"Mount Rainier" by NPS/Emily Brouwer Photo , public domain

Mount Rainier

National Park - Washington

Mount Rainier National Park, a 369-sq.-mile Washington state reserve southeast of Seattle, surrounds glacier-capped, 14,410-ft. Mount Rainier. Atop 6,400-ft.-high Sunrise, the highest point in the park reachable by car, visitors can admire Rainier and other nearby volcanoes, including Mount Adams. The park’s 5,400-ft.-high Paradise overlook offers mountain views, summertime wildflower meadows and hiking trailheads.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Mount Rainier National Park (NP) in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Mount Rainier National Park (NP) in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Visitor map of Gifford Pinchot National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Gifford Pinchot - Visitor Map

Visitor map of Gifford Pinchot National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Evans Creek Area in the Snoqualmie Ranger District in Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie MVUM - Evans Creek Area 2020

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Evans Creek Area in the Snoqualmie Ranger District in Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Snoqualmie Ranger District in Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie MVUM - Snoqualmie 2020

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of Snoqualmie Ranger District in Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (NF) in Washington. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Map of Green Dot Roads in the Ahtaum area in Washington. Published by Washington State Department of Natural Resources (WSDNR).Ahtanum - Green Dot Roads

Map of Green Dot Roads in the Ahtaum area in Washington. Published by Washington State Department of Natural Resources (WSDNR).

Map of Washington State Highways / Tourist Map. Published by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT).Washington State - Highway Map

Map of Washington State Highways / Tourist Map. Published by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT).

brochures

Brochure of Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier - Brochure

Brochure of Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Summer/Fall Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Guide - Summer/Fall 2023

Summer/Fall Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Spring Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Guide - Spring 2022

Spring Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Winter Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Guide - Winter 2021/2022

Winter Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Guide - Fall 2019

Visitor Guide for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Longmire/Cougar Rock Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Longmire/Cougar Rock

Brochure of Longmire/Cougar Rock Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Paradise Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Paradise

Brochure of Paradise Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Ohanapecosh Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Ohanapecosh

Brochure of Ohanapecosh Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Sunrise Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Sunrise

Brochure of Sunrise Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Carbon River Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Carbon River

Brochure of Carbon River Area Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Camp Muir at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Camp Muir

Brochure of Camp Muir at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Bench and Snow Lakes Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Bench and Snow Lakes

Brochure of Bench and Snow Lakes Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Crystal Lakes and Crystal Peak Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Crystal Lakes and Crystal Peak

Brochure of Crystal Lakes and Crystal Peak Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Eagle Peak Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Eagle Peak

Brochure of Eagle Peak Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Eastside Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Eastside

Brochure of Eastside Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Indian Henrys Hunting Ground at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Indian Henrys Hunting Ground

Brochure of Indian Henrys Hunting Ground at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Lake George and Gobblers Knob Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Lake George and Gobblers Knob

Brochure of Lake George and Gobblers Knob Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Naches Peak Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Naches Peak

Brochure of Naches Peak Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Owyhigh Lakes Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Owyhigh Lakes

Brochure of Owyhigh Lakes Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Pinnacle Peak Saddle Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Pinnacle Peak Saddle

Brochure of Pinnacle Peak Saddle Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Shriner Peak Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Shriner Peak

Brochure of Shriner Peak Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Spray Falls and Spray Park Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Spray Falls and Spray Park

Brochure of Spray Falls and Spray Park Trails at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Summerland Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Summerland

Brochure of Summerland Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Three lakes Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Trails - Three Lakes

Brochure of Three lakes Trail at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Amphibians and Reptiles at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Amphibians and Reptiles

Brochure of Amphibians and Reptiles at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Bird Checklist for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Birds

Bird Checklist for Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Carnivore Tracking at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Carnivore Tracking

Brochure about Carnivore Tracking at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Flooding and Aggradation at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Flooding and Aggradation

Brochure about Flooding and Aggradation at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Forests at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Forests

Brochure about Forests at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Geology of Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Geology

Brochure about Geology of Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Mammals and Life Zones at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Mammals

Brochure about Mammals and Life Zones at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Subalpine Wildflowers at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Subalpine Wildflowers

Brochure about Subalpine Wildflowers at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Old-Growth Forest at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Old-Growth Forest

Brochure about Old-Growth Forest at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure about Trees at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Mount Rainier Nature - Trees

