauty and lively grace. The adults may collect nectar and pollinate a wide variety of plants, whereas the larval caterpillars tend to feed on specific kinds host plants. Habitat reduction and eradication of host plants can mean extinction of species. In 1942, the world's last Xerces blue butterfly flew at the Presidio. This was the first documented butterfly extinction due to human impact in North America, and it inspired the founding of the Xerces Society to promote insect conservation. Cabbage White (Pieris rapae) Introduced to eastern Canada in the 1860s, this species is now found across the U. S. Host plants are members of the mustard family. Orange Sulphur (Colias eurytheme) This widespread species prefers open habitats. Members of the pea family, such as the vetch it is sitting on here, are its hosts. Gray Hairstreak (Strymon melinus) This widespread species is often found in sunny scrub areas. Host plants it prefers are members of the pea and mallow families. Acmon Blue (Icaricia acmon) This West Coast blue has orange on both the top and bottom of its wings. Its caterpillars eat the leaves of buckwheats and lupines. Field Crescent (Phycoides ptratensis) This western species frequents open areas, often near streams. Its main host plants are asters and tansy asters. Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) This widespread species frequents riparian areas near streams and marshes. Its preferred host is nettle. West Coast Lady (Vanessa annabella) This western species likes open areas and is very common in lowland areas of California. Its main host is mallow. Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia) This widespread species is found in sunny open areas. It has many plant hosts including plantain, owl's clover, monkey flower, and toadflax. Monarch (Danaus plexippus) This widespread species is known for long migrations. West Coast members overwinter in coastal California, including at the Presidio. Milkweeds are its hosts. Fiery Skipper (Hylephila phyleus) This widespread species likes open, sunny areas. Its hosts are grasses. This one is nectaring on endangered San Francisco lessingia, providing pollination for this rare plant. 09/06 Bees and Wasps Bees and wasps get a bad reputation because of their sting, but they can actually be quite beautiful if one takes a closer look. They also are critical to the success and survival of many plants by carrying pollen from plant to plant as they feed. The Presidio's native plants and bees thus live in close harmony. Our sand dunes and sandy soils also provide important nesting sites for many of these species adapted to burrowing in soft ground. Thread-wasted Wasp (Ammophila sp.) Adults of this solitary wasp like flower pollen. Females dig nests in the sand where they provision their larvae with caterpillars to eat. Sand Wasp (Bembix sp.) The adults of this wasp feed on nectar. Females dig nests in the sand and provision them with flies that they paralyze with their sting. Burrowing Wasp (Philanthus sp.) Females of this brightly striped wasp provision their nests in the sand with other wasps and bees. Green Sweat Bee (Agapostemon texana) Females of this species are metallic green, while males have metallic green thoraxes and yellow and black striped abdomens. Wool Carder Bee (Anthidium palliventre) This species gathers plant hairs from coast buckwheat to line its nests. Females provision the nests with pollen and nectar from phacelia (shown in photo) and lupine. Digger Bee (Anthophora urbana) These flower-loving bees nest in colonies in the ground and provision their nests with a mixture of pollen and nectar. Bumble Bee (Bombus vosnesenskii) This native social bee is the Presidio's most common bumble bee. Queens build nests in the ground, where they lay eggs in wax pots and fill them with pollen and nectar. Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) This social species was imported from Europe. It is important in the pollination of crops and the prod

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