Brochure about Trees at Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/mora/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Rainier_National_Park Mount Rainier National Park, a 369-sq.-mile Washington state reserve southeast of Seattle, surrounds glacier-capped, 14,410-ft. Mount Rainier. Atop 6,400-ft.-high Sunrise, the highest point in the park reachable by car, visitors can admire Rainier and other nearby volcanoes, including Mount Adams. The park’s 5,400-ft.-high Paradise overlook offers mountain views, summertime wildflower meadows and hiking trailheads. Ascending to 14,410 feet above sea level, Mount Rainier stands as an icon in the Washington landscape. An active volcano, Mount Rainier is the most glaciated peak in the contiguous U.S.A., spawning five major rivers. Subalpine wildflower meadows ring the icy volcano while ancient forest cloaks Mount Rainier’s lower slopes. Wildlife abounds in the park’s ecosystems. A lifetime of discovery awaits. Mount Rainier National Park is located in west-central Washington state. Several major cities in Washington- Seattle, Tacoma, and Yakima- and Portland, Oregon, are within 200 miles of the park. For GPS to Nisqually Entrance use: 39000 State Route 706 E, Ashford, WA 98304. Carbon River Ranger Station Located in the northwest corner of the park, the ranger station is staffed by rangers or volunteers. Building hours may vary so call ahead for hours 360-829-9639. When open, rangers and volunteers provide park information, wilderness camping, and climbing permits. Wilderness camping permits available by self-registration when closed. Located on the Carbon River Road, 5.5 miles east of its junction with the Mowich Lake Road (State Route 165), the ranger station is just over 2 miles before the road ends at the park boundary. Henry M Jackson Memorial Visitor Center Located at Paradise, on the south side of Mount Rainier, the Jackson Visitor Center is open throughout the summer and with limited days and hours in the winter. Inside the visitor center are accessible restrooms, an information desk staffed by a ranger or volunteer, food services, gift shop, park movie, and exhibits about the plants, animals, and the volcano. There is no physical address for the Henry Jackson Visitor Center. It is located at Paradise, on the south side of the mountain, on the road connecting Longmire and Stevens Canyon. For GPS users, it is at 46.785887,-121.736573 . During the winter (November-April), most park roads are closed except the one from Longmire to Paradise. That road is closed nightly for safety. Check www.twitter.com/MountRainierNPS for daily winter road updates and tire chain restrictions. Longmire Museum Located on the south side of Mount Rainier at 2,700 feet above sea level, the museum makes up part of the historic Longmire district. Once a ranger office, the building now houses historic exhibits about the park's natural and geological history, and animals. A ranger or volunteer staffs the museum to assist with park information and book and map sales. The Longmire Museum has no physical address. It is in Longmire, on the south side of the mountain, about 9 miles east of the town of Ashford on State Route 706. Longmire Wilderness Information Center Open during the summer, the Longmire Wilderness Information Center (WIC) is located in the lobby of the historic Longmire Administration Building, a picturesque example of National Park Service rustic architecture in Longmire. The WIC features a 3D model map of Mount Rainier National Park and has an information desk staffed by wilderness rangers. Rangers at the WIC assist with wilderness permits, trip planning, and providing maps and trail condition updates. The Longmire WIC has no physical address. It is in Longmire, on the south side of the mountain, about 9 miles east of the town of Ashford on State Route 706. Ohanapecosh Visitor Center This visitor center is located in the southeast corner of the park on State Route 123, 12 miles north of the town of Packwood. It is next to the Ohanapecosh Campground and near the trailhead for the Natural Hot Springs and Silver Falls. There are restrooms, exhibits, and a ranger or volunteer on duty to answer questions when it is open for the summer season. Ohanapecosh Visitor Center is on State Route 123, 12 miles north of the town of Packwood. It has no physical address. GPS users can enter 46.914466,-121.643404 for its location. Paradise Wilderness Information Center Open during the summer, the Paradise Wilderness Information Center (WIC) is located in the main room of the historic Guide House. The WIC has an information desk staffed by wilderness rangers. Rangers at the WIC assist with wilderness permits, trip planning, and providing maps and trail condition updates. The Paradise WIC has no physical address. It is located at Paradise, on the south side of the mountain, on the road connecting Longmire and Stevens Canyon. For GPS users, it is at 46.786506, -121.735432. Sunrise Visitor Center Located on the northeast flank of Mount Rainier, this visitor center is at the end of the Sunrise Road, 15 miles after the turn off from State Route 410. Only open and accessible in summer, the Sunrise Visitor Center has exhibits, books and maps for sale, and rangers and volunteers on duty to answer questions. Restrooms, gift shop, and food services are located nearby during the summer season. Sunrise Visitor Center has no physical address. It is at the end of the Sunrise Road, 15 miles east from the turn off at State Route 410. For GPS users, it is at 46.914466,-121.643404 . These roads are not plowed in the winter and only accessible by motor vehicle in the summer. White River Wilderness Information Center Open during the summer, the White River Wilderness Information Center (WIC) located at the Winter River Entrance. The WIC has an information desk staffed by wilderness rangers. Rangers at the WIC assist with wilderness permits, trip planning, and providing maps and trail condition updates. There is no official address for this facility. The White River Ranger Station & Wilderness Information Center is located in the northeast area of Mount Rainier National Park on White River Road, 1.3 miles from its junction with SR410. The nearest town is Greenwater, Washington. Cougar Rock Campground Cougar Rock Campground is located on the south side of the park, on the road between Longmire and Paradise. It is in a steep valley with the Nisqually River across the main road. Thick forest extends through the whole campground providing privacy for campsites. Access to the Wonderland trail is across the road with waterfalls a moderate hike away. Less than 15 minutes of driving can take you to the trails and facilities at Longmire or Paradise. Campground Site Fee 20.00 Fee to camp in one campsite in the campground with up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) for one night. Discount Campground Site Fee 10.00 With an America the Beautiful Access or Senior Pass, the card holder can get a discounted rate for a campsite. A single campsite can have up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family). Group Site Fee 60.00 If you plan to use the group sites at Cougar Rock or Ohanapecosh campgrounds between Memorial Day weekend and Columbus Day, you must make reservations. Groups of 12 or more are permitted only in specific group sites. Group sites are designed for tent camping only so RVs are not permitted. At campgrounds throughout the park, parking is limited. Those using group campsites may need to consult the campground ranger to arrange additional parking. Maximum groups sizes vary by site. Cougar Rock Ranger Station A small brown building with a window for taking questions. Visitors can check in to the campground and get guidance from park staff at the ranger station. Cougar Rock RV Campsite A large white RV in front of thick woods An example of an RV campsite at Cougar Rock Cougar Rock Amphitheater Rows of wooden benches leading up to a screen with wooden panelling The amphitheater at Cougar Rock where junior ranger and evening programs are held. Cougar Rock Food Storage A brown rectangular metal container marked "food storage" Bear-proof food storage containers are provided in the campground. Cougar Rock Recycling Containiers Three green recycling containers inside a wooden enclosure Campground visitors are provided with recycling options. Cougar Rock Campsite Four fold up chairs in front of a large tent. An example tent campsite at Cougar Rock. Cougar Rock Group Campsites A large open space with scattered sleeping bags and camp materials Group campsites are available at Cougar Rock. Cougar Rock Bathrooms A small brown building with a stone structure for obtaining water in front. Bathrooms are provided at each of the campground loops. Cougar Rock Evening Programs A yellow flyer noting the times of programs. Junior Ranger and Evening Programs are provided every night at the Cougar Rock Amphitheater. Cougar Rock Trails A brown sign noting the distance to trails in the area. Cougar Rock is located near several trails in the park. Cougar Rock Campground A forest road with the top of Mount Rainier poking out over the trees. The campground does provide limited views of the mountain in a few spots. Cougar Rock Campground Host A white RV trailer nestled in the woods. Volunteer campground hosts help orient campers. Cougar Rock Message Board A broad message board with a pay phone. A machine for paying the camping fee and a pay phone are on a message board at the front of the campground. Cougar Rock RV Restrictions A white sign detailing the allowable lengths of RVs There are some restrictions on RV lengths. Ohanapecosh Campground Ohanapecosh Campground is tucked in the forest along the banks of the Ohanapecosh River at an elevation of 1,914 feet. It is located in the southeast corner of the park along State Route 123. Under the tall trees, the campsites are relatively private. Trails that begin at the campground lead to Silver Falls and the Grove of the Patriarchs. Stop by the Ohanapecosh Visitor Center for information and exhibits. Campground Site Fee 20.00 A campsite can hold up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) for one night. Discounted Campground Site Fee 10.00 With an America the Beautiful Access or Senior Pass, the card holder can get a discounted rate for a campsite. A single campsite can have up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) per night. Group Site Fee 60.00 If you plan to use the group sites at Cougar Rock or Ohanapecosh campgrounds between Memorial Day weekend and Columbus Day, you must make reservations. Groups of 12 or more are permitted only in specific group sites. Group sites are designed for tent camping only so RVs are not permitted. At campgrounds throughout the park, parking is limited. Those using group campsites may need to consult the campground ranger to arrange additional parking. Maximum groups sizes vary by site. Ohanapecosh Campground Registration A brown bulletin board with information about the campground and a machine for paying the fee. Campers can get information and pay the camping fee at the bulletin board near the visitor center. Ohanapecosh Visitor Center A large brown building with a slanted roof surrounded by forest. The Ohanapecosh Visitor Center contains serveral exhibits about the surrounding area and is situated right next to the campground. Ohanapecosh waste bins. Two metal bins for recycling and trash. The campground provides bins to dispose of trash and recycling. Ohanapecosh Campground Views A rushing river nestled in between tall forests. The campground provides a great view of the Ohanapecosh River. Ohanapecosh Amphitheater Rows of wooden benches leading up to a large projection screen. Campers can enjoy evening programs at the Ohanapecosh Amphitheater. Ohanapecosh Bathrooms A brown bathroom building with forest behind. Bathroom facilities are provided at each loop of the campground. Ohanapecosh Campsite A tan and white van next to an orange tent in a forested campsite. An example campsite at the Ohanapecosh campground. Ohanapecosh Water Supply A small stone structure with faucets for getting water. Faucets for collecting water a located near the restroom facilities. Ohanapecosh Campground Rays of light pushing through tall trees into a campsite. Ohanapecosh campground provides a tranquil forested camping experience. Ohanapecosh Food Storage A small brown metal box labeled food storage. Metal food storage containers are provided at the campground. Ohanapecosh Trails A silver sign detailing the local trails. Several trails lead out of the Ohanapecosh Campground. White River Campground Located on the eastern side of the park below Sunrise, White River campground takes its name from the river flowing beside it. Tucked into a steep canyon, curves can be tight. When open for the summer, it is always first-come, first-serve. The Wonderland trail runs through the campground on its way up to Sunrise or Summerland. Campground Site Fee 20.00 Campsite can accommodate up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) per night. Discounted Campground Site Fee 10.00 A cardholder of the American the Beautiful Access or Senior Pass can get a discount for the campsite they are staying in. Campsite can accommodate up to 2 tents and 6 people (unless immediate family) per night. White River Campground Ranger Station A brown wall with a sign for the ranger station with a large park service arrow head. The White River Ranger Station provides support and assistance to campers. White River waste bins A group of six metal waste bins for trash and recycling. Trash and recycling bins are provided for campers. White River Campsites A large green tent with trees in the background. An example campsite at the White River Campground. White River views A rocky river basin with forested valley walls that leads up to Mount Rainier. Some campsites at White River provide great views of Mount Rainier. White River hiking A brown sign pointing to a forested trail. Several trails depart from the White River Campground. White River Bathrooms A brown bathroom building behind a small stone structure for getting water. Bathroom facilities are provided at each of the campground's loops. White River RV site A large white RV in a campsite. An example RV site at White River. White River Fire Circle Rows of wooden benchs around a campfire circle. White River has a fire circle where evening programs are held. Historic White River Patrol Cabin A wooden cabin surrounded by forest. A historic ranger cabin at White River provides a window into past management of the area. White River food storage A brown metal container infront of an RV campsite Metal food storage boxes are provided at the campground. Silver Forest Sunset A purple and pink streaked sky over a mountain peak and forested valley. The Silver Forest Trail at Sunrise features spectacular views of Mount Rainier and the White River valley. Climbing Mount Rainier Climber on glacier steps downward with icy crags in background. Summiting Mount Rainier involves climbing a volcano, scaling glaciers, dealing with high elevations and much more. Almost 10,000 people a year attempt to summit. Giants of the Old-Growth Forest Towering cedars and douglas-firs reach skyward while a beam of sun breaks through the canopy. With some of the few remaining old-growth forests in the Cascade Mountains, Mount Rainier National Park protects native plants great and small in places like the Grove of the Patriarchs. Marmot in Morning Dew A hoary marmot with white frosted fur rests on a rock beside white flowers in a meadow. From small amphibians and hoary marmots to the black bears and elk, many animals call the wild places of Mount Rainier home. Kids Hiking Through Wildflower Meadow Two children hike on trail through wildflower meadow with Mount Rainier above them. Enjoying the outdoors through recreation is a big part of many visitors' experiences. Mount Rainier at sunset Sunset paints the glaciers of Mount Rainier in pink and gold. Every scenic overlook shows a different side of Mount Rainier. Viewed from Gobblers Knob Lookout at sunset, the glaciers covering the mountain turn pink and gold. National Park Inn in Winter The historic National Park Inn covered in a foot of snow. For thousands of years, people have traveled up to, over, and around Mount Rainier. Today the park strives to preserve this history while providing a chance for new generations to find their own adventures. Wildflower Meadow Along the Wonderland Trail Purple lupine and white bistort bloom in a meadow alongside a sign for the Wonderland Trail. Both the Wonderland Trail and subalpine meadows encircle Mount Rainier. Summertime blooms splatter the hillsides with color. Mount Rainier from Aurora Lake A glaciated mountain framed by forested hillsides reflects in a still mountain lake. Aurora Lake in Klapatche Park on the west side of Mount Rainier. John Muir and his efforts to preserve Mount Rainier John Muir and his efforts to preserve Mount Rainier As president of the newly formed Sierra Club, John Muir gave numerous lectures and wrote various articles advocating for the preservation of Mount Rainier from the years 1893 to 1899. Muir also made efforts to unite other organizations across the nation who were pursuing the same cause. Image of John Muir WWII Training in Mt. Rainier National Park Over the course of World War II, Mount Rainier National Park served as a winter training and testing ground the U.S. Army’s 10th Mountain Division and other military units. The ‘old 10th’s’ cold weather equipment testing and training prepared its soldiers for their march through the Apennine Mountains to capture German strongholds. B&W photo of soldiers in white Aggradation, Avulsion, and the Historic Nisqually Road at Mount Rainier Climate change is making the glaciers at Mount Rainier recede, leading to effects downstream in the waterways alongside the park's historic roads. Find out about techniques used by park staff to adapt to climate change, and preserve the cultural landscape in the process. Glacier at Mount Rainier Partnerships add a Charge to your Travel Plans The National Park Service, the National Park Foundation, BMW of North America, the U.S. Department of Energy, concessioners, and gateway communities have collaborated to provide new technologies for travel options to and around national parks. As part of this public-private partnership, BMW of North America, working through the National Park Foundation, donated and arranged for the installation of 100 electric vehicle (EV) charging ports in and around national parks. Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Mount Rainier National Park A introduction to a long-term study on the sequestration of carbon within the soil in order to quantify important factors in soil organic carbon distribution. Shallow repeating seismic events under an alpine glacier on Mount Rainier: stick-slip glacier sliding events or volcanic earthquakes? Study to determine whether repeating earthquakes on Mount Rainier were generated by stick-slip sliding at the bed of glaciers, occurring when the glacier is loaded with snow, rather than due to volcanic activity. Small-Scale Variations in Melt of a Debris-Covered Glacier: Emmons Glacier, Mount Rainier National Park This study looked at how the rock debris covering the Emmons Glacier changed the glacier's response to stress factors like climate change. Glacier Monitoring in the National Parks of Washington State: A virtual field experience. Increasing public awareness of Glacial resources in the North Coast / Cascades National Parks Virtual reality is being investigated as a means of providing the average visitor and the public with the experience of glaciers and glacier research. Climate Monitoring in Mount Rainier National Park An ongoing project to monitor the weather in the park to understand variations in other park resources such as plants and glaciers. Data is collected primarily through seven weather stations. Debris Flow Processes on Mount Rainier A study of the origin of debris flows and the roles that glacier retreat and climate change play in the frequency of debris flows. Inventory of Geothermal Resources in Washington State As part of a state-wide study of geothermal resources, samples were taken from thermal and mineral springs (minus the summit fumeroles). Analysis of the samples will contribute to a better understanding of the regional geothermal system. Long-term Ecological Monitoring of Mountain Lakes, 2013 An on-going long-term study of the impacts of atmospheric pollution, climate change, non-native species, backcountry visitation, and other factors on park lakes. Woman in NPS ballcap sitting on rocky lake shore operates water sampling equipment. Geoscientists-in-the-Parks: Hydrologic Technicians Read about the work Taylor Blumenstein and Tae Wan Kim did as a Hydrologic Technician GIPs at Mount Rainier National Park in 2016. Interns working on field equipment Preserving Paradise Inn Media Kit For over a century, the Paradise Inn and Annex has served as a home base for visitors wishing to explore Paradise Meadows and Mount Rainier. Mount Rainier National Park is committed to preserving this historic structure and ensuring its continued use into the future. In partnership with Rainier Guest Services and Korsmo Construction, a major rehabilitation of the Annex was completed this spring and the Paradise Inn and Annex reopens May 17. A four-story grey building with an angled roof on a snowy slope on the side of a glaciated mountain. Mount Rainier Volcano Monitoring Mount Rainier is considered an active volcano and will have future eruptions. Mount Rainier National Park aids with logistical support as the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) conducts monitoring of seismic activity (with the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network), ground deformation, hydrothermal activity, and more to track Mount Rainier’s volcanic activity. A rocky volcanic peak drapped with glaciers. Monitoring the Health of Whitebark Pine Populations MAY 2018 – Whitebark pine is a five-needle pine that grows in high-elevation ecosystems in Western North America. It can be found in three national parks within the North Coast and Cascades Network. Today, its long-term survival is threatened by an introduced fungus, blister rust, and the native mountain pine beetle. To better understand how to protect the trees, the Network established study plots in eight stands in Mount Rainier and five stands in North Cascades in 2004. Person measuring a stand of whitebark pine and subalpine fir trees Cascades Butterfly Project May 2018 – Butterfly abundances and plant flowering patterns are sensitive indicators of changing climates. The Cascades Butterfly Project is a long-term monitoring program where citizen scientists (volunteers) and National Park Service biologists monitor subalpine butterflies and plant phenology. Person examining a captured butterfly in the field Sensitivity of Marmots and Pikas to Weather Anomalies Associated with Climate Change Hoary marmots and American pikas are locally declining in response to climate driven changes in moisture, snowpack duration, warming temperatures, and cold exposure. Two marmots, one larger and one smaller, look out from behind a rock Butterflies of the North Coast & Cascades A comprehensive list of butterfly species found in Mount Rainier National Park, North Cascades National Park Complex, Olympic National Park, and San Juan Island National Historical Park. Brightly colored Milbert's tortoiseshell on the ground Longmire: Designing a National Park Style “The buildings at Longmire are among the most successful experiments in the development of that rustic design ethic while possessing great architectural integrity.” National Register of Historic Places Nomination Longmire Administration Building with stone first story and dark brown wooden 2nd story. Washington Fisher Restoration Fishers, a member of the weasel family, are being reintroduced to Washington State. A fisher, a medium-sized mammal with brown fur. Northern Spotted Owl Monitoring at Mount Rainier National Park Northern Spotted Owls are annually monitored at Mount Rainier National Park as concern over the park’s population continues. Learn more about these efforts. A female Northern Spotted Owl looks down at the camera while perching on a branch. Monitoring Amphibians at Mount Rainier National Park, 2019 Summary Volunteer citizen scientists assist in surveying amphibian species in Mount Rainier National Park, particularly assessing populations of the Western Toad. PARKS...IN...SPAAAACE!!! NASA astronauts have quite literally an out-of-this-world view of national parks and take some pretty stellar pictures to share. Travel along with the space station on its journey west to east getting the extreme bird’s eye view of national parks across the country. And one more down-to-earth. View of Denali National Park & Preserve from space North Coast and Cascades Network Exotic Plant Management Team The North Coast and Cascades Network Exotic Plant Management Team (NCCN EPMT) manages a diverse array of exotic plants across the dramatic landscapes of the Pacific Northwest. The team works with partner parks and agencies to augment vegetation management across the network. People loading weed control equipment into the back of a vehicle Park Air Profiles - Mount Rainier National Park Air quality profile for Mount Rainier National Park. Gives park-specific information about air quality and air pollution impacts for Mount Rainier NP as well as the studies and monitoring conducted for Mount Rainier NP. Mount Rainier reflected in a lake, Mount Rainier NP Monitoring Federal Lands and Highway Program (FLHP) Revegetation Sites Park roadsides are revegetated and monitored after programed and emergency repair projects. Analyses of two plots revealed that revegetation methods yielded better results in 2011 than in 2010. Phenology and Climate Change A study on the effect of climate change on the biological life events of subalpine wildflowers, which differ greatly between plant species. Nitrogen Deposition in the North Coast and Cascades Nitrogen deposition is a widely an unknown yet poignant issue in the west. Studies at Mount Rainier National Park, Olympic National Park, and North Cascades National Park are investigating effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. 2016 Harry Yount National Park Ranger Award Much like Harry Yount, who patrolled Yellowstone National Park in the 1880s and is regarded as the world’s first park ranger, Geoff Walker can do it all. Walker is a skilled law enforcement officer, EMT, first responder, criminal investigator, wild land firefighter, wilderness expert, helicopter crewman, mountain climber, training coordinator, supervisor, mentor, and rescuer. Walker’s arrival on scene is a welcome sight for any situation. Geoff Walker Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on High Alpine Lakes in North Coast and Cascades Parks Remote high alpine lakes are sensitive indicators of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Anthropogenic N deposition has potential to change species composition and ecosystem function in alpine lakes. Alpine lake surrounded by mountains. Historic Visibility Studies in National Parks Haze can negatively impact how well people can see and appreciate our national parks across the country. This article summarizes the visibility studies from the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s aimed at identifying the sources of haze causing pollution at specific parks and improving visibility monitoring methods. Big bend national park river Understanding Mercury Concentrations in Mountain Lake Fish Mountain lakes may seem pristine, but they are subjected to multiple types of man-made stressors. Since the industrial revolution, toxins from industrial activities have begun to travel through the atmosphere and be deposited onto the mountain landscape, where lakes act as collection basins. This study sought to determine the range of mercury concentrations in mountain lake fish, and to understand which variables contribute to high mercury in fish. Researcher in an inflatable boat on a sparkling mountain lake Time-lapse Photography of Glaciers at Mount Rainier National Park Mount Rainier National Park contains 29 named glacial features which cover an area of 30.4 square miles. While many studies currently exist that are documenting changes to these glaciers, one of the best ways to witness the dynamic nature of a glacier is with time-lapse photography. In 2018, the National Park Service’s North Coast and Cascades Research Learning Center funded the procurement of two field-deployable solar-powered high-resolution time-lapse cameras. Upper Nisqually Glacier on a sunny summer day Effects of Balsam Woolly Adelgid on True Firs in a Changing Climate In about 1900, a tiny insect called balsam woolly adelgid, a European native, appeared in North America on balsam firs. It can now be found in the West as well, in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California. In Mount Rainier and North Cascades National Parks, infestations have been found on subalpine fir and Pacific silver fir, but subalpine fir is more heavily damaged. Swollen tip of a fir branch indicating balsam woolly adelgid infestation. Snowmelt as a Driver of Ecosystem Composition and Processes in North Coast and Cascades Parks Snow is a significant reservoir of nutrients in the Cascade Mountains. Snowpack acts as a reservoir of nitrogen (N), and snowmelt results in pulses of N delivered to ecosystems. A researcher sampling gaseous soil emissions in an alpine meadow. Bees of the North Coast & Cascades Bees are some of the most abundant and important pollinators in the world – especially in mountainous environments. Despite the importance of bees in our natural environments, many national parks do not know what species live within their boundaries. In 2016, to celebrate the Centennial of the National Park Service, North Coast and Cascades national parks focused on inventories of pollinators, including bees. Macro photo of the metallic blue head of a mason bee Glacier Monitoring in North Coast & Cascades Parks The North Coast and Cascades Network currently contains 485 glaciers that are iconic features of the region, and vital components of the parks hydrology and ecosystems. The remains of Banded Glacier in 2016 Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on High Alpine Meadows in North Coast and Cascades Parks Alpine plant communities are limited by nitrogen (N) because they have evolved in ecosystems with naturally low levels of reactive N. Increased N deposition is projected to alter plant communities, soil processes, soil carbon and N storage. An alpine meadow in bloom with mountains in the background. Harmonizing Paradise Bringing harmony to Paradise has been a work in progress over the decades. Balancing the protection of natural resources with visitor use has been challenging in the past and continues today. Visitors and car in meadow at Paradise with Mount Rainier in background. 2016 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients In 2016, six rangers were awarded a national or regional Freeman Tilden Award for excellence in interpretation. Learn more about their amazing programs! Lynette Weber Predicting the effects of future climate change on the subalpine and alpine meadows of Pacific Northwest Mountains Mount Rainier's subalpine and alpine meadows harbor a diverse plant community visited by millions of people every year. However, as temperatures rise, trees are encroaching into these spaces from below while meadow plants gradually edge higher into habitat previously covered by ice or bare ground. This study examines what the future may hold for these dynamic places. Two scientists sit in a mountain meadow scanning the ground. Modeling climate change effects on the hydrology of North Cascades wetland ecosystems Through field research and modeling, this study examines the effects of climate change on mountain wetlands and the fauna, like amphibians, that are dependent on those habitats. Landscape response to climate change and its role in infrastructure protection and management at Mount Rainier National Park Study looks at the ongoing changes of glaciers and major rivers of Mount Rainier in order to understand the consequences for historic infrastructure. Melting the rocky terminus of Emmons Glacier Study using airborne thermal infrared imaging systems to test a method of remotely estimating rock debris thickness and conductivity over large areas of debris-covered glaciers. Glacier Studies at Mount Rainier National Park Glacier studies by undergraduate students focused on meltwater analyses for hydrothermal influence, sediment load and fecal coliform. Veteran Story: Hal Hoversten Hal T. Hoversten enlisted with the Air Force and served in Washington State, South Korea, Alaska, California and briefly in Okinawa, Japan. In 2003, Hoversten began his career with DOI on a "not to exceed 2 week appointment." Find out what he did next. Man in Air Force Uniform in front of an American flag Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. Dixid Midges of Mount Rainier National Park Status and trends of dixid midges sampled from aquatic habitats as part of a systematic treatise of dixid midges of the Nearctic. Assessing Potential Linkages Between Geohydrological Context and Macroinvertebrate Communities and Zooplankton at Habitat and Valley Scales for Ecological Monitoring Examination of alpine aquatic ecosystems to better understand the role of post-glacier landforms in the area's hydrology. Cascades Butterfly Project Research Program inventories and monitors butterflies in six protected areas of the Cascade Mountains in Washington and British Columbia to see how they are affected by climate change. Conservation Status of the Cascade Red Fox Found only in the Cascade Mountains of Washington, the Cascade Red Fox is well adapted to its cold, mountain habitat which may be impacted by climate change and other factors. This project studies the population trends of the Cascade red fox and prospects of long-term survival. Lilies at the Limit: Pollination Services and the Distribution of Erythronium montanum Study of how climate change will impact plant-pollinator interactions in subalpine meadows on Mount Rainier. Alpine vascular plant biodiversity at Spray Park, Mount Rainier National Park Baseline monitoring of vascular plant biodiversity in the transition zones between subalpine and alpine areas in Spray Park. Paradise Inn: A History of Beauty and Challenge The Paradise Inn celebrates 100 years of service having survived the challenges of snowy Mount Rainier. Evening view of the front of the Paradise Inn The National Park Inn The story of the National Park Inn at Longmire is actually the story of three different hotels and the establishment of Mount Rainier National Park. The north side of the National Park Inn at Longmire. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Mount Rainier National Park, Washington Mount Rainier National Park in Washington preserves the largest active volcano in the Cascade Range. It also contains more than 29 major glaciers and is the greatest single-peak glacial system in the contiguous United States. mountain view from park roadway Carbon River and Mowich Lake - The Quiet Corner The northwest corner of the park, the Carbon River and Mowich Lake area, is now often considered to be the quiet corner of the park. That hasn't always been the case. This article explores the history of Mount Rainier National Park's now quiet corner. Bicycle leaning against wooden fence with bicyclist in background. Ohanapecosh: Treasure of the Deep Forest The Ohanapecosh area, located in the southeast corner of Mount Rainier National Park, is a treasure of the deep forest. Often overlooked, it has a long history of human use. Two people stands in doorway of Ohanapecosh Hot Springs Resort in the early 20th century. Status and Trends in Monitoring for Watershed Health & Salmon Recovery (WHSR) Part of a statewide monitoring project, this study annually monitors Laughingwater Creek. Study includes in-stream surveys, water quality measurements, and vertebrate and macroinvertebrate sampling. Measurement of Glacial Meltwater Outflow through Water Analysis for Geohazard Recognition This study found several detectable signals for glacier outburst floods, such as iron content, turbidity, temperature and pH. Long-term trends in mature and old-growth forests at Mount Rainier National Park A network of 18 permanent plots in Mount Rainier National Park is being monitored to provide data on long-term trends in mature and old-growth forests. Climatic and Human Influences on the Fire and Vegetation History of Subalpine Meadows - Mount Rainier National Park The study examines evidence of early plant species and fire events found in lake cores. The sediments of park lakes preserve the charcoal and pollen from both fires and plants going back almost 10,000 years. Community responses to atmospheric nitrogen deposition in subalpine meadow ecosystems at Mount Rainier National Park Through computer models and field experimentation, this study looks at the impacts of increasing amounts of atmospheric nitrogen being deposited on alpine plants. While alpine environments can act as reservoirs for small amounts of nitrogen, too much nitrogen could negatively affect plants, soils and watersheds. Testing the Limits: Effects of Climate and Competition on Conifer Distributions at Mount Rainier A study of the interaction of climate change and competition in the establishment and growth of three common tree species at Mount Rainier; western hemlock, mountain hemlock and Pacific silver fir. Ecology of Introduced Prickly Sculpin in Lake George and Other Mountain Lakes of the Upper Nisqually River Basin This study documents the continuing presence of introduced prickly sculpin in mountain lakes of the Upper Nisqually. In addition, the study also collects basic ecological information on sculpin populations such as diet and age and examines the behavior of mountain populations compared to native lowland ones. Thaumaleidae of Mount Rainier National Park Summary of part of an on-going study to re-collect specimens previously collected almost 100 years ago. Also samples appropriate micro-habitats to estimate the total diversity of seepage midges at Mount Rainier. Monitoring wildflower phenology using traditional science, citizen science, and crowdsourcing approaches Scientists and outreach coordinators from the University of Washington and the National Park Service compare several approaches to monitoring wildflower phenology at Mount Rainier National Park. Yellow glacier lilies bloom adjacent to receding snow at Mount Rainier National Park Backyard Bird Bingo When rangers are at home, they love to observe the birds that are found in their community. Practice your bird watching skills with this Backyard Bird Bingo. A 3x3 grid of different types of birds. Mount Rainier Yoga Since it’s not always possible to be at Mount Rainier, we came up with some nature-inspired yoga poses so that the mountain can help you relax wherever you are. A ranger stands on a mat in the forest in a yoga pose with feet together and arms up. American Pika at Mount Rainier National Park: Keeping an eye on one of Mount Rainier's most climate sensitive species Mount Rainier National Park monitors American pika, one of the park's most climate sensitive species. Since 2007, with additional effort from dedicated volunteers and seasonal park staff, 900 individual pika sites have been identified. A small brown mammal with round ears perches on a rock. Geoscientists-in-the-Parks: Bio-Engineering and Geomorphology Technicians Read about the work Jennifer Chan, Bio-Engineering Technician, and Robby Jost, Geomorphology Technician did at Mount Rainier National Park as GIPs in 2016. Intern standing in front of log pile Inferring Movements of Bull Trout Using Geochemical Signatures in Mount Rainier National Park Bull trout, a federally threatened species, are native to several drainages within Mount Rainier National Park, including the Puyallup River Basin and many of its tributaries. The life history and migratory patterns of bull trout in the Puyallup Basin are variable and largely unknown. We aim to use the natural variation in elemental and isotopic tracers of river waters and fish fin rays across the Puyallup Basin to infer movement patterns among different habitats. Bull trout in a measuring tray 1997–1998 El Niño / 1998–1999 La Niña Wind-driven waves and abnormally high sea levels contributed to hundreds of millions of dollars in flood and storm damage in the San Francisco Bay region, including Point Reyes National Seashore, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, and Pinnacles National Monument. In addition to California, the 1997–1998 El Niño and the following 1998–1999 La Niña severely impacted the Pacific Northwest, including many National Park System units. colorful ocean surface mapping image Animal Olympics Can you jump as high as a fox or balance as well as a mountain goat? Test your skills against some of Mount Rainier’s amazing wildlife species. A red fox licking its nose crouches in snow. White River and Sunrise: the captivating northeast corner of Mount Rainier National Park The northeast corner of the park, made up of the White River and Sunrise areas, have drawn in and captivated people for millennia. A short history presents some of the key developments of this area. Sunrise blockhouses with fall color and Mount Rainier in background. Using Hyperspectral Imagery to Study Meadows A study to use statistical models to link characteristics of CubeSat images to peak flowering states of meadows as quantified by MeadoWatch volunteers to allow scientists to correlate fine-resolution (3m) imagery with in-situ imagery. We will then assess whether estimates can predict wildflower phenology. Purple wildflowers fill a meadow along a mountain ridgeline. The Inspiring Mountain Mount Rainier's scenery has inspired people to create many forms of art, from poetry to painting. Be inspired to create some art of your own! Colorful wildflowers fill a meadow underneath a rocky ridgeline. History of the Panoramic Lookout Project Most documentation of the panoramic lookout photos project, which began about 1930 to document areas seen from the lookout system, comes from the US Forest Service. The NPS project began in 1934. Lester Moe worked for the Forest Service taking photos in 1933 and 1934, and later worked for NPS. Several innovations came about from this project: the Osborne photo-recording transit and “special emulsion infra-red sensitive film” not affected by smoke and haze. sample of the panoramic lookout project Bird Banding at Mount Rainier National Park Mount Rainier National Park monitors songbird populations at a MAPS (Monitoring Avian Survival and Productivity) banding station since 2017. The MAPS project is run by park ecologists (with the required permits) and serves as an entry point for many student interns interested in field biology from across the country. A hand holds a bird and spreads one wing to inspect the feathers. Ready Ranger Round Up In a big park like Mount Rainier, it takes a lot of people to take care of this place. There are different types of rangers and each have a special job. Learn about different rangers and draw a ranger of your own. Simple black line drawing of a human figure. Exploring Sounds Learn to "listen" to Mount Rainier’s soundscapes! Then try this activity to monitor the soundscape in your community. Recording equipment set up on tripods on the edge of pond. Plant Scientist Many visitors come to the park to experience the wildflower bloom! Scientists in the park record the date when flowers start to bloom every year to look for patterns. You can be a plant scientist too, by keeping track of the changes plants experience as time goes by in your neighborhood. Colorful wildflowers frame a view of Mount Rainier's rocky slopes. National Park Getaway: Mount Rainier National Park Though most visitors come to Mount Rainier in summer, winter can be a magical and enjoyable time of year to visit! a snowy landscape, dominated by a tall snowy mountain Suffrage in 60 Seconds: How Women Won the West Women in the western states and territories won the first victories in the fight for woman suffrage. But there were difficult battles marked by reversals, defeats, and questionable alliances. Largo group of women wearing white carrying shields with names of western states Slime Molds Slime molds are neither animals nor fungi, but can exhibit characteristics of both. Over 60 species of these mysterious organisms can be found in Mount Rainier National Park. Bright yellow furry and slimy growths cover two crossed branches on a forest floor. Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits How are Landbird Populations Doing in the North Coast and Cascades Network? Landbirds are one of the vital signs monitored in five national parks of the North Coast and Cascades Network. Two recent studies show that for species with discernible trends, most populations are stable or even increasing. A greenish-yellow bird singing from a perch Bat Projects in Parks: North Coast Cascades Network Eleven bat species occur in North Coast Cascades Network Parks. Each species is unique, except that they're all facing threats of some kind in their environments. Learn more about how scientists study bats and what you can do to help. National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Is the Fate of Whitebark Pine in the Beak of Clark's Nutcracker? Clark’s nutcrackers favor the seeds of whitebark pines, which they cache in great numbers. Whitebark pines are largely dependent on nutcrackers for seed dispersal; many cached seeds are not retrieved and go on to germinate. The tree is in decline due to native bark beetles, a non-native fungus, and climate change. Will the bird turn to other food sources? A recent study analyzes data on both species from the Cascades and Sierra to understand the risk to this mutualism. Gray and black bird with beak open perched in a conifer Series: Panoramic Project Shows How National Parks Change Over Time In the 1930s, panoramic photographs were taken from lookout points. Comparing these images to present-day photographs allows us to understand change over time. Viewing photographs of different eras in the national parks can give many insights on ecosystem processes, as well as simply change over time. The panoramic lookout photographs provide a window on the past and an opportunity to compare to the present with changes to landforms and land cover. Lester Moe documenting park landscapes in the 1930s Series: GIP Participants and Project Highlights [8 Articles] Participants selected for the GIP program have a unique opportunity to contribute to the conservation of America's national parks. Participants may assist with research, mapping, GIS analysis, resource monitoring, hazard mitigation, and education. GIP positions can last from 3 months to one-year. Robyn Henderek Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: Suffrage in Sixty Seconds When was the last time you voted? For the 100th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution enfranchising women, park rangers at the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument created these one-minute videos that highlight suffrage subjects and the heroes who made woman suffrage a reality—including those women who continued the fight for full enfranchisement beyond 1920. Alice Paul raises glass above ratification banner Series: Coastal Geomorphology—Storms of Record Storms can bring about significant coastal change as well as substantial economic damage and loss in the human environment. Read about a few storms of interest that have since made history due to their unique intensity, characteristics, or impacts. aerial view of a major storm along the northwest coast of the united states and canada Series: Park Air Profiles Clean air matters for national parks around the country. Photo of clouds above the Grand Canyon, AZ Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Wildland Fire in Lodgepole Pine The bark of lodgepoles is thin, which does not protect the trunks from scorching by fire. They die easily when a fire passes through. However, the serotinous cones give lodgepole pine a special advantage for spreading seeds for the next generation. Close-up of the needles of a lodgepole pine. Data Manager Profile: Kristen Bonebrake Meet Kristen Bonebrake, Data Manager for the North Coast and Cascades Network Inventory & Monitoring Network, and discover the important role that data managers play in protecting the natural resources of our parks! Explore Kristen's journey—from counting roadkill as an intern at Saguaro National Park, to collaborating with bright minds around the country to solve the complex challenges facing our nation's most special places. Kristen kneels on a rock in front of a dramatic snow-capped mountain scene. Listening for Owls: A Multi-agency Collaboration to Preserve Spotted Owl Habitat Across the West For over 25 years, biologists from the National Park Service and several other agencies have collected spotted owl monitoring data to inform forest management that is guided by the multi-agency Northwest Forest Plan. Yet traditional field surveys for spotted owls have become less effective as their numbers have dwindled. Thus in 2021, the Northwest Forest Plan’s spotted owl monitoring design is transitioning to remote acoustic monitoring (also known as passive monitoring). Audio recording unit, with microphones on either side, mounted on a tree trunk. The Northwestern Bat Hub: Banding Together for Bat Monitoring Across the West The first detection of white-nose syndrome in the American West in 2016 highlighted an urgent need to better understand the distribution and ecology of around twenty species of bats in Western states. To do this, ecologists in several Inventory & Monitoring Networks and National Parks joined with the USGS and ten other university and agency partners to expand the North American Bat Monitoring Program to sites across the West and develop the Northwestern Bat Hub. Close-up of a western mastiff bat in a gloved hand. Rangers, Not Rangerettes Increasing national park visitation and a lack of qualified men due to World War I, coupled with educated women being in the right place at the right time, created opportunities for a few more women to become park rangers in 1918. Studio Photo of Clare Hodges The Unisex Uniform R. Bryce Workman’s book National Park Service Uniforms: Breeches, Blouses, and Skirt 1918-1991, published by the NPS in 1998, has been the go-to resource for the history of women’s uniforms. Although it contains much useful information and photographic documentation, some of his assumptions must be challenged if we are to fully understand how the uniform reflects women’s history in the NPS. The 1920 official ranger uniform coat was similar to the authorized 1917 pattern. Changing Clothes By the end of the 1930s, skirts were the common exemption to the standard uniform for women. As they ditched the breeches, they also lost their iconic Stetson hats. Women wanted more comfortable, better fitting, and more flattering uniforms. Many of the details of how changes came about are fuzzy, and it seems that the first separate women’s uniform adopted in 1941 was never implemented. Guide Olive Johnson at Carlsbad Caverns is wearing the WAC-style jacket at Carlsbad Caverns, Substitute Rangers As the 1940s dawned, the United States was still dealing with the economic woes of the Great Depression and trying not to get drawn in WWII. Even as it continued to manage New Deal Program work in national and state parks, the NPS remained understaffed as a government bureau. The emergency relief workers and about 15 percent of NPS staff enlisted or were drafted during the first couple of years of WWII. Winifred Tada, 1940. (Courtesy of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin) Ten Tips for Visiting Mount Rainier National Park Plan Like a Park Ranger and follow these tips to make the most of your visit to Mount Rainier National Park! Mount Rainier National Park looks forward to welcoming you this summer. A glaciated mountain with its peak wrapped in clouds. Questioning Mountain Lupines, Grasshoppers, and the Community of Scientists Questions about leaves and social justice and bears were just a few that worked their way into Dr. Meera Lee Sethi’s head recently while conducting research on plants and insects in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington. wildflowers in a meadow with mountain in the background and reflected in the lake Cascade Mountain Land-Use: 9,000 Years of Human Presence on Mount Rainier Greg Burchardt describes his time as archeologist for Mount Rainer NP, where he conducted systematic surveys and small to moderate size testing projects to help understand previously little known precontact usage and occupation of high-altitude landscapes such as those found in the park. Mapping Amphibian Occurrence on the Road System at Mount Rainier National Park Mapping amphibian presence along several roads at Mount Rainier National Park to help mitigate road-related impacts to amphibians. A frog sits on a paved road. Volcanic Processes—Lahars Lahars are volcanic mudflows and are among the most destructive of volcanic phenomena. Lahars present significant geohazards since they can travel great distances down river valleys and impact population centers away from the immediate area of a volcano. wide river valley filled with sediment and snowy peaks in the distance Sub-Plinian Eruptions Sub-Plinian eruptions create high eruption columns that are unsteady. Pyroclastic flows and lahars also form during these eruptions from composite volcanoes. volcanic ash eruption Plinian Eruptions Plinian eruptions are more intense than Sub-Plinean eruptions. Eruption columns may extend into the stratosphere and spread out in an umbrella shape and produce widespread ash deposits. Pyroclastic flows and lahars also occur during these eruptions. black and white photo May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption North Coast and Cascades Network Delivers a New Generation of Vegetation Maps North Coast and Cascades Network has developed vegetation maps for Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks in partnership with the Institute for Natural Resources. Two field crewmembers collecting vegetation data in a lush forest Fumaroles Fumaroles are places where steam and volcanic gases are emitted. They are present on most active volcanoes. The occurrence of fumaroles and other geothermal features such as hot springs, geysers, and mud pots are important signs that a volcano is active. steam vents on the crater rim Magmatic Eruptions Magmatic eruptions include fresh lava or tephra from a magma source. Magmatic eruptions range from quiet effusions of lava to extremely explosive eruptions that can blow apart mountains and send ash clouds around the globe. volcanic eruption with glowing lava seen at night Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Composite Volcanoes (Stratovolcanoes) Composite volcanoes are made up of both lava flows and pyroclastic deposits and usually experience multiple eruptions over long periods of time. Mount Rainier is a composite volcano. photo of a snow covered volcanic peak Cinder Cones Cinder cones are typically simple volcanoes that consist of accumulations of ash and cinders around a vent. Sunset Crater Volcano and Capulin Volcano are cinder cones. photo of a dry grassy field with a cinder cone in the distance Series: Volcanic Features Volcanoes vary greatly in size and shape. Volcanoes also may have a variety of other features, which in turn, have a great range in diversity of form, size, shape, and permanence. Many volcanoes have craters at their summits and/or at the location of other vents. Some craters contain water lakes. Lakes of molten or solidified lava may exist on some volcanoes. Fumaroles and other geothermal features are a product of heat from magma reservoirs and volcanic gases. photo of a lava lake in a summit crater Anna Louise Strong Anna Louise Strong, a prolific writer and journalist, brought socialist politics to the mountains when she co-founded Cooperative Campers of the Pacific Northwest in 1916. As the outdoor club’s first president, Strong strove to make Mount Rainier National Park accessible to Seattle’s working class by providing affordable transportation, lodgings, food, and supplies to campers. Young woman in large hat and high-necked shirt with large button smiles at camera Series: Volcano Types Volcanoes vary in size from small cinder cones that stand only a few hundred feet tall to the most massive mountains on earth. photo of a volcanic mountain with snow and ice Series: Volcanic Eruption Styles Categories in this traditional classification are based on the eruption styles of particular volcanoes. These magmatic eruption styles are listed in the order of increasing explosivity. volcanic eruption with glowing lava Mount Rainier: A Cold Water Refuge - Monitoring Glacial Stream Habitat Mount Rainier National Park is collaborating with partners to understand water temperatures within glacially-fed streams. As climate change causes warming water temperatures, Mount Rainier streams serve as a refuge for fish and other cold water dependent aquatic species. A river emerges from the terminus of a large glacier. The Winds of Change The history of women rangers in the National Park Service (NPS) was believed to start with Yosemite and Mount Rainier national parks in 1918, followed by Yellowstone in 1920. New information confirms that Wind Cave National Park, which had a third of the visitors of these other parks in 1917, hired the first woman ranger in 1916 and the second in 1918. Esther Brazell in a cap and gown. Fish & Amphibian Inventory: Genetic and Environmental DNA (eDNA) Sampling Through the sampling of environmental DNA (eDNA) in water, park staff can gather a full picture of where fish and amphibians are present in Mount Rainier National Park. A woman and a man in waders kneel in a shallow pond while looking at a fish in a white tray. Ranger Roll Call, 1940-1949 Only a small number of women held temporary ranger positions in national parks during World War II. Carlsbad Caverns National Park, national monuments in the Southwest, and historical sites in the East continued to employ more women. Although a few women veterans benefitted from post-war veteran hiring programs, most veterans were men and permanent positions became even more difficult for women to get. Catherine Byrnes and Barbara Dickinson stand outside modeling the NPS uniform. Dragonfly Mercury Project: Mount Rainier National Park 2020 Data Summary The Dragonfly Mercury Project (DMP) is a national surveillance, monitoring, and research program that brings together citizen engagement and education with scientific efforts to understand mercury (Hg) risks to protected areas. 2020 was the seventh year that Mount Rainier NP participated in the DMP! A gloved hand holds up a dragonfly larvae in a small plastic bag. Pyroclastic Flows and Ignimbrites, and Pyroclastic Surges Pyroclastic flows and surges are among the most awesome and most destructive of all volcanic phenomena. Pyroclastic flow deposits are found in at least 21 units of the National Park System. photo of a cloud of ash and dust moving down a mountain side. Volcanic Ash, Tephra Fall, and Fallout Deposits Volcanic ash, pumice, and tephra ejected in volcanic eruptions ultimately falls back to Earth where it covers the ground. These deposits may be the thin dustings or may be many tens of feet (meters) thick near an eruptive vent. Volcanic ash and tephra can present geohazards that are present great distances from the erupting volcano. photo of a bluff with exposed fine-grained volcanic ash and pumice. The Bear that Bit Paul's Finger Emma Rockenbeck is using her white gloves to hold the photograph of 'The Bear that Bit Paul's Finger". Featuring the photograph of the bear that bit Paul's finger, hiding behind a tree. Finding Inspiration in Historical Photographs Finding Inspiration in Historical Photographs was written for "A Day in the Life of a Fellow" article series that follows the unique journey of three fellows during their time serving with the National Park Service. Stevens Canyon Road in Mount Rainier National Park to be Rehabilitated through GAOA Funding Mount Rainier National Park, with funding from the Great American Outdoors Act (GAOA) will repair and rehabilitate the final nine miles of the Stevens Canyon Road; building on two prior rehabilitation projects completed in 2017. two construction workers in hard hats work on a stone support structure along side a forested road Ohanapecosh Campground in Mount Rainier National Park to be Rehabilitated through GAOA Funding The Ohanapecosh campground is the largest in the park, hosting over 180 campsites. Rehabilitating the area provides a safer and more robust experience for over 100,000 yearly visitors get the chance to experience the beauty and complexity of the campground’s old growth forest. This project will renovate the campground’s sewage system to provide better amenities to visitors and help to protect the Ohanapechosh River. A white truck sits a top a paved road covered in a small flood of water Preserving the Past 'Preserving the Past' was written by Audrey Nelson for "A Day in the Life of a Fellow" article series that follows the unique journey of three fellows during their time serving with the National Park Service. Artifacts found at Longmire Springs Hotel; ranging from bone fragment to buttons. Series: Volcanic Eruption Types The most fundamental way to characterize a volcanic eruption is whether it is magmatic, phreatic, or phreatomagmatic. volcanic eruption seen at a distance Series: Geologic Time—Major Divisions and NPS Fossils The National Park System contains a magnificent record of geologic time because rocks from each period of the geologic time scale are preserved in park landscapes. The geologic time scale is divided into four large periods of time—the Cenozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Paleozoic Era, and The Precambrian. photo of desert landscape with a petrified wood log on the surface Series: Women's History in the Pacific West - Columbia-Pacific Northwest Collection Biographies of women from parks in Washington, Oregon Idaho and far western Montana Map of Washington, Oregon and Idaho Guide to the Thomas J. Allen Photograph Collection Finding aid for the Thomas J. Allen Photographs in the NPS History Collection. Natural High Points of States in Parks We all strive to reach new heights whether taking on the physical challenge to climb to the top or armchair-exploring from the comfort of our own home through virtual experiences. Discover the highest natural points in each state that are located within the National Park System, many of which can be visited by hikers, climbers, mountaineers, and drivers who are often rewarded by breathtaking views. Find photos, virtual tours, fun facts, and more on park websites. Snow-covered mountain elevation 50 Nifty Finds #9: Green Stamps Described by some as "the greatest propaganda campaign ever launched by the federal government to exploit the scenic wonders of the United States," the national park stamps issued by the U.S. Post Office Department in 1934 became one of the most recognized series of U.S. stamps. Despite being in the middle of the Great Depression, over one billion of the 10 national park stamps were printed in under two years. College of ten colorful national park stamps 50 Nifty Finds #13: The Artistry of Adult Coloring They say that coloring provides stress relief for adults as well as children. For artists at the National Park Service (NPS) Western Museum Laboratory in the 1930s, however, it wasn't easy to hand-color glass lanterns slides depicting the landscapes, people, plants, and animals of places they had never seen. Quality and accuracy were essential because the slides were used by rangers to illustrate lectures and to encourage people to visit national parks. Color image of a giant sequoia tree. The building and car at the base look tiny in comparison. Under the Floorboards: Preserving Newspapers from 1927 Article written by Emma Rockenbeck for "A Day in the Life of a Fellow" Article Series National Park Service - Workforce Management Fellow in Partnership with Northwest Youth Corps Taking the Pulse of a Forest JANUARY 2023 – Pacific Northwest forests are vital living systems, cycling huge quantities of carbon and nutrients, filtering pollutants from waterways, and serving as a living bulwark against climate change. However, forests worldwide are threatened by increasing warming and drought, leading to tree die-offs. A new study asks the question: Is this pattern playing out in the mature and old-growth forests of western Washington? Woman stands in a forest writing on a clipboard 50 Nifty Finds #18: Portable Posters Many visitors to national parks today collect passport stamps, magnets, or other items to recall their trip and to show others where they’ve been. In the 1920s and 1930s the “must have” souvenirs weren’t created to be collected. National Park Service (NPS) windshield stickers served a practical administrative purpose; they were evidence that the automobile license fee drivers paid at some parks had been paid. Even so, Americans embraced their colorful, artistic designs. Four colorful Rocky Mountain National Park windshield stickers. Enjoy the View Like Jalyn Cummings The volcano unifies us, reminds us how small we are, and how big nature is, bringing us all together...Jalyn Cummings shares her favorite view at Mount Rainier National Park. snowy mountain peaks with meadow 50 Nifty Finds #21: A Good Trip One of the first Congressional committees to conduct an inspection tour of national parks was the US House of Representatives Appropriations Committee during the summer of 1920. Given the financial needs of the fledgling National Park Service (NPS), it was a high-stakes tour. Although a few members of the press called the trip an unnecessary junket, the tour highlighted NPS needs and created Congressional support for budget increases throughout the 1920s. Hand-colored photo of a meadow and mountain 50 Nifty Finds #22: It's a Wrap! Rangers in leggings? It may not sound very practical or professional, but leggings were part of National Park Service (NPS) uniforms for decades. They weren’t the leggings we think of today though! Practical for protecting the legs, leather puttees or leggings were part of the "ranger look" from the earliest NPS uniforms. As the NPS evolved and the National Park System expanded, however, they became unfashionable and unnecessary. Brown leather puttees Stronger Together: Monitoring Meadow Communities in a Time of Change AUGUST 2022 – Mount Rainier’s subalpine meadows are a glimmering kaleidoscope of flora, from the showy to the understated. This strikingly beautiful diversity is also a key to surviving the harsh reality of life in the narrow belt above where the trees end and below where the glaciers begin. To understand the impact of climate change on these interconnected communities, researchers carry out long-term monitoring on subalpine vegetation. A meadow of white flowers in front of a snow-covered mountain. Intern Spotlight: Kai Victor Meet Kai Victor, a former Mosaics in Science Biology Assistant intern at Mount Rainier National Park! Young Asian male smiling with arms crossed, wearing a light gray shirt, dark gray pants 50 Nifty Finds #24: Fire Away! In the 1930s the National Park Service (NPS) fire suppression policy received a boost from Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) funding. CCC enrollees built roads, fire breaks, fire trails, lookouts, and other infrastructure in national parks across the country. At the same time, another significant effort was underway to improve how quickly forest fires could be detected and suppressed. The tool used to accomplish this was a camera—a very special camera. Man in a tree with a camera on a tripod Guide to the E.B. Thompson Negative Collection This finding aid describes the E.B. Thompson Negative Collection, part of the NPS History Collection. 50 Nifty Finds #28: Shuttering in the Cold National Park Service (NPS) naturalist Natt N. Dodge spent most of his 30-year-career at parks and monuments in the Southwest. His books, photographs, and motion picture films forever link him to desert ecosystems. It may seem surprising, then, that some of the most interesting photos in his personal collection are of glaciers, crevasses, mountain climbers, and other winter scenes at Mount Rainier National Park. Man crossing a crevasse on a horizontal ladder 50 Nifty Finds #30: So Funny It Hurt Humor is a form of commentary that often reveals serious truths. Cartoonists combine artistic talents with razor-sharp wits to shine light on political and social issues. In most cases, those artists are external observers. In the National Park Service (NPS), employees in the 1960s to 1980s drew cartoons, published in official newsletters, that provide unique insights into NPS organizational culture, working conditions, and employees' concerns—many of which still exist today. A ranger showing a coloring book to a visitor saying that they care about children's education Project Profile: Build Seed Bank for Threatened Conifer Restoration North Cascades National Park, Olympic National Park, and Mount Rainier National Park will build a collaborative network and internal capacity to identify seed source trees, collect and curate seeds from whitebark pine and other 5-needle pine species. a tree climber places protective coverings on developing cones on conifer trees in the mountains Guide to the Stephen Tyng Mather Film Collection This finding aid describes the Stephen Tyng Mather Film Collection, part of the NPS History Collection. Written in the Water: Four Parks Wrap Up Phase I of New Genetic Census SEPTEMBER 2023 – Over two years, teams at four parks in the North Coast & Cascades Network hiked hundreds of miles to collect samples of environmental DNA (eDNA) from park waters. These delicate samples promise to greatly expand our understanding of aquatic ecosystems, answering important questions about threatened species, emerging pathogens, ecological invaders, and more. What's next for this project? A hand holds a paper sample envelope in front of a forest stream. 50 Nifty Finds #37: Planting a Seed By 1920 the National Park Service (NPS) adopted a new emblem—the sequoia cone. Despite its broad use on uniforms, on signs, and in print materials throughout the 1920s and 1930s, not everyone thought that it was a good symbol to represent the diversity of national parks and monuments. By 1940 most—but not all—of its uses as an emblem had ceased. The sequoia cone remains part of the NPS uniform today. Two white and green sequoia cones Aquatic Citizen Science at Mount Rainier Citizen scientist volunteers help sample amphibian populations throughout Mount Rainier National Park along with participating in the Dragonfly Mercury Project. A smiling girl holding a net stands in water at the edge of a pond. 50 Nifty Finds #39: An NPS Art Factory Between 1938 and 1941 the National Park Service (NPS) Western Museum Laboratories (WML) created many iconic posters. Often described as “the WPA park posters,” they should be called “the WML posters.” Research reveals more designs than previously thought (including several previously unknown ones), reevaluates what is known about the artists, and argues that modern reproductions have made the designs more significant to NPS graphic identity today than they were in the past. Poster with a purple El Capitan at Yosemite The Devoted People behind Big Data in National Parks Citizen science volunteers collect massive amounts of crucial scientific information. They gather it from sources as varied as oceans, mountainsides, and historic archives. Smart new tools are making their contributions even more powerful. Two smiling women stand in front of a national park sign. Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and Inflation Reduction Act support range-wide efforts to rescue disease-addled whitebark pine forests In 2023, Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and Inflation Reduction Act funds enabled whitebark pine recovery work at 10 national parks. In addition to identifying disease resistant trees and cultivating rust-resistant seedlings, increased staffing and expanded partnerships will also allow parks to collect and store seed during years when the pines produce massive amounts of seed during "mast" events. a whitebark pine tree on a hillside Early Detection Is the Best Protection for Old-Growth Forests Despite dire evidence of rising tree death, researchers found resilience and hope deep inside western Washington's forests. But it will take 21st-century monitoring methods to keep that hope alive. A lush green forest with large, moss-covered trees, and ferns Dwindling Numbers Spur a New Approach to Northern Spotted Owl Monitoring Northern spotted owls are in trouble. Populations on the Olympic Peninsula fell by over 80% between 1995 and 2017; in Mount Rainier National Park, they declined nearly 75% over the same period. In response to declining numbers, autonomous recording units have become the front line of monitoring across the species’ range. This technology offers unique advantages in monitoring and understanding this threatened species, but challenges to the species survival remain. A researcher in a patterned rain jacket examines a green plastic recording unit in a forest.
Mount Rainier Mount Rainier National Park Washington National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Of all the fire mountains which like beacons, once blazed along the Pacific Coast, Mount Rainier is the noblest. ­­ John Muir A mountain of immeasurable inspiration, Mount Rainier is the center of the nation’s fifth national park. It is a place of discovery and of personal triumphs, where family traditions endure. Glaciers, massive rivers of ice up to 750 feet deep, flow down the rocky slopes. Yet, on the summit, steam escapes from deep within the mountain’s core, a reminder that it is still an active volcano. At 14,410 feet, the mountain is the tallest volcano in the Cascade Mountain Range and the most glaciated peak in the continental United States. Basalt columns and other remnants of early eruptions and lava flows reveal Mount Rainier’s ancient geologic history. Above Mount Rainier, millions of stars illuminate the night sky. The park minimizes the use of artificial light. This preserves darkness, through which constellations and planets are remarkably visible. In spring, snow melts first in the foothills. Beneath the old growth forest, flowers bloom and ferns unfurl. Across the subalpine region, summer may only last two months. Adaptations that have taken centuries to develop prove crucial in a race for survival. Profuse wildflower displays and pollinating insects bring life to the meadows. Birds and mammals forage on the abundance before winter quickly returns. For thousands of years, Mount Rainier has been an important place for Pacific Northwest Indigenous people. Nearly two million people from around the world now visit Mount Rainier National Park each year. Entering the park is a step back in time—a portal into Mount Rainier National Historic Landmark District. Roads, buildings, and other structures were designed nearly one hundred years ago. Massive logs and round river boulders characterize early national park rustic architecture, which harmonizes with the park’s natural scenery. As global development increases, this mountain remains steadfast, a place where people can reconnect with what is important in their lives. Moving up Mount Rainier’s glaciers and lava ridges, their routes illuminated by headlamps, climbers travel steadily toward the summit under a star-filled sky (above). © JEFF BERKES Unforgettable Destinations Sunrise NPS / JASMINE DAVIS NPS / JOHN CHAO Carbon River © DANIEL WYKNENKO Ohanapecosh NPS / JOHN CHAO Paradise NPS Longmire Longmire is a year-round destination. Visit Paradise meadows when they are at their most spectacular. Camp, hike, and explore beneath towering old growth trees. Enjoy unsurpassed, panoramic views while hiking amid resplendent subalpine meadows. Capture the lush vegetation and giant old growth trees of the rainforest. Accessible year-round. Snowshoe or crosscountry ski during winter. Stroll the edge of a meadow where history meets nature. Day hike to expansive vistas. Step back in time; discover rustic park architecture along the Longmire Historic Walking Tour. Stay a night at the historic National Park Inn. From the porch, admire the sunset’s glow on the mountain. During summer, hike the maintained trails around meadows, streams, and waterfalls. Watch and listen for wildlife—bears, grouse, butterflies, marmots, and more. Explore exhibits at the visitor and climbing information centers. Rest a night or have a snack at the historic Paradise Inn. Grab a sled and head for Paradise’s winter snowplay area, set up a snow camp, ski, or snowboard. Old growth forest is the signature of Ohanapecosh. Ancient trees, wildlife, waterfalls, spring wildflowers, and fall mushrooms abound. The Ohanapecosh River—transparent green or blue depending on the light and your perspective— surrounds the Grove of the Patriarchs. Many day hikes begin at Ohanapecosh. Camp or picnic in the campground. Sunrise, the highest point in the park reachable by car, offers a panoramic view of Mount Rainier and surrounding peaks. Day hikes lead to glaciers, lakes, and meadows. Dig into geology at the visitor center. Discover the rustic architecture and history of Sunrise. Enjoy a snack at the day lodge. Camp nearby at White River Campground. Meander moist, moss-carpeted paths through temperate rainforest. Discover the dynamic forces of a glacial river. Mountain-bike a historic road. Spend a night in the backcountry. Visit Mowich Lake—the park’s largest and deepest lake. Camp near the lake or enjoy its serenity from a canoe. Fish the deep waters. Hike to subalpine meadows. Discoveries Await View from NPS / STEV E REDMAN Ricksecke rl a n d WonPOdSTOeRIN O Trail © NICK r Point M ow i c h Winter at Paradise N PS / MEL © DEBY DIXON IN DA SC Lake HMIT T the Patriarch Grove ofDTRE E NPS / CHRIS ROUN Black-tailed dee r © JEREMY SELL Mount Rainier from Tipsoo Lake Hike amid ancient trees and past waterfalls on the Eastside Trail. ns Box Canyon on St
Mount Rainier National Park Tahoma News | Summer-Fall Visitor Guide 2023 Spray Park, JD Hascup photo Welcome to Mount Rainier National Park! Travel Alerts Grove of the Patriarchs Closure Grove of the Patriarchs is CLOSED at the junction with Eastside Trail. The closure is due to flood damage to the suspension bridge. Eastside trail remains open. Stevens Canyon Road Closures and Delays Expect a rough roadbed, delays, and closures on Stevens Canyon Road this summer and fall. Information on the current status is available at entrance stations and visitor centers. Hazard Trees and Campgrounds Hazard tree mitigation operations are ongoing, requiring closure of campground sites and loops throughout the park. Treatment of hazard trees is for the safety of all who enter these areas. At 14,410 feet high, Mount Rainier is the tallest peak in the Cascade Range and an icon of the Pacific Northwest. While the mountain's well-known profile is visible for many miles in every direction, its alpine, glacier-clad slopes occupy only a third of Mount Rainier National Park. There are as many different experiences here as there are views of Mount Rainier. Take time to explore the other two-thirds of the park and discover what lies within the shadow of this great mountain that local Native Americans call "Tahoma." Summer wildflowers, fall colors, spectacular scenery, and recreational opportunities draw people to Mount Rainier from around the world. This often creates crowded trails, and traffic and parking congestion. For a more enjoyable visit, follow these tips to help avoid the crowds: • • • Please Drive Safely! Park roads are winding, road shoulders are narrow, and the speed limit is 35 mph in most areas. Watch for pedestrians, sightseers, bicyclists, and wildlife. Please be courteous and use pullouts to allow faster drivers to pass safely. • Visit on weekdays, and arrive in the early morning or late afternoon, to help avoid long entrance station lines and difficulty finding a place to park. Have an alternate plan and destination in mind if long lines are encountered when entering the park. Experience the sights and activities of gateway communities during peak hours and weekends. U.S. Forest Service lands outside the park offer trails and other opportunities for recreation. Help reduce traffic congestion, consider carpooling. Finally, explore less–visited areas to escape the crowds. By taking the extra time to seek out these special places, you can immerse yourself in an old-growth forest, reflect next to a waterfall, hike in virtual solitude, or take in the view and reconnect with nature. No matter where you go in the park you will find spectacular scenery and a multitude of recreational opportunities! Leashed pets are permitted only in parking lots, campgrounds, and along roads open to public vehicles. No Drone Zone! Drones are not allowed anywhere in Mount Rainier National Park. It is illegal to launch, land, and operate drones in the park. Mount Rainier frequently uses aircraft for project work and search and rescue (SAR). Drones pose a serious threat to the safety of flight and SAR personnel and can shut down air operations. You can help safeguard this place, and these resources and intrinsic values by taking the Mount Rainier Pledge located on the back page. Keep in Touch! What's Inside? Visiting Mount Rainier ............ 2-3 Campgrounds ........................... 3 Carbon River and Mowich ....... 4 Exploring Longmire ................. 5 No Pets on Trails Exploring Paradise .................... 6-7 Ohanapecosh ............................ 8 Sunrise and White River ........... 9 Safety and Hiking ..................... 10-11 Mount Rainier National Park www.nps.gov/mora @MountRainierNPS Carbon River near Chenuis Falls JD Hascup photo Get the Most Out of Your Visit Visiting for a few hours or a day? Here are some tips to help you get the most out of your visit. You can help protect meadows and forest vegetation by staying on trails. Half Day in the Park? • • • • • • • Drive to Sunrise for a picnic, a short hike to Emmons Vista, and outstanding mountain and glacier views. Download the National Park Service App (NPS APP) and listen to the Sunrise Road Geology Audio tour along the way. Stop at the parking area inside the White River Entrance for data service to download. Visit Chinook Pass and Tipsoo Lake for a hike around the lake through subalpine meadows. Hike two miles round-trip along the Ohanapecosh River from the Ohanapecosh Campground to view Silver Falls. Explore Longmire's historic district and hike the Trail of the Shadows. Hike Nisqually Vista or Myrtle Falls trails at Paradise and enjoy a picnic with a view! Take a drive through the park stopping at overlooks of mountains, waterfalls, and geologic features. Some great hikes for young families are the Trail of the Shadows at Longmire, Nisqually Vista at Paradise, Box Canyon loop trail in Stevens Canyon (check for road construction sta
Mount Rainier National Park | May - June 2022 Mount Rainier National Park Tahoma Visitor Guide Since time immemorial this place has been the homeland of the Cowlitz, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Puyallup, Squaxin Island, and Yakama people who remain dedicated caretakers of the land. We honor each nation’s traditions of stewardship in our endeavors to care for the features and values of the mountain. Kevin Bacher photo Welcome to Spring at Mount Rainier! Spring comes slowly to the mountain. The sound of falling water marks the warmer days, although snow flurries in May and June may have you questioning the season. Yet in time, spring does arrive. You will see signs of spring while traveling through the park. Make time to let Mother Nature entertain you and you will be richly rewarded. For example, this is perhaps the best time of year to view waterfalls as they brim with water fed by melting snow. Green leaves burst from their buds, mushrooms carpet the forest floor, and birds arrive back at the mountain. Don’t overlook the forest wildflowers that bloom much earlier than their subalpine counterparts. They grace us with their presence for only a few short weeks. Spring is a time of new birth. You may find wildlife with their young offspring in tow around the Trail of the Shadows at Longmire. Geese and goslings glide quietly on beaver ponds and black-tailed deer browse the meadow with their spotted fawns, while the chorus of frogs and songbirds fill the air. Roads Closed Roads may still be closed while crews work to reopen them for the summer season. In spring, crews clear trails of debris, repair trail bridges, and plow roads closed for winter while buildings are prepared to welcome visitors for the summer season. This year, opening of some roads or areas closed in winter may take longer than past years due to staffing levels and equipment issues. We ask for your patience and encourage you to explore those areas that are open during your visit. Grove of the Patriarchs Closed for the season due to flood damage to the suspension bridge. Whether you are visiting for a few hours or the entire day, there is plenty to do. Take a hike, enjoy the views, hunt for elusive forest wildflowers at lower elevations, or enjoy the snowy landscape at Paradise. At higher elevations, expect snow-covered trails well into June. These areas receive many feet of snow during the winter that will linger well into spring. For snow-free hiking in June, consider the Longmire and Ohanapecosh areas. Download the NPS App to learn about trails, visitor centers, campgrounds, directions, fees and passes, trails, and much more. Search “National Park Service” in the iOS App Store and Google Play Store to download the app. Download the app when you are in an area with cell service, such as Paradise, as it is limited inside the park. Stevens Canyon Road Closed until May 27 then closed Mon-Thurs due to construction. Open with up to 30 minute delays Fri-Sun. Subject to change. Check for updated information at nps.gov/mora. BE FORE STE PPI NG O F F THE TRAI L... ... consider this: each step into a meadow crushes an average of 17 plants! When exploring Mount Rainier’s fragile meadows, hike only on maintained trails or thick patches of snow. No Pets on Trails Leashed pets are permitted only in parking lots and along roads open to public vehicles. No Drone Zone! Drones are not allowed anywhere in Mount Rainier National Park. This includes launching, landing, and operating drones. Mask Requirements Mask requirements are based on county COVID case levels. Check bulletin boards and signs for status. Mount Rainier National Park Superintendent Greg Dudgeon Park Headquarters (360) 569-2211 Lost and Found MORA_Lost@nps.gov Connect Online www.nps.gov/mora @MountRainierNPS Road status updates on Twitter Spray Park Avalanche Lilies Mount Rainier National Park was established in 1899 to preserve natural and cultural resources and to provide for public benefit and enjoyment. The following information will help you protect yourself and your park. Climbing Wilderness Camping Mount Rainier National Park offers outstanding wilderness hiking and camping opportunities. Permits and backcountry information are available at all wilderness information centers and most visitor centers. Plan Ahead • • • • Each year, approximately 10,000 people attempt to climb Mount Rainier. Nearly half reach the 14,410-foot summit. Climbing permits are required for travel above 10,000 feet and/or on glaciers. Climbing information–including fees, routes, and conditions–is available on the park website and at wilderness information centers at Longmire, White River, and Paradise. See page 4 for hours. Pay your annual climbing fee through pay.gov; keep your receipt and print or save it on your phone to serve as proof of payment; and bring a picture ID. Guided climbs and seminars are available through: Alpine Ascents International (206) 378-1927 International Mountain Guides
Mount Rainier National Park Mount Rainier National Park Tahoma News | Win intter 2021 - 2022 Vi Visitor Guid Guide All vehicles are required to carry tire chains when driving in the park through May 1st. Use may be required at any time. Paradise and Longmire Winter News Winter is the perfect time to explore historic Longmire with its rustic buildings draped in snow, wintry trails, and, on clear days, views of the mountain. Before heading up to Paradise, visit the Longmire National Park Inn for food and lodging, or purchase gifts and necessities at the general store. Talk to a ranger, get a passport stamp, or pick up winter trail maps and Junior Ranger Books in front of the Longmire Museum (daily) or at the Jackson Visitor Center at Paradise (weekends and holidays). The exhibits and buildings are closed this year and ranger-led snowshoe walks are canceled. Restrooms are open. Enjoy sledding (more information on page 2), crosscountry skiing, winter camping, and snowboarding at Paradise. See the Facility Hours on page 4 for snowshoe and ski rental locations inside the park. Obtain backcountry camping permits in front of the Longmire Museum (daily) or inside the Longmire Wilderness Information Center (Friday, Saturday, and Sunday). There is no indoor space available to get out of the weather and warm up at Paradise. Consider your vehicle part of your winter emergency gear for shelter and warming. Most of Mount Rainier’s roads are snowed in and closed to vehicle access during winter. The road from Nisqually Entrance to Longmire is open year-round, but may close during extreme weather. The Carbon River Road and adjacent trails closed to the public in November 2021 when a road washout made access unsafe. Check the park website for current status nps.gov/mora. The Longmire to Paradise road opens daily at approximately 9:00 am. Plan to leave Paradise by 4:00 pm to clear the gate prior to the 5:00 pm nightly closure. The road may close early or remain closed the entire day due to avalanche danger, severe weather, or with a shortage of the necessary staffing to maintain safe access. The uphill gate at Longmire closes at 4:00 pm. While you are waiting for the Longmire gate to open, please park in the parking lot behind the museum, not in a traffic lane. The land currently administered as Mount Rainier National Park has been since time immemorial the ancestral homeland of the Cowlitz, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Puyallup, Squaxin Island, Yakama, and Coast Salish people. By following elders’ instructions passed through generations, these indigenous peoples remain dedicated caretakers of this landscape. Their traditional knowledge and management of this sacred land will endure in perpetuity, and we honor each nation’s traditions of landscape stewardship in our endeavors to care for, protect, and preserve the resources of the mountain. See page 4 for winter driving safety tips and traction requirement information. Your Actions Make a Difference Mount Rainier National Park was created to protect and preserve unimpaired iconic Mount Rainier, along with its natural and cultural resources, values, and dynamic processes. The park provides opportunities for people to experience, understand, and care for the park environment, and provides for wilderness experiences while sustaining wilderness values. To help safeguard Mount Rainier, and its these resources and intrinsic values we ask that you consider the following during your time here: • • Do your part to protect your health and the health of others during your visit by following posted mask and social distancing requirements. Keep Wildlife Wild by not feeding or approaching animals. Feeding wildlife • • • • can be as direct as offering a bit of your lunch, or as indirect as leaving your food or garbage for animals to find. Leave No Trace of your visit. Planning ahead and being prepared, disposing of waste properly, and leaving what you find, are just a few ways you can Leave No Trace. Respect the land and all that is connected to it as the original stewards of this land did and their descendants continue to do today. Welcome all people you encounter during your visit regardless of their identities or abilities. Keep safety in mind. Watch for changes in weather and conditions. Know your limits when exploring Mount Rainier’s trails and backcountry. Stay safe and enjoy your visit! No Pets on Trails Pets are not permitted on trails or snow. Leashed pets are permitted only in parking lots and along roads open to public vehicles. Walking on roads is not recommended due to hazards from snowplows. No Drone Zone! Drones are not allowed anywhere in Mount Rainier National Park. This includes launching, landing, and operating drones. Limited Cell Service Cellular service is not available in most of the park. Cell service is available near the main parking area at Paradise. Gas is Not Available Inside the Park Gas stations are located in local communities. W I N TER -SPRING
Mount Rainier National Park | Official Newspaper Mount Rainier National Park Fall 2019 | September 3 - December 31, 2019 The Tahoma News Caroline Meleedy photo Welcome ... ...to Mount Rainier National Park, a crown jewel of the northwest and of the National Park System. Grove of the Patriarchs Enjoying Fall Colors on the Mountain Mount Rainier is famous for its amazing wildflower meadows in summer and for abundant snowfall in winter. Fall is another spectacular season on the mountain with crisp, clear days more the norm than the exception in early- to mid-fall. Bear frequent the meadows to forage on huckleberries. A highlight of the season is the vibrant colors of fall foliage from the old-growth forest up to the subalpine meadows at treeline. • Viewing Fall Colors • Look for changing vine maple at lower elevations throughout the park • Photograph the historic rustic buildings accented by autumn hues at Longmire. • • • • Take the three-mile drive out Westside Road to see fall colors. Hike from there to enjoy more fall foliage. Hike Grove of the Patriarchs and Eastside trails to see the reflection of fall colors in the Ohanapecosh River. See the subalpine meadows cloaked in the red and orange of changing huckleberry at Paradise, Sunrise, and throughout the park’s backcountry. Take a drive on Stevens Canyon Road and the eastside roads (SR123 and SR410), famous for their fall colors. Stop at viewpoints to see slopes and avalanche tracks awash in the colors of fall. Mountain Biking Mount Rainier • Road maintenance may require closure of the Sunrise Road at any time. Westside Road: A popular mountain bike route, this gravel road is 13 miles one-way with an elevation gain of approximately 1,120 feet. Travel safely, and always wear a helmet, high visibility clothing, and use front and rear lights. Bicycles are not permitted on any park trails, or in any off-trail areas. Bicyclists are subject to the same laws as motor vehicles. Travel safely. Bicycling on park highways has become increasingly popular. However, winding roads, blind curves, heavy traffic, and very narrow road shoulders present safety issues. Here are options for cyclists seeking less crowded routes during the fall season: • • Carbon River Road: This gravel road is open only to hikers and bicyclists beyond the park boundary. The road gains approximately 600 feet in elevation along its 5-mile length; some sections are rough and rocky. The road ends at Ipsut Creek backcountry camp, beyond which only hikers are allowed. White River and Sunrise Roads: After these paved roads close for the season to vehicle traffic (usually in late October, depending on weather conditions), bicyclists and hikers may travel on them from the SR 410 junction to Sunrise (6 miles one-way to White River Campground, 16 miles one-way to Sunrise). Winter Road Closures While the brilliant colors of autumn are beginning to cloak the landscape, park staff are preparing the park for winter -- utility systems and buildings are being winterized, road signs are removed, snow poles are placed along roads to guide the snowplow drivers, and artifacts and audiovisual equipment are removed from visitor centers for storage. All this and more is happening around the park in preparation for our lengthy winter. While you are at Paradise this fall you may notice planting underway near the Paradise Inn. In 2018 prior to rehabilitation of the historic Paradise Inn Annex, native seeds were collected from the site and cultivated in the park’s greenhouse. Early this fall park staff and volunteers are replanting 70,000 plants to restore the construction footprint. Mount Rainier staff work diligently to preserve this spectacular place with its iconic experiences for you and for the enjoyment of generations to come. Through our work, we also strive to ensure that Mount Rainier is a place where all people are welcome to visit and become a part of the park’s story! Tracy Swartout Acting Superintendent Estimated Dates (subject to change) Nisqually to Longmire Open all winter except during extreme weather Longmire to Paradise Open all winter. Closes nightly late fall through winter and reopens the next morning or when snow-removal activities and conditions permit. Westside Road to Dry Creek November 4 or earlier with the first heavy snowfall Paradise Valley Road October 14 or earlier with the first heavy snowfall Stevens Canyon Road October 28 or earlier with the first heavy snowfall Chinook and Cayuse Passes via SRs 410 & 123 TBD by WSDOT. For current status call Washington State Department of Transportation, 1-800-695-ROAD. White River Road to SR 410 October 28 or earlier with the first heavy snowfall Sunrise Road at junction to White River Campground October 28 or earlier with the first heavy snowfall Mowich Lake Road October 21 or earlier with the first heavy snowfall All vehicles are required to carry chains beginning November 1. Paradise Meadows Mount Rainier Na
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Longmire/Cougar Rock Area Trails All hiking times and distances are round-trip, unless otherwise indicated. Always carry the Ten Essentials: a topographic map and compass, extra food, extra clothing/rain gear, emergency shelter, first aid kit, headlamp or flashlight and spare batteries, extra water, sunglasses and sunscreen, repair kit/tools, and waterproof matches—for emergency use only (fires are not allowed in Mount Rainier’s Wilderness). Easy Trails Trail of the Shadows 0.7 miles round-trip. Average hiking time: 30 minutes. A self-guiding loop around Longmire Meadow explores the early history of the Longmire Springs Resort. Trail of the Shadows begins across the main park road from the Longmire Museum. For your safety, do not drink the water from the springs! Christine Falls Drive 4.5 miles east of Longmire and use the pullout just beyond the stone bridge. The trail descends 100' to a view of Christine Falls framed by the bridge. For your safety, please don’t stop your car or walk on the bridge—drivers distracted by the scenery may hit you! Moderate Trails Kautz Creek Trail 2 miles round-trip. Average hiking time: 1 hour round-trip to Kautz Bridge. The trailhead is located 3 miles west of Longmire. The first mile of this trail is level. (The trail beyond the bridge continues 4 ½ steep miles to Indian Henrys; carry a map, extra water, and food.) Carter Falls/Madcap Falls 2.2 miles round-trip. 500' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 2 hours. The trail begins at the paved pullout 100 yards below Cougar Rock Campground. Walk past Carter Falls 50 yards to see Madcap Falls. For the route beyond Carter Falls see “Wonderland Trail to Paradise” listed below. Rampart Ridge 4.6 mile loop. 1339' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 2 ½ hours. Beginning from the Trail of the Shadows, this is a steep loop trail traveling through forests with vistas from the ridge top. Strenuous Trails Comet Falls and Van Trump Park 5.6 miles round-trip. 2200' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 4 hours. Located 4.4 miles uphill from Longmire, this steep trail passes Comet Falls (1.8 miles). Beware: this is not an early season hike due to steep snow slopes. Please stay on the trail to protect the fragile meadows. Mildred Point is an additional 1 mile beyond Van Trump Park, plus 800’ elevation gain. Add 1 ½ hours for this segment. Mildred Point offers great views of the Kautz Glacier. Please stay on the trail to protect fragile meadows. Wonderland Trail to Indian Henrys 6.7 miles (one way from Longmire). 2400' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 4 hours. The trail begins near the Longmire Wilderness Information Center and climbs through old growth forest to subalpine meadows. Please stay on the trail to protect the fragile meadows. Wonderland Trail to Paradise 6 miles (one way). 2700' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 3 hours. The trail begins near the Longmire Wilderness Information Center and passes Carter, Madcap, and Narada Falls. At Narada Falls, the trail ends just above the falls and continues near the restrooms. (See Paradise Area Trails map) Eagle Peak Saddle 7.2 miles round-trip. 2955’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 5 hours. A steep trail through old growth forest with great views from the saddle. The trailhead is located 50 yards past the Nisqually River Suspension Bridge in Longmire. Beyond the saddle, an unmaintained route leads to the peak. This is not an early season hike due to steep snow slopes. Use extreme caution beyond the maintained trail. Pets & bicycles are prohibited on park trails. 8/16 Van Trump Park Mildred Point MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK Longmire Area Trails 5935' .8 Cr Comet Falls eek .5 .5 Stay on trails. Do not pick flowers. Carry the "10 Essentials" and Leave No Trace of your visit. Pets are NOT allowed on trails. Do not feed or approach wildlife. Use a topographic map. Permit required for Wilderness camping. Tru mp 4830' Van 1.9 Comet Falls Trail To Indian Henry's k Cr R u Ka tz P Cougar Rock Campground T 3200' B D F 1.1 1.5 sq ll y ve r 4140' A W 1.1 C Close o n d d e r in l a Winter R il r Carte Falls p ca ad ls M al F er Trail conditions can change. Always check trail conditions before hiking. ly iv T ra n d E 1.7 Wonderland Trail Ricksecker Point N is qu Rampart Ridge Trail Ni ua Ri To Paradise M R E al A A G D I 1.2 R Christine Falls 2.7 ee Wonderland Trail viewpoint Eagle Peak 4035' Trail of the Shadows 1.8 Rampart Ridge Trail 5958' .7 Longmire Museum (open daily) Wilderness Information Center Road 3.6 Trail Wonderland Trail River/stream National Park Inn Longmire Eagle Peak Trail Campground 6/15 2757' To Kautz Creek Trail & Nisqually Entrance 0 1/4 1/2 MILES 3/4
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Paradise Area Trails All hiking times and distances are round-trip, unless otherwise indicated. Always carry the Ten Essentials: a topographic map and compass, extra food, extra clothing/rain gear, emergency shelter, first aid kit, headlamp or flashlight and spare batteries, extra water, sunglasses and sunscreen, repair kit/tools, and waterproof matches—for emergency use only (fires are not allowed in Mount Rainier’s Wilderness). Easy Trails Nisqually Vista Trail. 1.2 miles round-trip. 200' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 45 minutes. The trailhead is located at the northwest end of the lower parking lot. Suitable for families with strollers. Pets & bicycles are prohibited on park trails. Skyline Trail to Myrtle Falls. 1 mile round-trip. 100' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 35 minutes. The trailhead is located on the north side of the upper parking lot, next to the visitor center. Suitable for wheelchairs with help, and strollers. Moderate Trails Deadhorse Creek Trail and Moraine Trail. 2.5 miles round-trip. 400' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 1 ¾ hours. The trailhead is located at the northwest end of the lower parking lot. For excellent views, continue up the Deadhorse Creek Trail to Glacier Vista and return via the Skyline Trail. Alta Vista via the Alta Vista and Skyline Trails. 1.75 miles round-trip. 600' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 1 ¼ hours. Begin at the trailhead located at the entrance to the lower parking lot, or at the trailhead on the north side of the upper parking lot, next to the visitor center. Lakes Trail Loop, via Reflection Lake. 5 miles round-trip. 1300' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 4 hours. The loop intersects the road or the Skyline Trail at several points at or near Paradise and Reflection Lakes. Consider parking at Reflection Lakes and hiking up to Paradise, then returning downhill to your vehicle. Bench and Snow Lakes. 2.5 miles round-trip. 700' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 2 hours. The trailhead is located on the south side of the road, 1.5 miles east of Reflection Lakes. The trail is a succession of gradual ups and downs as it crosses a series of low ridges. The path first reaches Bench Lake after 0.75 mile, then continues another 0.5 mile to Snow Lake. The lakes may not melt out until late July. Strenuous Trails Pinnacle Peak. 3 miles round-trip. 1150' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 3 hours. The trailhead is located southeast of Paradise, across the road from Reflection Lakes. Panorama Point via the Skyline and Golden Gate Trails. 4 miles round-trip. 1700' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 3 hours. The trailhead is located on the north side of the upper parking lot, next to the visitor center. Alternatively, you may take the Deadhorse Creek Trail from the north end of the lower parking lot, and intersect the Skyline Trail near Glacier Vista. Skyline Loop, via the High Skyline Trail. 5.5 miles round-trip. 1700' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 4 ½ hours. The trailhead is located on the north side of the upper parking lot, next to the visitor center. A pit toilet at Panorama Point is available during the summer only. 9/19 Trail conditions may change. Always check trail conditions before hiking. Visitor Center 5420’ 9/19
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Ohanapecosh Area Trails All hiking times and distances are round-trip, unless otherwise indicated. Always carry the Ten Essentials: a topographic map and compass, extra food, extra clothing/rain gear, emergency shelter, first aid kit, headlamp or flashlight and spare batteries, extra water, sunglasses and sunscreen, repair kit/tools, and waterproof matches—for emergency use only (fires are not allowed in Mount Rainier’s Wilderness). Easy Trails Hot Springs Nature Trail. 0.4 mile. Less than 100’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 20 minutes. A short, self-guiding loop starting behind the Ohanapecosh Visitor Center and ending in “B” loop of the campground. Grove of the Patriarchs. CLOSED due to damage to the suspension bridge from the 2021 flood. The bridge provides the only safe access to the island that is surrounded by the swift, cold Ohanapecosh River. Moderate Trails Silver Falls Trail(s). Silver Falls can be accessed from three trailheads: (From Ohanapecosh Campground) 2.7 miles. 300’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 90 minutes. This loop trail starts from “B” loop of the Ohanapecosh Campground. At the falls, cross the bridge and follow the signs back to the campground. (From Stevens Canyon Road) 1 mile. 300’ elevation change. Average hiking time: 45 minutes. Trailhead is just northwest of the Stevens Canyon Entrance Station (across the road from the trailhead for Grove of the Patriarchs). (From Route 123) 0.6 mile. 300’ elevation change. Average hiking time: 45 minutes. Drive 1.6 miles north from the Ohanapecosh Campground on State Route 123. Park at the pullout on the west side of the road. Hike 0.3 mile down the steep trail to the junction with the loop trail, turn right at the junction, and continue 75 yards to the falls. Please note: Fatalities have occurred near the falls! For your safety, stay behind the fences and on the trail at all times! Eastside Trail. 11.5 miles one-way. 1000’ elevation change. Average hiking time: 6 hours. Although this trail extends from the Ohanapecosh Campground to Chinook Pass, day hikers often enjoy the portion of the trail just north of the Grove of the Patriarchs. Begin at the Grove of the Patriarchs parking area on the Stevens Canyon Road. At the trail junction 0.4 mile in from the parking area, go left and continue as far as you like. Strenuous Trails Laughingwater Creek Trail. 12 miles round-trip to Three Lakes Camp. 2700’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 6 hours. The trailhead is located on Route 123, 50 yards past Laughingwater Creek bridge (park on the west side of road; the trail starts on the east side). Shriner Peak Trail (not shown). 8.4 miles. 3434’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 6 hours. To access this trail, drive 3.5 miles north of the Stevens Canyon Road junction on Route 123 (park at the pullout on the west side of the road; the trail starts on the east side). The trail winds up the ridge through an old burn area so be sure to bring sunscreen and plenty of water. Cowlitz Divide Trail. 8.5 miles. 2440’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 4 hours. Access this trail via Silver Falls trail or by driving 0.6 mile west of Stevens Canyon Entrance (parking and trailhead are on the north side of the road). Trail ends one mile past Ollalie Creek Camp, at the junction with the Wonderland Trail. Pets & bicycles are prohibited on park trails. 6/22 Eastside Trail MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK To Deer Creek Camp 6.3 Tipsoo Lake 10.6 Ohanapecosh Area Trails Stay on trails. Do not pick flowers. Carry the "10 Essentials" and Leave No Trace of your visit. Pets are NOT allowed on trails. Do not feed or approach wildlife. Use a topographic map. Permit required for Wilderness camping. Grove of the Patriarchs .3 .34 To Highway 410 Shriner Peak Trailhead Cayuse & Chinook Passes White River Campground and Sunrise Cowlitz Divide Trail 123 To Olallie Creek Camp 2.6 Wonderland Trail 4.0 Laughingwater Creek Trail Stevens Canyon Entrance .52 .34 Silver Falls To Three Lakes Camp 6.0 Pacific Crest Trail 7.3 .28 .5 Lau g hingwater Creek 1.0 Roa d 1.2 Ohanapecosh Campground To Box Canyon Reflection Lakes Paradise G F D C h Riv er Silver Falls Loop Trail Oh anapecos Stev ens Can yon Silver Falls Loop Trail H E .1 B .3 Trail conditions can change. Always check trail conditions before hiking. Road Hot Springs Trail Trail River/stream Campground r e A Visitor Center Amphitheater Visitor Center ec osh v Ri Oh an ap Viewing Area Entrance Station 123 Self-guiding Trail 0 To Highway 12 Packwood & White Pass 1/4 MILES 1/2 9/19
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Sunrise Area Trails All hiking times and distances are round-trip, unless otherwise indicated. Always carry the Ten Essentials: a topographic map and compass, extra food, extra clothing/rain gear, emergency shelter, first aid kit, headlamp or flashlight and spare batteries, extra water, sunglasses and sunscreen, repair kit/tools, and waterproof matches—for emergency use only (fires are not allowed in Mount Rainier’s Wilderness). Easy Trails Sunrise Nature Trail 1.5 miles. 300' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 45 minutes. The trailhead is at the upper end of the picnic area. Self-guiding loop with views of Mount Rainier and the Cascades. Pets & bicycles are prohibited on park trails Silver Forest Trail 2 miles. 150' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 1 hour. The trailhead is located south of the parking lot. Follow the Sunrise Rim Trail, then head east on the Silver Forest Trail. This trail leads to spectacular views at the Emmons Vista Overlooks (0.5 mile one way), continues through an old burn area. Moderate Trails Sourdough Ridge Trail: (West to Frozen Lake) 3 miles. 500' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 1.5 hours. Follow the nature trail to the left, then head west on the Sourdough Ridge Trail. Return to Sunrise via the Wonderland Trail and the old Campground Trail. Fragile vegetation in Frozen Lake area: Please Stay On The Trail! (East to Dege Peak) 4.2 miles. 800' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 2.5 hours. Follow the nature trail to the right, then head east on the Sourdough Ridge Trail to the Dege Peak spur trail. Emmons Moraine Trail 3 miles, 700' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 3 hours. Begins in “D” loop of the White River Campground. Follow the Glacier Basin Trail for one mile; take the left fork and hike along the moraine. Strenuous Trails Sunrise Rim Trail 5.2 miles. 1000' elevation gain. Average hiking time 3 hours. Follow the Sunrise Rim Trail to Shadow Lake continuing to Glacier Overlook and 1st Burroughs Mountain. Burroughs Mountain Trail (1st Burroughs Mtn.) 4.8 miles. 900' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 3 hours. (2nd Burroughs Mtn.) 6.0 miles. 1200' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 4 hours. Start at the upper end of the picnic area. Follow the Sourdough Ridge Trail to the junction at Frozen Lake, then climb up the Burroughs Mtn. Trail. Return via the Sunrise Rim Trail. Caution: Hazardous travel on icy slopes until late in the season! Mount Fremont Lookout Trail 5.6 miles. 900' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 3.5 hours. Follow the Sourdough Ridge Trail to the junction at Frozen Lake, then take the Mount Fremont Trail to the old fire lookout. Upper Palisades Lake Trail 7 miles. 1800' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 5 hours. Begins at Sunrise Point. Follow the Palisades Lake Trail past Clover Lake to Upper Palisades Lake. No views of Mount Rainier. Glacier Basin Trail 6.5 miles. 1700' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 6 hours. Begins in “D” loop of the White River Campground. Berkeley Park 7 miles. 1200' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 5 hours. Take the Sourdough Ridge Trail to the junction at Frozen Lake, then follow a section of the Northern Loop Trail down into Berkeley Park. 8/16 7400' 6000' 0 Second Burroughs Glacier Basin Camp .7 .7 1.3 .7 MILES 1/2 .4 1.3 1 il Tra Sunrise Camp .6 Frozen Lake .8 7200' Mt. Fremont 7181' Mt. Fremont Lookout .5 aine r Mo ns o m Em 1.5 n s. Mt .6 hs g First Burroughs u 7000' 2.2 o Mystic Lake 1.5 To Grand Park Berkeley Park Skyscraper Pass 7078' Skyscraper Mtn. 5380' Berkeley Park Camp Carry the "10 Essentials" and Leave No Trace of your visit. Pets are NOT allowed on trails. Do not feed or approach wildlife. Use a topographic map. Permit required for Wilderness camping. PROTECT THE MEADOWS! Sunrise Area Trails 5653' .9 Glacier Overlook .5 Campground Goat Island Wilderness Camp Mtn. 7288' required) (permit 4232' .8 Wonderland Trail To Summerland 4.1 2.6 White River Campground Emmons Vista 1.2 Silver Forest Trail Sourdough Ridge Sunrise 6400' .5 Wonderland Trail Trail .5 .3 2.6 Road .3 Hu l ck Forest Lake Camp Shadow Lake .8 1.9 Forest Lake Park Green Trail conditions can chang e. Always check trail conditions before hiking. n MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK rr Bu be k e ry Basi ber ee rry H le uck Cr 7006' Dege Peak 5922' Hidden Lake 1.2 5853' Upper Palisades Lake 5738' W Sunrise Lake 1.0 5751' te Ri v er 6/15 White River Entrance Hwy. 410 Park To Owyhigh Lake hi Clover Lake River White .5 Sunrise Point Dick Lake Camp 1.4 .7 Upper Palisades Lake Camp 5505' Lower Palisades Lake
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Carbon River Area Trails The Carbon River Road is open only to hiking and bicycling. Bicycles are permitted on the road to Ipsut Creek Backcountry Camp, beyond which only hikers are allowed. Be aware that the trail surface varies from dirt to rock and can be challenging for novice riders. Bicycles are not permitted on any trails originating from the Carbon River Road. Pets are prohibited beyond the entrance. All trails listed in this section begin at the Carbon River Entrance; round-trip distances and hiking times are calculated from this location. Wear sturdy shoes; be prepared to cross washouts and hike around and over debris. Always carry the Ten Essentials: a topographic map and compass, extra food, extra clothing/rain gear, emergency shelter, first aid kit, headlamp or flashlight and spare batteries, sunglasses and sunscreen, repair kit/tools, and waterproof matches—for emergency use only (fires are not allowed in Mount Rainier’s Wilderness). Easy Trails Rain Forest Loop Trail 0.25 mile loop. Discover nurse logs and other rainforest characteristics along the self-guided loop trail. Old Mine Trail 2.9 miles round-trip. 100’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 2 hours. Follow the road 1.2 miles, then take a steeper, 1/4-mile spur trail to a gated mine entrance. Moderate Trails Green Lake Trail 10.0 miles round-trip. 1000’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 5 hours. One mile past the turnoff, a spur trail leads to Ranger Falls. Chenuis Falls 7.8 miles round-trip. Average hiking time: 4.5 hours Check trail conditions first; the footlog is subject to washout. Strenuous Trails West Boundary Trail 6.0 miles round-trip. 2800’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 4 hours. Departing from the back of the Rain Forest Loop Trail, this trail accesses a high ridgeline via waterfalls and forested slopes. Cross Streams Safely Always use bridges and footlogs to cross streams safely. If none are available, first look for a straight, wide area and slow moving water below knee height. Be aware of any downstream hazards that could trap you if you fall in. Use a sturdy stick to maintain 2 points of contact with the ground. Loosen the waist strap on your pack and look forward. Carbon Glacier Trail (Wonderland Trail) 17.5 miles round-trip. 1200’ elevation gain. Average hiking time: 8 hours. Sections of this trail have been rerouted; watch for detour signs. Mowich Lake Area Trails Pets & bicycles are prohibited on hiking trails and in off-trail areas. Moderate Trails Tolmie Peak Trail 5.6 miles round-trip. 1010' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 3 hours. The trail begins at the last bend in the road on the Mowich Lake Road, 5.5 miles from the park boundary. Please stay on the main trail near Eunice Lake to protect the fragile environment. Spray Park Trail 6 miles round-trip. 1300' elevation gain. Average hiking time: 4 hours. The trail begins on the west side of the Mowich Lake Campground. Take the 0.25 mile spur to Spray Falls, a 300' cascading waterfall. 6/20 1700’ Mount Rainier National Park Boundary 2605' Mowich River 3.1 West Boundary Trail 1.9 1.2 .25 Rain Forest Loop Ranger Station 2.5 mi .9 .2 4929' 1.7 Wilderness Camp (permit required) Campground 3.6 4885' Spray Falls Eagle's Roost Spray Park Ipsut Falls .2 1.3 Chenuis .2 Falls Mowich Lake Campground (Walk-in) Hiking/bicycling route Hiking Trail Trail Closed Park Boundary Road 1.8 .5 1.0 Mowich Lake Viewpoint Eunice Lake .9 2.9 5939' Ipsut Pass Green Lake Old Mine Trail Ranger Falls Tolmie Peak Lookout + .8 .3 2.0 4.8 4620' Cataract Valley 1.6 Seattle Park + 3195' Carbon River 1.7 2400’ Ipsut Creek .2 .4 3.7 4185' Dick + Creek 4620’ James Camp + 5570' Mystic Camp 4.0 5765' Granite Creek + Trail conditions can chang e. Always check trail conditions before hiking. Windy 3.1 Gap .8 Natural Bridge Lake James Carry the "10 Essentials" and Leave No Trace of your visit. Pets are NOT allowed on trails. Do not feed or approach wildlife. Use a topographic map. Permit required for Wilderness camping. Carbon/Mowich Area Trails Mystic Lake Moraine Park si 5180' pen Sus ge Brid ier Glac point .3 View 1.1 + Yellowstone Cli s on 2.9 Mount Rainier National Park Boundary MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK Winthrop Glacier C Glac n o arb ier + 6/20 4300' Fire Creek
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Camp Muir Only experienced hikers and climbers should attempt this unmarked route. Camp Muir, originally known as Cloud Camp, was named Camp Muir after writer/naturalist John Muir summited the mountain. Muir was a member of the climbing party that made the sixth recorded ascent of the Mount Rainier in 1888. Camp Muir is one of the primary high camps for summit attempts and is a favorite campsite with climbers. Pebble Creek 7200ft 2195m Paradise Inn Trailhead Route Description Travel only on maintained trails or on snow. Do not pick flowers. Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not feed or approach wildlife. Use a topographic map, compass and GPS. Permit required for wilderness camping. Permit and climbing pass required for any travel on glaciers or above the elevation of high camps (Camps Muir and Schurman). Round-trip Distance: 9 miles (14.5 km) Difficulty Level: Strenuous Elevation Gain: 4,680 feet (1426 m) Trailhead: The trailhead is located on the uphill side of the upper parking lot at Paradise. Hiking Time Round-trip: 6 to 8 hours Along the Route Follow the Skyline Trail 2.3 miles (3.7 km) upward to Pebble Creek. Be sure to treat water before drinking from the creek! Here the trail ends and the Muir Snowfield begins. The next 2.2 miles (3.5 km) is an unmarked route involving an ascent of 2,900 ft (884 m) up the snowfield. Warning: White-out conditions and inclement weather can occur suddenly on the Muir Snowfield at any time. Use the information listed on the back for navigating on the snowfield. Be prepared for changing conditions and unexpected difficulties! 1/18 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/mora 10200 338º True 321.5º Mag 9600 0 0 88 0 72 0 680 0 e 29º True 12.5º Mag Sk ylin 0 700 680 0 0 Glacier Vista 6000 Contour interval: 200 feet Magnetic declination: 16.5º East GPS datum: WGS84 221º True 204.5º Mag PANORAMA POINT Latitude: 46º 48’ 10.30” Longitude: -121º 43’ 46.85” 6600 70 0 0 0 720 0 70 6800 feet 41º True 24.5º Mag 5800 MARMOT HILL Latitude: 46º 47’ 56.51” Longitude: -121º 44’ 4.49” 5800 (during maximum snowmelt) 5600 Maintained Trails 0 4400 0 42 0 1/18 www.nps.gov/mora 167º True 150.5º Mag 0 540 GPS coordinates (latitude/longitude) are600provided in 4 degrees/minutes/seconds (DMS) and use WGS84 datum. GPS units must use correct configuration, including projection and datum, for results to be accurate.800Serious 4 errors will occur if GPS units are not configured correctly! 17º True 0.5º Mag ALTA VISTA WEST Latitude: 46º 47’ 29.83” Longitude: -121º 44’ 16.19” 347º True 330.5º Mag PARADISE Latitude: 46º 47’ 10.46” Longitude: -121º 44’ 9.74” 5400 197º True 180.5º Mag Bare Ground 540 0 Snow and Ice EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA McClure Rock 7385’ 209º True 192.5º Mag il Tra 3000 0 50 0 0 0 Peb ble Cree k 6400 1500 0 78 0 0 70 0 74 6400 7400 Sugarloaf 7789’ 0 SUGAR ROCK Latitude: 46º 48’ 41.26” Longitude: -121º 43’ 21.58” 6200 750 G l a cier 760 0 0 760 0 0 0 se 6600 78 0 0 66 Map scale di 347º True 330.5º Mag 800 0 While traversing the Muir Snowfield, approach rock islands with care because of holes which form around rocks as snow melts. Crevasses occasionally open up on the snowfield in the vicinity of Anvil Rock in late summer and may be hidden by 68 00 snow. 0 8200 8200 ra 80 0 Pa 8400 74 0 ier 8400 167º True 150.5º Mag 0 lac Beware of open and hidden 88 00 86 0 G on the Paradise ! crevasses and Cowlitz Glaciers! 9000 8600 Always beware of steep cliffs to the east of Camp Muir and Anvil Rock and to the east of McClure Rock. These cliffs, obscured by snow and cornices in the winter, have been the sites of mountaineering tragedies. Panorama Point is a dangerous avalanche area. Anvil Rock 9584’ z MOON ROCKS Latitude: 46º 49’ 38.24” Longitude: -121º 43’ 40.55” 0 li t 9200 lly G la c ie r Proper bearings alone will not ensure a safe trip. Camp Muir and the Muir Snowfield are nearly surrounded by glaciers: the Nisqually Glacier to the west, the Cowlitz Glacier to the north and east, and the Paradise Glacier to the south and east. A 00 82 these glaciers minor error in navigation may lead you onto 8000 where there are numerous crevasses and other hazards. Stay 00 of travel to on course. You may have to correct your direction 78 the windward due to strong winds, usually out of the west or southwest. 9400 N is qua 86 ir Mu fi eld w Sno Mistakes in navigation while traveling to or from Camp Muir during storms and “white-outs” have resulted in lost climbers and hikers and fatalities. To decrease the possibility of this happening to your party, this map shows compass bearings to and from Camp Muir (true and magnetic north) as well as the coordinates (latitude/longitude) of landmarks along the route. This map will not substi
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Bench and Snow Lakes Bench Lake gets its name from the flat area around the lake called “the bench.” Snow Lake may have been named because the cirque in which it lies fills with icy meltwater from the snowfields of the Tatoosh Range or because snow often rings the lake until late summer. The wilderness camp at Snow Lake is a great place for first time backpackers and families with small children. However, it is often late in melting out and may be snow-covered until July. Louise Lake Wonderland Trail Reflection Lakes To Ohanapecosh To Paradise Bench and Snow Lakes Trail Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Trail Description Round-trip Distance: 2.5 miles (4 km) Elevation Gain: 700 feet (213 m) Hiking Time Round-trip: 2 hours Wilderness Camp: Snow Lake Difficulty Level: Moderate The trailhead is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) east of the Reflection Lakes parking area. The trail itself follows a succession of gradual Along the Trail In mid-summer, this area explodes with a variety of wildflowers and an abundance of beargrass. In the fall, mountain ash and huckleberries color the scene. Quite visible EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Bench Lake Snow Lake Camp Snow Lake ups and downs as it crosses a series of low ridges. You will reach Bench Lake after 0.7 mile (1.1 km). Continue another 0.5 mile (0.8 km) to reach Snow Lake. In most years, these lakes do not melt out until late July; use caution when walking on snow near the edges of the lakes. is a silver forest of trees which remain from a past forest fire. Expect good views of Mount Rainier if the weather is clear. 12/18
Cr PEAK ee k Mount Rainier National Park WILDERN k Norse Peak 6856ft 2090m Cr ee National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Tr a il Crystal Lakes and Crystal Peak 410 Cr yst al Cr ee k Lower Crystal Lake Mt BakerSnoqualmie National Forest Pa PARK BOUNDARY Upper Crystal Lake White River Ranger Station ape cos h Crystal Peak Pacific Crest Trail To O han 6595ft 2010m 5825ft 1776m Trail Description Round-trip Distance Upper Crystal Lake: 6.3 miles (10.1 km) Crystal Peak: 7.6 miles (12.2 km) Elevation Gain410 Upper Crystal Lake: 2,300 feet (701 m) Wenatchee Crystal Peak: 3,070 feet (936 m) National Forest Trailhead Hiking Time Round-trip Upper Crystal Lake: 3 Chinook hours Pass T ipsoo 5432ft LakeCrystal Peak: 4.5 hours1657m 410 Along the Trail Cayuse Pass c if ic Do not feed or approachCwildlife. re e rs e o k Pets and bicycles are not allowed M on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. 410 camping. Permit required for wilderness ork Difficulty Level:FModerate Wilderness Camps: Lower Crystal Lake and Upper Crystal lake Trailhead: The trailhead is located on SR 410 approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) north of Cayuse Pass toward the north park boundary. It is on the east side of the road near Crystal Creek. m Trailhead Cr Crystal Mountain Ski Ar ea and Resort es t This trail ascends through forest with views of Mount Rainier, subalpine meadows, and mountain lakes. Elk and mountain goats make their summer home in this area. Crystal Peak, the former site of a fire lookout, provides outstanding views of the surrounding landscape. To Enumclaw PARK explode with a wide variety of colorful The Crystal Lakes Trail switchbacks up BOUNDARY Naches basin, while the spur subalpine wildflowers. Watch for elk and to a glacier-carved Pacific Crest Trail Peak mountain goats grazing on the surrounding trail to Crystal Peak winds to the top slopes and ridges throughout the summer of an adjacent high point. The scenery Trailhead and early fall. makes both trails worth the climb! By Dewey Lake late July and early August, the meadows 123 12/18 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/mora A
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior To Pa ra di se Eagle Peak Saddle Longmire ally qu Nis To Nisqually Entrance Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Trail Description Eagle Peak Trail Community Building Riv er Parking Suspension Bridge Eagle Peak Trail climbs through old growth forest and steep mountainsides of subalpine vegetation. The maintained trail ends at the Eagle Peak saddle, on the crest of the Tatoosh Range, offering spectacular views of Mount Rainier and the Tatoosh crest. A challenging, unmaintained route leads to the actual summit of Eagle Peak. Eagle Peak was originally known as Simlayshe, a Native American word for eagle. When the Longmire family settled nearby, George Longmire anglicized its name to Eagle Peak. Round-trip Distance: 7.2 miles (11.6 km) Elevation Gain: 2,955 feet (901 m) Hiking time round-trip: 5 hours Difficulty Level: Strenuous Trailhead: Walk (or drive) past the Longmire plaza and follow the main road through the employee housing area. Cross the wooden suspension bridge over the Nisqually River. Follow the road another 250 feet (76 m), and look for the trailhead Along the Trail Most of the trail lies in virgin forest where hikers can enjoy the beauty of tall timber and look for wildlife among the tree branches and in the forest understory. on the left. Parking is available at the Community Building, a short distance beyond the trailhead. Beware: this is not an early season hike due to steep snow slopes. Use extreme caution beyond the maintained trail, particularly when dangerous snow slopes and cornices exist along the ridge crest. In summer, lush subalpine flower fields surround the last 0.5 mile (0.8 km) of trail. Panoramic views await the hearty hiker who reaches Eagle Peak’s saddle! 12/18 E X P E R I E N C E Y O U R A M E R I C A www.nps.gov/mora
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Eastside Trail This extensive route connects the subalpine highlands of Chinook Pass and Tipsoo Lake with the deep, lowland forests of the Ohanapecosh area by following the Chinook Creek and Ohanapecosh River drainages. Many hikers choose to begin at the trail’s upper end and complete the entire trail as a one-way, downhill trip from Chinook Pass to Ohanapecosh. However, trailheads provide access to the trail at several locations along its length, allowing day-hikers to enjoy shorter sections of the trail. Refer to the map on the reverse side for details. Trail Description One-way Distance (Chinook Pass to Ohanapecosh): 13.3 miles (21.4 km) Elevation Change (Chinook Pass to Ohanapecosh): 3,532 feet (1077 m) Trailheads Along the Trail Difficulty Level: Moderate, although steeper sections exist between Deer Creek and Tipsoo Lake Wilderness Camp: Deer Creek Hiking Time One-way: 6 hours Pets are not permitted on park trails or in off-trail areas. Chinook Pass: Park at the parking area adjacent to the park boundary on SR 410, next to the Pacific Crest Trail’s pedestrian footbridge. Owyhigh Lakes Trail 0.4 mile (0.6 km) downhill, past Deer Creek Falls, to join the Eastside Trail. Tipsoo Lake: Park at the Tipsoo Lake picnic area, 0.5 mile (0.8 km) west of Chinook Pass on SR 410. Grove of the Patriarchs/ Stevens Canyon Road: Park in the parking lot at the Grove of the Patriarchs trailhead on Stevens Canyon Road. Owyhigh Lakes Trail: Park on SR 123 at the small roadside pulloff about 200 feet (61 m) south of the trailhead. Follow the Ohanapecosh: Park in the parking areas adjacent to the Ohanapecosh Visitor Center and Campground. The upper section of the trail showcases a prime example of the park’s delicate subalpine ecosystem as it winds through the meadows and patchy forest surrounding Tipsoo Lake. Please stay on the trail to protect these fragile meadows! zones along the trail––subalpine, midmountain, and lowland forest. Take the spur trail into the Grove of the Patriarchs to view a cathedral of ancient trees, some over 1,000 years old. The remainder of the trail follows the courses of Chinook Creek and the Ohanapecosh River. Outstanding examples of old-growth forest are seen in all life EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Enjoy the refreshing sights and sounds of numerous waterfalls cascading down the canyons. Late-season hikers might hear elk bugling in the forest amidst colorful fall foliage. 12/18 www.nps.gov/mora To White River / Sunrise / Enumclaw To Yakima 410 Wenatchee National Forest Eastside Trail mileages RI D G E PARK BOUNDARY Chinook Pass Trailhead NO RS Tipsoo Lake Trailhead VER 410 Naches Peak GO Cayuse Pass 4694ft 1431m 1.5 Buell Peak 5933ft 1808m Creek 123 2.4 ts k uc ek Dew ey C r ee k Ko Chinook Falls Cre 0.4 Seymour Peak 6337ft 1932m Deer Creek Falls Dee no Double Peak 6199ft 1890m r Cr ee 0.4 k Owyhigh Lakes Trailhead ok 1.4 5432ft 1657m 0.5 i Ch Stafford Falls 123 1.5 Oh an ap eco Shriner Peak Lookout 5834ft 1778m Ohanapecosh Falls sh Riv er Pa nt h Creek er Cree k Chinook Pass to Tipsoo Lake 0.3 0.3 Tipsoo Lake to SR 410 crossing 0.2 0.5 SR 410 crossing to SR 123 crossing 1.5 2.0 SR 123 crossing to Chinook Falls 2.4 4.4 Chinook Falls to Deer Creek/Owyhigh Lakes Trail junction 0.4 4.8 Deer Creek/Owyhigh Lakes Trail junction to Stafford Falls 1.4 6.2 Stafford Falls to Ohanapecosh Falls 1.5 7.7 Ohanapecosh Falls to Grove of the Patriarchs junction 3.4 11.1 Grove of the Patriarchs junction to Grove of the Patriarchs trailhead/ Stevens Canyon Road 0.4 11.5 Grove of the Patriarchs trailhead/Stevens Canyon Road to Silver Falls Loop Trail junction 0.5 12.0 Silver Falls Loop Trail junction to Ohanapecosh... 3.4 Olallie Trail segment PointCumulative to-point mileage mileage Eastside Trail ...via west side of loop 1.3 13.3 Other trails ...via Silver Falls and east side of loop 1.4 13.4 Auto campground 123 Wilderness camp (permit required) Grove of the Patriarchs Trailhead 0.4 To P Lon aradise gmi re / Silver Falls Grove of the Patriarchs Laughingwater Cre ek Stevens Canyon Entrance 0.5 1.3 1.4 Ohanapecosh Trailheads Gifford Pinchot National Forest PARK BOUNDARY Ohanapecosh Visitor Center (open May to mid-October) 1900ft 579m To Packwood / Hwy 12 Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping.
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Indian Henrys Hunting Ground Patrol Cabin Most people travel to Indian Henrys Hunting Ground via the Wonderland Trail from Longmire. Others choose to hike via Kautz Creek Trail. Either way, this scenic subalpine meadow is well worth the trip. Indian Henrys Hunting Ground Pyramid Creek Devils Dream The historic Indian Henrys patrol cabin, built in 1915, is still occasionally staffed by rangers during the summer season. Trail Description Elevation Gain: From Longmire: 2,700 feet (823 m) Via Kautz Creek: 3,000 feet (914 m) Hiking time round-trip: 8-9 hours Difficulty Level: Strenuous Wilderness Camp: Devils Dream Along the Trail From Longmire: Although the dense forest predominates along this trail, variety is added with the crossing of Kautz Creek, a hike along the edge of Devils Canyon, and passing swampy Squaw Lake. Devils Dream Camp is 5.5 miles (8.9 km) from Longmire, and 1.3 miles from the Indian Henrys patrol cabin. When looking for a water source near the camp, note that the first pond closest to the camp can disappear completely in the dry season. About .25 mile (.4 km) above the camp is another trailside water source. ise To Pa rad pa rt Round-trip Distance: From Longmire: 13.6 miles (22 km) Via Kautz Creek Trail: 11.4 miles (18.3 km) m Kautz Creek Trail Ra Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Ri dg e Wonderland Trail Longmire To Nisqually Entrance Trailheads: Longmire: The Wonderland trailhead is located across from the museum at Longmire, next to the Wilderness Information Center. Kautz Creek: The trailhead is along the Nisqually Road, 3 miles (4.8 km) east of the Nisqually Entrance. The trail begins across the road from the Kautz Creek parking lot. From Kautz Creek Trail: In October 1947, a major glacial outburst flood occurred on the Kautz Glacier and sent water, mud, trees, and large boulders raging downvalley. The first mile of the trail lies atop this mudflow. After crossing Kautz Creek, the trail climbs steeply for over 3 miles before levelling out on the approach to Indian Henrys. Along the way, enjoy old-growth forest, dramatic vistas, and subalpine meadows with summer wildflowers. The mountain view near the end of the trail is unique: from your viewpoint, Point Success (14,150 feet/ 4,313 m) falsely appears to be the summit of Mount Rainier. 12/18 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/mora
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Lake George and Gobblers Knob Round Pass (Trailhead) Gobblers Knob Lake George is a pristine mountain lake, nestled in a bowl on the north side of Mount Wow. A rock outcrop called Gobblers Knob stands at the north end of Mount Wow and offers a spectacular view of Mount Rainier on clear days. .8 1.6 Lake George Camp Lake George Westside Road 3.5 Fish Creek Parking Area (Dry Creek) Westside Road is closed to motorized vehicles beyond this point Trail Description To Nisqually Road Round-trip Distance Lake George: 8.6 miles (14 km) Gobblers Knob: 11.8 miles (19 km) Difficulty Level Lake George: Easy Gobblers Knob: Moderate Elevation Gain Lake George: 1455 feet (443 m) Gobblers Knob: 2590 feet (789 m) Trailhead: Drive 3 miles up the Westside Road to the gate at Dry Creek. Hike the closed portion of the road for 3.5 miles (5.6 km) until you reach the Lake George trailhead at Round Pass. The 0.8-mile (1.3 km) hike to the lake from the trailhead is an easy walk with a gradual incline. The 1.6 miles (2.6 km) from Lake George to Gobblers Knob is much steeper. Round-trip Hiking Time Lake George: 4-5 hours Gobblers Knob: 6-7 hours Along the Trail Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Take time to enjoy the shoreline of Lake George and the summer wildflowers on the way up to Gobblers Knob. A shelter facing the lake is available for day users on a first-come, first-served basis. At Gobblers Knob, an old fire lookout which dates back to the late 1930s offers spectacular views of Mount Rainier and the Tahoma Glacier cascading down its west slope. On a clear day, you can see the peaks of St. Helens, Hood, Adams, and the Olympics from Gobblers Knob. 12/18 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/mora
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Naches Peak To White River / Sunrise / Enumclaw ma i Yak To This trail loops around the slopes of Naches Peak, past mountain lakes and lush subalpine meadows. In the fall, brilliant colors cover the landscape with Mount Rainier as the backdrop. Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. To Ohanapecosh / Hwy 12 Trail Description Round-trip Distance: 3.4 miles (5.6 km) Elevation Gain: 500 feet (152 m) Hiking Time Round-trip: 2 hours Difficulty Level: Easy Along the Trail This loop provides hikers with breathtaking views of Mount Rainier, a look at beautiful subalpine meadows and lakes, and an abundant supply of Trailhead: Park at Tipsoo Lake, 0.5 mile (0.8 km) west of Chinook Pass on SR 410. For a clockwise hike of the Naches Peak Loop Trail, follow the trail from the picnic area to Chinook Pass and the Pacific Crest Trail. Pets are not permitted on park trails or in off-trail areas. Pets are permitted on the Pacific Crest Trail–that is, only on the northern half of the Naches Peak Loop, outside the park boundary. huckleberries in late summer and early fall. To get the best views of Mount Rainier, hike the loop in a clockwise direction. 1/18 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/mora
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Owyhigh Lakes nrise u To S r ive e R R 410 t i /S Wh To rance t En According to legend, the Owyhigh Lakes were named after Yakama Chief “Owhi”, who loaned horses to Theodore Winthrop (after whom the Winthrop Glacier was named), when Winthrop was on a trek across the Cascades in the mid-1850s. This hike offers solitude amongst lakes, meadows, and mountains. Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Trail Description Round-trip Distance: 7 miles (11.3 km) Elevation Gain: 1,350 feet (411 m) Hiking Time Round-trip: 3.5 hours Wilderness Camp: Tamanos Creek Trailhead: Drive through the White River Entrance and proceed 2 miles (3.2 km) to a parking area on the right. The trailhead is located across the road. Difficulty Level: Moderate Along the Trail Although this hike offers no views of Mount Rainier, it does offer an array of secluded mountain lakes and meadows aglow with wildflowers in mid-summer. The jagged cliffs of Governors Ridge rise high above the lakes to the east while Tamanos Mountain lies directly west. 1/18 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/mora
ld c i e r ek Mount RainierPanorama National Park Point McClure Rock 7385ft 2251m 6800ft 2074m Cr h Pinnacle Peak Saddle Ed it Fan Lake Sluiskin Falls akas Will iw Alta Vista Paradise A RI rk Fo DG E 5400ft 1647m y Mudd Fairy is situated in the middle of the Tatoosh Range at an Pinnacle Peak elevation Falls of 6,562 feet (2000 m), the second highest peak in the range. Great views of Mount Rainier and other southern Cascade volcanoes are highlights of this C r steep hike. ee k Narada Falls M AZ A Reflection Lakes Stevens Canyon Road to SR 123 Carter alls T T A O O S STE To SR 123 / Ohanapecosh Louise Lake (roa d S tev ens THE BENCH Trailhead The Castle R Snow Lake A N 6562ft 2000m G E Round-trip Distance: 2.6 miles (4.2 km) Unicorn Peak 6917ft 2108m ler But ek C re estaurant EV et oO EN cto be r) BO CA Marsh Stevens Peak 6510ft 1984m Difficulty Level: Oregon’s Mount Hood on the horizon. TA T OOS H W I L D E RNES S This is an excellent trail on which to see As the trail climbs, subalpine forest and huckleberry thickets give way to open, rocky slopes. The maintained trail ends at a saddle on the ridgeline of the Tatoosh Range, just west of Pinnacle Peak. On a clear day, the spectacular view from Picnic areamakes this hike well worth the saddle the effort! To the north is a dramatic Groceries view of Mount Rainier and Paradise. To the south, one sees Mount Adams and Fire Lookout Mount St. Helens in the foreground and C reek son hn Jo odging ST un GE Moderate Blue Lake Trailhead: Follow the Stevens Canyon Road to the parking area at Reflection Lakes. The trailhead is on the south side of the road. Hiking Time Round-trip: 2 hours ampground nJ R ID Boundary Peak Elevation Gain: 1,050 feet (320 m) Along the Trail op e S S or approach Lakes Do not feed wildlife. C reek are not allowed Pets and bicycles CA C re NY ek on park trails. ON Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Maple Carry the “10 Essentials” and Falls Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Bench Lake H Pinnacle Peak Trail Description VE N Map le To Longmire M HM AN CRE ST National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA pikas, marmots, and the occasional herd of mountain goats. Tatoosh Lakes If traveling beyond the end of the maintained trail, please use caution on the loose, rocky slopes and minimize your impact to the fragile vegetation by staying on previously-traveled routes. GIF FORD 12/18 www.nps.gov/mora
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Shriner Peak To Cayuse Pass / SR 410 This trail leads hikers to a historic fire lookout and spectacular views of Mount Rainier. Subalpine meadows in summer and huckleberry and vine maple in fall provide spectacular color to those hiking this strenuous trail. To Ohanapecosh Trail Description Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Round-trip Distance: 8.4 miles (13.5 km) Wilderness Camp: Shriner Peak Elevation Gain: 3,434 feet (1047 m) Trailhead: Drive 3.5 miles (5.6 km) north of the Stevens Canyon Entrance on SR 123. The trailhead is located 0.5 mile (0.8 km) north of the Panther Creek Bridge. Hiking Time Round-trip: 5 hours Difficulty Level: Strenuous Along the Trail Once on top of the ridge, hikers enjoy commanding views of Mount Rainier, the Ohanapecosh Valley and the Cascades. This area also provides the opportunity to see or hear black bear, elk, coyote, and mountain goats. For hikers seeking solitude, this is a good trail choice– probably because it can be very hot and dry on a sunny summer afternoon. 1/18 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/mora
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Shriner Peak To Cayuse Pass / SR 410 This trail leads hikers to a historic fire lookout and spectacular views of Mount Rainier. Subalpine meadows in summer and huckleberry and vine maple in fall provide spectacular color to those hiking this strenuous trail. To Ohanapecosh Trail Description Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Round-trip Distance: 8.4 miles (13.5 km) Wilderness Camp: Shriner Peak Elevation Gain: 3,434 feet (1047 m) Trailhead: Drive 3.5 miles (5.6 km) north of the Stevens Canyon Entrance on SR 123. The trailhead is located 0.5 mile (0.8 km) north of the Panther Creek Bridge. Hiking Time Round-trip: 5 hours Difficulty Level: Strenuous Along the Trail Once on top of the ridge, hikers enjoy commanding views of Mount Rainier, the Ohanapecosh Valley and the Cascades. This area also provides the opportunity to see or hear black bear, elk, coyote, and mountain goats. For hikers seeking solitude, this is a good trail choice– probably because it can be very hot and dry on a sunny summer afternoon. 1/18 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/mora
White River Ranger Station Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior White River Campground C Summerland Wh To Sunrise This popular trail leads hikers through lowland forests to subalpine meadows along a section of the 93-mile (150 km) Wonderland Trail. Avid climber and explorer E. S. Ingraham named this area during one of his many visits to the mountain. tain Fry in gpa re nC Tamanos Creek ek Owyhigh Lakes Summerland 123 Round-trip Distance: 8.5 miles (13.7 km) Wilderness Camp: Summerland Elevation Gain: 1,500 feet (457 m) Trailhead: Drive through the White River Entrance and proceed 3 miles (4.8 km) to a parking area next to the Fryingpan Creek bridge. The trailhead is across the road. Parking space is limited and fills early on sunny summer days. Have an alternate hike in mind if parking space is not available.123 De Ch ino er uld Bo Hiking Time Round-trip: 4-5 hours n Wo Difficulty Level: y Moderate de nd rla Along the Trail Tra C ree k OHANAPECOSH PARK COWLITZ P ARK Cayuse Pass Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Panhandle Gap 6800ft 2074m INDIAN BAR 410 5279ft 1609m 5940ft 1542m Trail Description T ipso Lake ok t R reek Goa oun ite 5 1 r ive Shay C To White River Entrance / SR 410 Trailhead dM Islan Crysta il Tra The variety of subalpine wildflowers, panoramic views of Mount Rainier and Little Tahoma, and frequent sightings of mountain goats and elk herds make this hike extremely popular. Please stay on the maintained trail through the Summerland area to protect the fragile vegetation of these meadows. Trailhead CO WL ITZ y Mudd EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA k 12/18 ree rC e h t www.nps.gov/mora Pan Shr Loo 5834 1778
Trailhead Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior eek the Pan rC r Three Lakes Tw o Lakes To Cayuse Pass / SR 410 / White River / Sunrise This trail is a mostly forested hike following Laughingwater Creek. The trail gets its name from three mountain lakes near the junction with the Pacific Crest Trail. 123 Upper Cra La c if Thr ee Lakes Pa PARK BOUNDARY ic 4712ft 1436m Laughingwat er Creek Stevens Canyon Entrance Trailhead To Ohanapecosh / Hwy 12 Trail Description (open May to mid-October) 1900ft 579m Gifford Pinchot National Forest PARK BOUNDARY Do not feed or approach wildlife. Pets and bicycles are not allowed on park trails. Do not pick flowers or collect other park resources (rocks, wood, etc.). Carry the “10 Essentials” and Leave No Trace of your visit. Use a topographical map. Permit required for wilderness camping. Round-trip Distance: 12.2 miles (19.6 km) Wilderness Camp: Three Lakes Elevation Gain: 2,700 feet (823 m) Trailhead: Drive 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Ohanapecosh on SR 123. Park on the west side of the road at Laughingwater Creek. The trailhead is across the highway. Hiking Time Round-trip: 6 hours Along the Trail T I O NA L via 12 Difficulty Level: S uModerate mm it C re e k The trail follows Laughingwater Creek as it leads hikers through the forest. Stop to enjoy the soothing sound of the creek from its bank. Atop the ridge, hikers will find three small mountain lakes. Mount Rainier can be seen by taking a short 0.5-mile (0.8 km) hike beyond the third lake and emerging from the forest into an open area. FO R ES T EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Remember, the use of stock (horses, burros, llamas) 0is permitted 1on this 2 Kilom trail and the Pacific Crest Trail. When approaching pack 0 animals on the trail, 1 give them the right of way. Step off to the side of the trail and stand quietly to give them room to safely pass. 12/18 www.nps.gov/mora
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Amphibians and Reptiles of Mount Rainier Amphibians Newts Family Salamandridae Rough-skinned newt Taricha granulosa Salamander Family Ambystomatidae Northwestern salamander Long-toed salamander Coastal giant salamander Copes giant salamander Ambystoma gracile Ambystoma macrodactylum Dicamptodon tenebrosus Dicamptodon copei Lungless Salamander Family Plethodontidae Western red-backed salamander Van Dyke’s salamander Ensatina Larch Mountain salamander Plethodon vehiculum Plethodon vandykei Ensatina eschscholtzi Plethodon larselli Tailed Frog Family Ascaphidae Tailed frog Ascaphus truei Toad Family Bufonidae Western toad Anaxyrus boreas Treefrog Family Hylidae Pacific treefrog (chorus frog) Pseudacris regilla Frog Family Ranidae Northern red-legged frog Cascade frog Rana aurora Rana cascadae Lizard Family Anguidas Northern alligator lizard Elgaria coerulea Boa Family Boidae Rubber boa Charina bottae Garter Snake Family Colubridae Northwestern garter snake Wandering garter snake Valley garter snake Thamnophis ordinoides Thamnophis elegans vagrens Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi Reptiles 11/18 EX P E R I E N C E Y O U R A M E R I C A www.nps.gov/mora
Name HC Sp Su Fa Wi N Vireos Name HC Sp Su Fa Wi N Accidentals Finches Mount Rainier National Park (recorded, but not regularly observed)  Solitary Vireo F o o o x  Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch SA uc c uc r x Pied-billed Grebe Wood Duck  Warbling Vireo F uc uc uc x  Pine Grosbeak F o o o x Blue-winged Teal Cinnamon Teal  Purple Finch F r r r x American Wigeon Ring-necked Duck  Cassin’s Finch FS o uc uc x White-winged Scoter Bufflehead  Red Crossbill FS o o o r x Hooded Merganser Turkey Vulture  White-winged Crossbill F r r r r Ferruginous Hawk California Quail  Pine Siskin FS c c c uc x Virginia Rail Semipalmated Sandpiper Baird’s Sandpiper Common Snipe Wilson’s Phalarope Red-necked Phalarope Ring-billed Gull Caspian Tern Marbled Murrelet Mourning Dove Barn Owl Snowy Owl Long-eared Owl Boreal Owl Williamson’s Sapsucker Northern Rough-winged Swallow Black-billed Magpie Bushtit Warblers, Tanagers, Sparrows, & Blackbirds  Orange-crowned Warbler F uc uc c r r x r  Nashville Warbler F  Yellow Warbler F uc o uc x  Yellow-rumped Warbler FS c c c x  Black-throated Gray Warbler F r r r  Townsend’s Warbler FS c c c x  Hermit Warbler F o o o x  MacGillivray’s Warbler F uc uc uc x  Common Yellow-throat F o o o x  Wilson’s Warbler FS c c uc x  Western Tanager F uc uc uc x White-breasted Nuthatch Pygmy Nuthatch  Black-headed Grosbeak F r r r x Canyon Wren Northern Shrike  Chipping Sparrow FS uc uc uc x Lazuli Bunting Spotted Towhee  Savannah Sparrow FS r r x Vesper Sparrow Snow Bunting  Fox Sparrow FS uc uc uc x Western Meadowlark Common Redpoll  Song Sparrow FS uc uc uc r x Hutton’s vireo  Lincoln’s Sparrow FS uc o uc x  White-crowned Sparrow FS o o uc x  Golden-crowned Sparrow FS o o uc  Dark-eyed Junco FS a a a o x  Red-winged Blackbird FL o o o x  Brewer’s Blackbird FL r r  Brown-headed Cowbird FS r r r  American Goldfinch F o o r  Evening Grosbeak FS o uc o r x Old World Sparrows  House Sparrow (introduced) Notes F r r r x National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Bird Checklist Clark’s Nutcracker (HC) Habitat Codes F = forests S = subalpine forests/meadows A = alpine areas R = rivers L = lakes/marshes Abundance Abundance is based on the number of individuals of a species a competent observer might expect to find in a single day in suitable habitat. Sp = Spring Su = Summer Fa = Fall Wi = Winter a = abundant: easily observed in habitat c = common: high probability of observation uc = uncommon: probability of observation low o = occasional: seldom observed r = rare: zero to a low number observed annually Notes x (N) Nesting x = indicates species known or believed to nest in Mount Rainier National Park 1/18 The names and order of species follow the American Ornithologist’s Union Checklist (1983) and supplements through 1993. Please give a park ranger detailed descriptions of any observed species listed as occasional, rare, or not listed. Name HC Sp Su Fa Wi N L r r Grebes  Western Grebe L r Sp Su Fa Wi N  Blue Grouse S c c c  White-tailed Ptarmigan A uc uc uc uc x  Ruffed Grouse F c c c  Killdeer L uc uc  Canada Goose L r  Green-winged Teal L  Mallard L o  Northern Pintail L r  Harlequin Duck R r  Barrow’s Goldeneye L  Common Merganser L r o r r  Solitary Sandpiper L r o  Spotted Sandpiper L uc o  California Gull x o x r o x x r r r r uc uc x LS r Pigeons  Band-tailed Pigeon FL r r  Bald Eagle S o o  Northern Harrier S uc uc  Sharp-shined Hawk S o o o  Cooper’s hawk S o uc uc o  Northern Goshawk S o o o  Swainson’s Hawk S r uc  Red-tailed Hawk S c c  Rough-legged Hawk S  Golden Eagle S o o x x o x F uc uc uc x  American Kestrel S  Merlin S  Peregrine Falcon S  Prairie Falcon S o r Sp Su Fa Wi N RL o uc o x  Lewis’ Woodpecker F o o o  Red-breasted Sapsucker FS uc uc uc uc x  Downy Woodpecker F o o o r x  Hairy Woodpecker FS c c c c x  Three-toed Woodpecker F o o o o x  Black-backed Woodpecker F r r r r  Northern Flicker FS c c c o x  Pileated Woodpecker F o o o o x o x x c x a a a x RL uc uc uc uc x FS c c c FS c c uc x  Ruby-crowned Kinglet FS uc o c  Western Bluebird S r r  Mountain Bluebird S o uc o x  Townsend’s Solitaire F o uc uc x  Swainson’s Thrush F c c uc x  Horned Lark S o o o x Swallows  Tree Swallow F o o o x  Violet-green Swallow FS c c c x  Barn Swallow F c c c x Kinglets & Thrushes r x  Hermit Thrush FS c c uc x  American Robin FS c c c x  Varied Thrush FS c c c o x S uc c c x
Mount Rainier National Park Carnivore Tracking National Park Service Carnivore Tracking in Washington’s National Parks This guide provides basic information on carnivore tracking with descriptions of the common track dimensions, track patterns, and gaits. For a more comprehensive treatment of wildlife tracking in the Pacific Northwest, we recommend David Moskowitz’s book “Wildlife of the Pacific Northwest: Tracking and Identifying Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, and Invertebrates” ISBN: 978-0-88192-949-2. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Wolf, coyote, and red fox (Canidae) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Wolverine, fisher, marten (Mustelidae) . . . . . . . . . . 8 Mountain lion, Canada lynx, bobcat (Felidae) . . . 12 When observing animal tracks, it is useful to note both the individual tracks and the track pattern across the landscape. In carnivores, the front foot is usually larger than the hind foot. The gait will vary based on whether the animal is walking, trotting, loping, or bounding. Track patterns described as “direct register” indicate that the hind foot usually lands directly on top of the front track while an “overstep” indicates that the hind foot usually lands ahead of the front foot on the same side. The stride is the distance measured from the front of one foot to the front of the same foot as the animal travels. The trail width is the distance measured between the outermost tracks. The group length is measured as the length of all four feet from the back of the last track to the front of the first track in the group. Common track patterns can help distingush species. The above example shows the overstep walk, direct register trot, and side trot patterns typical of coyote tracks, respectively. Front feet are represented by open circles and hind feet are represented by filled circles. Introduction Six carnivore families occur in the Washington Cascades:  Cats (Felidae)  Canines (Canidae)  Bears (Ursidae)  Skunks (Mephitidae)  Raccoons (Procyonidae)  Weasels (Mustelidae) Wolverine kits wrestle in the snow. People are fascinated by the natural world and seek to observe wild animals in parks. Animals can be difficult to observe directly due to many factors including: secretive and shy behaviors, nocturnal habits, or low density on the landscape. Tracking is one way you can observe the signs of wild animals. The purpose of this guide is to provide information about carnivores in Washington’s national parks and to record tracks that can be used for park scientist reports. Six carnivore families occur in the Washington Cascades: cats (Felidae), canines (Canidae), bears (Ursidae), skunks (Mephitidae), raccoons (Procyonidae), and weasels (Mustelidae). This guide includes tracks of nine species of conservation interest from three of these families. You can contribute to our knowledge of Mount Rainier’s wildlife by reporting your observations of any mammal, bird, amphibian, reptile, fish, bee, bug, butterfly, or other invertebrate to our online database, where you can upload photos: https://arcg.is/ rLOiy. If you believe you’ve found wolverine tracks anywhere in the Washington Cascades, they can also be reported to the Cascades Carnivore Project: https:// cascadescarnivore.org/. 3 Wolf, Coyote, and Red Fox (Canidae) Three species of canids are native to the Washington Cascades: gray wolf, coyote, and Cascade red fox. Coyotes are typically a lower elevation species and may not have historically occurred in the subalpine habitat of the Cascade red fox, so interactions between these species are of particular interest to scientists. Canids communicate by scent marking with urine and scat, often leaving them in prominent locations such as trail edges and on rocks and logs. The overall shape of canid tracks is more symmetrical than felids, longer than they are wide, and with a triangular-shaped palm pad. Canids have five toes but the first is reduced. Four toe pads register in their tracks with the claws typically evident. The negative space in a track usually appears as an X shape for red fox and H shape for coyote. A Cascade red fox walks along the forest floor. 4 Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) The toe pads of wolf tracks often register deeper than the palm pad with claw marks present. Adult males are noticeably larger than females and younger males. The front paws are significantly larger and wider than the hind. A telltale sign that a ‘wolf’ track is instead a large breed domestic dog is the presence of nearby human tracks. Front Track (top) Length: 31/2–51/8 inches (89/10–124/5 cm) Width: 27/8–47/8 inches (71/2–122/5 cm) Hind Track (bottom) Length: 33/8–45/8 inches (83/5–113/5 cm) Width: 25/8–37/8 inches (64/5–94/5 cm) Direct Register and Overstep Walk Stride: 437/8–485/8 inches (1111/2–1231/2 cm) Trail width: 47/8–91/8 inches (121/2–23 cm) Direct Register Trot Stride: 511/8–61 inches(130–155 cm) Side Trot Stride: 46–841/4 inches (117–214 c
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Flooding and Aggradation The Flood of 2006 Why was the flood of November 6 and 7, 2006 so much more damaging than any other event in more than 100 years of park history? Part of it, of course, was scale: the 17.9 inches of rain recorded at Paradise in 36 hours exceeded all previous records. Snow levels during the storm stayed above 10,000 feet elevation, so very little of the precipitation fell as snow. Some existing snow above 7,000 feet melted, adding to the runoff in the rivers. But Mount Rainier’s glaciers also contributed, indirectly, to the severity of flooding in the park. Glaciers Mount Rainier is encircled by 25 named glaciers with a combined surface area of more than 30 square miles, the largest glacial system on a single mountain in the United States outside of Alaska. The glaciers form as snow accumulates high on the mountain, where temperatures are too cold even in the summer for all of the snow to melt before winter sets in again. Over the years, the accumulated snow packs down under its own weight, becoming denser and denser, until it becomes ice. In many places, the slopes of this great volcano are steep enough that these massive ice fields begin to flow downhill under the force of gravity. They slide across the ground at their base, tearing and grinding rocks out of the mountain as they move, and they twist and deform under their own weight. Avalanches and erosion deposit more rocks on the surface of the glacier, and eventually, the glacier becomes a thick, frozen mixture of ice and rock. As the glacier flows down the mountainside Aggradation Recent research at Mount Rainier National Park has measured the rate at which the park’s glacial riverbeds fill with rock, a process called “aggradation.” In most places, the rate is around 3 feet per decade (based on 19972010 data)—not much, until you multiply this number by the more than 120 years that people have maintained permanent residences in places like Longmire. In addition, local topography and variations among Mount Rainier’s glaciers mean that in some places the rivers aggrade more quickly. In a wilderness environment, none of this would matter much. As the riverbed aggrades, the river would simply choose another course, perhaps on the other side of the valley. Today, however, there are roads and campgrounds at—well—a glacier’s pace, about 7 inches per day on average, it eventually reaches an elevation where temperatures are warm enough for it to melt. At this point, the glacier becomes a river, and a source of drinking water, irrigation, and hydroelectric power for natural and human communities downstream. Meanwhile, snow continues to fall near the top of the mountain, replenishing the glacier. When the glacier melts, of course, all of the rock embedded in it melts out of the ice and into the riverbed. The river gradually tumbles the rock downstream, carrying it toward the ocean. The river is constantly rearranging the rock in its bed: piling it up here, washing it away there, then piling it up in a new location and changing course around it, always seeking the easiest path through the debris. This is why glacial riverbeds are wide and rocky, with the river itself braided into constantly-changing channels and sub-channels somewhere down the middle. and buildings on the other side of the valley– structures which do not change in elevation, even as the riverbed rises. To protect the park’s facilities, dikes and levees have been built over the years to keep the rivers in convenient channels. Over time, the levees have to be built higher and higher to keep them there. Today, locations throughout the park are in danger of being flooded by glacial rivers. Tahoma Creek, along the Westside Road, and the Carbon River have changed course aggressively over the years. The White River now runs 14 feet above adjacent Highway 410 for two miles. Parts of Longmire are 29 feet below the current elevation of the Nisqually River. The Nisqually River is now nearly level with the park road in several places, including, infamously, the former Sunshine Point Campground. Global Climate Change Looking Ahead The process of aggradation seems to be accelerating. One likely reason is that Mount Rainier’s glaciers are melting faster than they are reforming—a symptom of the trend toward warmer temperatures locally over the past century. Glaciers like the Nisqually, which loomed over the park road less than a hundred years ago, have now melted almost out of sight around a bend in the canyon. As the glaciers melt, they release into the riverbed the huge volumes of rock formerly locked in the ice. Massive piles of rock called moraines, normally trapped between the glacier and the walls of the canyon, also begin to erode into the river. The volume of rock available for the rivers to carry increases; a major flood can cause several decades worth of normal aggradation to occur over
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Forests of Mount Rainier Ancient Communities Exploring the forests of Mount Rainier National Park is like traveling back in time. Before Mount Rainier became a national park, visitors traveled by horse or foot for miles through thick forests and tangled undergrowth to reach the mountain. You can still walk among these trees, enjoying the grandness of forests that once covered the mountains and lowlands of western Washington. In the lower forest, see the giant, towering stands of Douglas fir, hemlock, and cedar towering above you with low-growing, shade-tolerant plants brushing at your ankles. Higher up the slopes of Mount Rainier, the forests open up into tree islands of subalpine fir, surrounded by meadows. Most of the trees in Mount Rainier National Park are evergreen conifers, keeping their needle-like leaves year-round. Only a few trees in the park are deciduous, losing their leaves in the fall. Will these forests survive? With your care and continued protection, they will continue to provide the same experiences that visitors have enjoyed for over a century. 9/11 EX P E R I E N C E Y O U R A M E R I C A www.nps.gov/mora Lowland Forests The park’s lowland forests extend up to an elevation of around 3,000 feet. Entering these ancient forests, you will find yourself sheltered by giant trees reaching more than 200 feet into the sky. Western hemlock, western red cedar, and Douglas fir are the most common trees found in Mount Rainier’s old-growth lowland forests. Some of these large trees are as old as 1,000 years, interspersed with others of different ages. The canopy of these trees and the low-growing plants below provide homes for a variety of animals. You can find the Douglas fir by looking for the thick, ridged bark and small cones that appear as if mice are hiding inside with their tails and feet hanging out. The western red cedar has a unique look with scale-like leaves and thin, fibrous bark. Some of the last extensive stands of old-growth forest left in the United States are the lowland forests of Mount Rainier. You can stroll along trails at Carbon River, Longmire, and Ohanapecosh to experience the magnificence and grand scale of these trees. Mid-mountain Forests As the name suggests, the mid-mountain forest occupies a transitional zone between the dense, lowland forest and the more scattered subalpine forest. In most areas of the park, this usually occurs between 3,000 and 4,500 feet in elevation. As the park roads ascend the ridges around Mount Rainier, the change in forest type is clearly visible. Here in the mid-mountain forest, you can see that the trees are typically smaller than the massive old-growth near the Nisqually Entrance and Ohanapecosh. The forests begin to open up, occasionally providing views of Mount Rainier and the surrounding river valleys. The most common trees in this transitional forest include the Pacific silver fir, western hemlock, mountain hemlock, Douglas fir, Alaska yellow cedar, and western white pine. At these elevations, the trees must adapt to harsh winters, heavy snow, intense cold, and a shorter growing season. Look for the “skirting” effect with stunted upper branches and longer, denser branches near the ground. Brutal winds stunt the higher branches, while snow protects the lower growth. You can immerse yourself in these forests along many trails at this elevation, or enjoy great views at overlooks throughout the park. Subalpine Forests Like islands in an ocean, the high meadows are dotted with subalpine fir, mountain hemlock, Alaska yellow cedar, and whitebark pine. The landscape looks different here where the snowpack lingers, holding back the forest, and allowing meadows to grow. The trees live in a harsh environment of wind, intense sun during the summer, and cold, snowy winters. Winter in the subalpine forests is a challenging time of the year. Like a blanket, the deep snow covers the lower branches of the trees, insulating the limbs and needles. As the warmth of spring approaches, the trees’ dark green needles absorb the warm sun causing the snow to melt from their bases. This extends their growing season. You can identify the most common trees in the subalpine forest by looking at their limbs and tops. The subalpine fir has short, sturdy limbs with a pointed top. In contrast, look for the longer, flexible limbs and droopy top of the mountain hemlock. These hardy trees have adapted to heavy snow and harsh winds by developing limbs that either support or shed snow. You can enjoy this unique forest along trails on the higher vegetated slopes of Mount Rainier.
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Geology of Mount Rainier Evidence of the complex geological processes which continue to shape this land are all around us, from the mountain itself–an active volcano–to the river valleys carved by glaciers and washed out by mudflows. To understand the geology of Mount Rainier is to understand the power of nature in shaping the landscape–and our lives. Ring of Fire Glaciers In 1883, Geologist Bailey Willis called Mount Rainier “an awful power clad in beauty.” Today, the mountain continues to command our respect and awe. At 14,410 feet, Mount Rainier is the highest peak in the Cascade Range, a chain of volcanoes extending from northern California to southern British Columbia. The range includes nearby Mount St. Helens and Lassen Peak in California, both of which have exhibited violent eruptions in the 20th century. The complex geologic processes responsible for forming this impressive range of volcanoes continue today. The Pacific Northwest is part of the “Ring of Fire,” a global zone of frequent earthquake and volcanic activity along the Pacific Ocean’s rim. The concentration of geologic activity in these areas marks the location of shifting tectonic plates. About sixty miles off the coast of Washington and Oregon, the Juan de Fuca Plate begins its slide beneath the North American Plate, in a process called subduction. It moves at a rate comparable to the growth of your fingernails, about one to two inches per year. Subduction provides the forces that generate earthquakes and the magma that feeds volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest. The mountain’s great height and its proximity to the ocean influences local climate. Moistureladen bodies of air flow eastward from the Pacific and encounter Mount Rainier’s lofty bulk where they cool, condense and create abundant precipitation and high volumes of accumulated snowfall. Fields of snow compact into ice under the weight of overlying layers. As the ice on the mountain’s steep slopes thickens, gravity causes glaciers to change shape and flow downhill. These moving rivers of ice continually carve away at the flanks of Mount Rainier. Twenty-five major glaciers radiate outward from the summit, forming a cubic mile of ice and snow. As much snow and ice exists on this single peak as exists on all of the other Cascade volcanoes combined! Like bubbles in boiling tomato sauce, the modern volcanoes of the Cascade Range represent only the most recent activity in an area where volcanoes have been bubbling along for at least 40 million years. About 500,000 years ago, vigorous eruptions of lava began building the present cone of Mount Rainier on the wreckage of ancient volcanoes. A prominent cone developed and lava flowed repeatedly on the edges of ice-age glaciers, forming the steep ridges that we see radiating out from the summit today. Through this process, the mountain reached an elevation that may have been 2,000 feet higher than today’s summit. Eruptions and Debris Flows (Lahars) In addition to the erosive might of glaciers, Mount Rainier’s height has been further eroded by a series of large-scale eruptions, collapses, and debris flows. Contributing to many such events is a process known as hydrothermal alteration, a process by which acidic solutions originating from the magma chamber weaken the stability of the rock by gradually transforming hard rock into clay. Perhaps the single most catastrophic event in Mount Rainier’s recent history occurred about 5,600 years ago as a result of such instability. A small eruption caused the upper portion of the mountain to collapse into a fast-moving flow of mud and debris known today as the Osceola Mudflow. The mountain lost about 1,000 feet of elevation as muddy debris raged down both forks of the White River as far as the Puget Sound. Yellowish, concrete-like outcrops of Osceola Mudflow material can be seen along the trail to Glacier Basin. The enormous amphitheater left behind by this event is clearly visible on the east side of the park. Other debris flows have occurred frequently throughout the history of the volcano, including a small event that damaged trails and temporarily closed the road to Paradise in 2001. underneath the icy summit crater. Scientists at the US Geological Survey and University of Washington closely monitor Mount Rainier for signs of renewed volcanic activity. Twelve seismometers inside and outside the park record both tectonic earthquakes, which occur in response to stresses within the earth, and volcanic tremors, small earthquakes caused by rising magma shouldering aside existing rock. A significant increase in the frequency and intensity of volcanic earthquakes typically precedes volcanic eruptions, and will one day signal a period of renewed eruptive activity at Mount Rainier. Detailed information is available at park visitor centers or from scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, 1300 SE Cardinal Cou
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Mammals and Life Zones Just as people have adapted to living in nearly every climate imaginable, our fellow mammals have come to occupy many different life zones around the world. These life zones, like big neighborhoods, provide many different habitats where animals can find food, water, shelter, and space. More than fifty different kinds of mammals live in the life zones found in Mount Rainier National Park. Some are specially adapted to one life zone, while others range through several. Imagine taking a very long walk from the edge of the park up to the summit of the mountain. What kinds of life zones would you see? What kinds of mammals would you find in each one? Looking at life zones can help us better understand and appreciate mammal adaptations and the struggle to survive––a trait all living things share. Lowland Forest Zone Douglas squirrel Pacific Silver Fir Zone Mountain goats live in the Alpine Zone You’re in the lowland forest when you enter the park and find yourself sheltered by giant trees, dense shrubs and brush. The old-growth forests of this zone have trees towering 250 feet (76 m) or more, reaching diameters of 100 inches (2.54 m). Found between 2,000 and 3,000 feet in elevation (610-914 m), this zone is crowded with Douglas fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar. If you pass a pond or a lake, you might see evidence of beavers. Beavers eat tree bark and “girdle” trees which they can later use to make dams and lodges. Look for signs of gnawed trees as you walk through this zone. And listen overhead for the chirping sound of the Douglas squirrel, also known as a chickaree. You’ll probably notice how it got its name: it will shout out chickareeeeee! as you pass. A subtle change in the types of trees and thickness of forest undergrowth might clue you in when you arrive at the edge of the Pacific silver fir zone. It stretches between 3,000 and 4,500 feet (914-1372 m) in elevation. The climate here is slightly cooler and wetter than in the lowland forest. You’ll recognize Pacific silver fir, noble fir, western white pine, western hemlock, and Douglas fir trees all around you. If you walk through this zone during the night, you may be lucky enough to hear the soft thwack of flying squirrels jumping and gliding from one tree to another. They have extra skin under their arms and legs, and they stretch them out and sail like kites from high up in the trees right down to the ground. In the daylight you might catch a glimpse of a bear cub climbing up a tree. Like some other mammals, bears seasonally wander through many different life zones in search of available food. Black bear cub Subalpine Zone You know you’ve entered this zone when you see mountain hemlock trees. They have short, stubby needles like their cousins in the lowland forest, but these needles form beautiful star-shaped bundles on the branch. You’ll still see a few Pacific silver fir, mixed in with whitebark pine. Stands of subalpine fir, Alaska yellow cedar, and Engelmann spruce will begin to appear as you climb higher. The subalpine zone is generally found between 4,500 and 6,500 feet (1372-1981 m). As you climb into this colder, snowier zone, the continuous forest gives way to patches of trees surrounded by meadows of colorful wildflowers, where deer and elk come to graze and browse in the sunshine. Elk Alpine Zone Here’s one zone you can’t miss––no trees grow here. Some parts of the alpine zone are covered with flowers and grasses in the summer; others are blanketed by snowfields that never melt and glaciers of blue ice. This zone starts between 6,000 and 7,500 feet (18282286 m) and goes all the way to the 14,410-foot (4392 m) summit of Mount Rainier! Marmot What mammals could ever survive up here? You hear a high-pitched whistle, and in a rock pile you see what looks like a big fat mouse with round ears and no tail. A pika gathers leaves, flowers, and the fruits of alpine plants to dry in the sun and store for winter. Another rodent, the marmot (left), doesn’t gather food, but hibernates instead. It can sleep more than half the year in its burrow until the snow melts. Mammals of Mount Rainier Bears - family Ursidae black bear Ursus americanus Shrew - family Soricidae common / masked shrew Trowbridge shrew wandering shrew dusky shrew water shrew marsh shrew Sorex cinerea Sorex trowbridgii Sorex vagrans Sorex monticolus Sorex palustris Sorex bendirii Mole - Family Talpidae shrew-mole Townsend mole coast mole Neurotrichus gibbsii Scapanus townsendii Scapanus orarius Why Latin? Most people just call animals by their common names. But it’s good to know the Latin, because common names can be confusing. For example, Aplodontia rufa has many names: boomer, sewellel, and chehalis. It’s also called a mountain beaver, even though it’s not a beaver at all (see list below). Latin names are also good for internat
Subalpine Wildflowers National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Mount Rainier National Park Broadleaf Lupine Marsh Marigold Lewis' Monkeyflower Pasqueflower False Hellebore Rosy Spirea Mountain Monkeyflower Elephanthead Mountain Bog Gentian The subalpine meadows of Mount Rainier have long been praised for their unsurpassed beauty. Amidst the spectacular wildflower meadows, the uniqueness of individual flowers often goes unnoticed. Take time to admire each flower for its own qualities while using this guide to familiarize yourself with the different species. For more information about wildflowers, stop at the Sunrise or Paradise visitor centers. Flower identification books are available for purchase throughout the park. Please stay on trails or thick patches of snow and do not pick flowers. Pasqueflower Seedhead Blue / Violet Flowers Pink Mountain Heather White Mountain Heather Cusick’s Speedwell Cascade Huckleberry Rockslide Larkspur Delphinium glareosum Showy Jacob's Ladder Polemonium pulcherrimum Small-flowered Penstemon Penstemon procerus Spreading Phlox Phlox diffusa Subalpine Daisy Erigeron peregrinus Red / Pink Flowers Cascade Huckleberry Vaccinium deliciosum Cliff Penstemon Penstemon rupicola Elephanthead Pedicularis groenlandica Lewis' Monkeyflower Oreostemma alpigenus Mimulus lewisii Bird’s-beak Lousewort Magenta Paintbrush Pedicularis ornithorhyncha Castilleja parviflora Broadleaf Lupine Pink Mountain Heather Lupinus latifolius Phyllodoce empetriformis Cascade Aster Rosy Spirea Eucephalus ledophyllus Spiraea densiflora Cusick's Speedwell Scarlet Paintbrush Veronica cusickii Castilleja miniata Harebell Western Columbine Jeffrey’s Shooting Star Dodecatheon jeffreyi Mountain Bog Gentian Gentiana calycosa Cliff Penstemon Jeffrey's Shooting Star Alpine Aster Campanula rotundifolia Small-flowered Penstemon Beargrass Aquilegia formosa Brown / Green Flower False Hellebore Veratrum viride Subalpine Daisy Alpine Aster Cascade Aster Avalanche Lily Glacier Lily Tiger Lily Partridge Foot American Bistort Sitka Mountain Ash Pearly Everlasting Gray’s Lovage Sitka Valerian Scarlet Paintbrush Magenta Paintbrush Broadleaf Arnica Arrowleaf Groundsel “...the most luxurious and the most extravagantly beautiful of all the alpine gardens I ever beheld in all my mountain-top ramblings.” — John Muir on Mount Rainier’s meadows­­ Subalpine Buttercup Fan-leaf Cinquefoil Coiled-beak Lousewort Bracted Lousewort White Flowers Bird’s-beak Lousewort Smooth Mtn. Dandelion Sitka Valerian Smooth Mountain Dandelion Tolmie's Saxifrage Subalpine Buttercup Valeriana sitchensis American Bistort Polygonum bistortoides Nothocalais alpestris Saxifraga tolmiei Avalanche Lily White Mountain Heather Erythronium montanum Cassiope mertensiana Beargrass Xerophyllum tenax Yellow / Orange Flowers Coiled-beak Lousewort Arrowleaf Groundsel Gray's Lovage Bracted Lousewort Marsh Marigold Broadleaf Arnica Partridge Foot Fan-leaf Cinquefoil Pasqueflower Glacier Lily Pearly Everlasting Mountain Monkeyflower Sitka Mountain Ash Tiger Lily Senecio triangularis Pedicularis contorta Pedicularis bracteosa Ligusticum grayi Arnica latifolia Caltha leptosepala Potentilla flabellifolia Luetkea pectinata Erythronium grandiflorum Anemone occidentalis Mimulus tilingii Anaphalis margaritacea Lilium columbianum Sorbus sitchensis Western Columbine Rockslide Larkspur Spreading Phlox Tolmie’s Saxifrage Ranunculus eschscholtzii Mount Rainier’s subalpine meadows receive enormous amounts of snow, giving plants only a very short summer growing season. Each plant’s energy must be spent on rapid flowering, leaving little energy to recover from damage caused by footsteps or other factors. With each step taken onto the meadows, an average of 17 plants are damaged. Even if a plant survives the weight of your footstep, it may be stunted for years. Please stay on trails or thick patches of snow to protect fragile vegetation while visiting the meadows. Harebell Showy Jacob’s Ladder 6/21 EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA w w w. n p s . g o v / m o r a
Mount Rainier National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Old-Growth Forest When Mount Rainier was established as America’s fifth national park on March 2, 1899, the boundaries as formalized by congressional proclamation framed the mountain in an encircling band of forest. This land was included in large measure to provide watershed protection. Though these forests were already ancient in 1899, little thought was given to their biological significance. In fact, the entire eastern section of the park, along the thickly-forested crest of the Cascade Range, was not included within the park’s boundaries until an addition was legislated in 1931. Grove of the Patriarchs What is “Old-growth”? Although there is some disagreement as to when a mature forest becomes an old-growth forest, an age of 250 to 350 years is often cited. Many factors, including soil conditions and other site qualities, determine the age at which a forest will take on the structural qualities of true old-growth. In Mount Rainier National Park, the vast majority of the forest easily falls into this old-growth category with some stands estimated to be 1,000 years old. An old-growth forest is far more structurally diverse than a typical tree plantation. Consequently, associated life forms are far different than those found in a young, second growth forest. Standing dead trees (snags), and dead-and-down logs are unique to these stands. Defects in the aging trees, along with snags and fallen logs, are the most important components in creating wildlife habitat. Elevation and topography determine the types of forests that grow within Mount Rainier National Park. The dense, lowland forest of Douglas fir, western red cedar, and western hemlock fills the lowest valleys. Mid-mountain forests dominated by Pacific silver fir shade many of the canyons’ slopes. Subalpine forests grow on the higher ridges and bowls, where hardy groves of subalpine fir, mountain hemlock, and Alaska yellow cedar withstand long, harsh winters. All of the park’s forests can be referred to as “old-growth”, since no commercial logging has ever taken place within its boundaries. Maintaining a Fine Balance Scattered through the old-growth forest are a host of smaller trees that grow well in the cool, dense shade. Pacific silver fir, western red cedar, and western hemlock create a multilayered forest which in turn, creates a cool, highly stable climate where the temperature remains moderate, even during the hottest days of summer. This combination of cool micro-climate, dominant trees, snags, and dead-and-down logs creates a unique habitat for a variety of associated life forms. Examples of these are the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), and hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus). The best known species dependent on oldgrowth is the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). As a predator high on the food chain, spotted owls are highly sensitive to disruptions within their habitat. Mount Rainier National Park is a significant location for spotted owl habitat. The U.S. Forest Service’s spotted owl management areas average 2,200 acres per breeding pair, a figure conservation groups contend is too small and industrial interests maintain is too large. Approximately 60,000 acres of suitable habitat is preserved in Mount Rainier National Park. Protecting Diversity Maintaining species diversity can no longer be viewed as insignificant. In fact, William Penn Mott (National Park Service Director, 198589) issued a directive stating, “Our national parks are natural reservoirs for biological diversity. Our role must be to maintain this natural biological heritage–from microbe to sequoia.” Until a short while ago, many of the ecological functions of old-growth forest were not known. If we are to avoid the total simplification of our forest ecosystem through reductionist management practices, such as Experiencing Our Forests Lowland forest: Between Nisqually Entrance and Longmire, the road travels through prime examples; stop for a short walk on the Twin Firs Trail, east of Kautz Creek. In the Ohanapecosh area, visit the Grove of the Patriarchs, a 1.2-mile roundtrip trail along the Ohanapecosh River. In the Carbon River valley, stroll the Rain Forest Loop Trail and the Carbon River Road. Mid-mountain forest: From the Cougar Rock Campground near Northern flying squirrel Northern spotted owl has occurred throughout Europe, we must be prudent in our current forest practices. Certainly, the preservation of ancient forests in our national parks is one part of the solution. However, it cannot be considered the sole answer. The old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest give us the opportunity to experience these ancient regimes. Here in Mount Rainier National Park, the protection of the old-growth forests is as important today as are the glaciers and the snow-capped peak of Mount Rainier. Longmire, follow the Wonderland Trail along the Paradise River to Carte
Name Abundance: Location Name Abundance: Location Mount Rainier National Park Pine Family continued Pine Family continued  Mountain hemlock Tsuga mertensiana Abundant: Low to mid- elevation forests throughout the park  Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Locally Abundant: Only at low elevations at Carbon River near the park boundary  Noble fir Abies procera Scattered to Abundant: Mid-elevation forests throughout the park  Subalpine fir Abies lasiocarpa Abundant: Upper elevation forests and subalpine  Pacific silver fir Abies amabilis Abundant: Mid-elevation forests throughout the park  Ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa Infrequent: Very few low to mid-elevation on the east side of the park Western hemlock  Western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla Abundant: Low to midelevation forests throughout the park  Western white pine Pinus monticola Scattered: Mid-elevation forests throughout the park  Whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis Locally Abundant: High elevation forests mostly in the northeast side of the park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Tree Checklist Subalpine fir Rose Family Rosaceae  Bitter cherry Prunus emarginata Scattered: Low elevation forests on the south side of the park  Wild crabapple Pyrus fusca Locally Abundant: Low elevation wet areas, primarily on the southeast side of the park Yew Family Taxaceae  Western yew Taxus brevifolia Scattered: Low elevation forests throughout the park Willow Family Salicaceae  Black cottonwood Populus balsamifera Abundant: Low to midelevation river/stream areas throughout the park  Scouler willow Salix scouleriana Abundant: Low to midelevation forest and river/stream areas throughout the park 1/18 Douglas-fir The forests of Mount Rainier National Park are a significant natural resource. They extend up the mountain slopes to elevations above 6,000 feet (above 1,800 m) and occupy 60% of the park landscape. Dense, coniferous forests clothe the lower slopes and valleys of the park. The forests are rich and varied—from massive stands of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western red-cedar in the valley bottoms to the open groves of subalpine fir and mountain hemlock on the high ridges. They provide outstanding examples of virgin forests that once occupied the mountains and lowlands of western Washington. The majority of the trees in Mount Rainier National Park are evergreen conifers, keeping their needle-like leaves year round, while only a few trees in the park are deciduous, losing their leaves over the winter. The best place to view low-elevation forests are Carbon River, Nisqually Entrance to Longmire, and Ohanapecosh. The Paradise, Sunrise, and Tipsoo Lake areas are good locations to see the open subalpine forests. Name Abundance: Location Name Abundance: Location Birch Family Betulaceae Maple Family Aceraceae  Red alder Alnus rubra Abundant: Low to mid- elevation rivers/streams and moist slopes throughout the park  Bigleaf maple Acer macrophyllum Scattered: Low elevation river/stream areas, primarily on the southwest side of the park  Sitka alder (Slide alder) Alnus viridis Scattered: Mid-elevation, mostly in open areas throughout the park  Douglas maple Acer glabrum Locally Abundant: Low to mid-elevation forests and open slopes, primarily northeast side of the park Cypress Family Cupressaceae  Alaska yellow-cedar Chamaecyparis nootkatensis Abundant: Mid to upper elevation forests throughout the park  Vine maple Acer circinatum Abundant: Low to high elevation forests and river/stream areas throughout the park  Western red-cedar Thuja plicata Abundant: Low elevation forests throughout the park Pine Family Pinaceae  Douglas-fir Pseudotsuga menziesii Abundant: Low to mid- elevation forests throughout the park  Engleman spruce Picea engelmannii Scattered: Mid to upper elevation forests mostly north side of the park  Grand fir Abies grandis Scattered: Low elevation forests primarily west side of the park  Lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Scattered: Low to upper elevation forests in the north side of the park and Longmire Abundance Abundant: Species is commonly found throughout the area and is usually a dominant species in the overstory or understory Western red-cedar Whitebark pine Locally Abundant: Generally not commonly found throughout the area, but very abundant and can be dominant where it does occur Scattered: Individual trees are scattered throughout the community they occur in, but usually are not a dominant species Infrequent: Not commonly found Elevation Low Elevation: 2,000-3,000 feet Mid-Elevation: 3,000-4,500 feet Upper Elevation: Above 4,500 feet Dogwood Family Cornaceae  Pacific dogwood Cornus nuttallii Scattered: Low elevation forests on east side of park

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