"Foggy sunrise over cannons, Manassas National Battlefield Park, 2014." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain


National Battlefield Park - Virginia

Manassas National Battlefield Park, located north of Manassas, in Prince William County, Virginia, preserves the site of two major American Civil War battles: the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, and the Second Battle of Bull Run which was fought between August 28 and August 30, 1862 (also known as the First Battle of Manassas and the Second Battle of Manassas, respectively). The peaceful Virginia countryside bore witness to clashes between the armies of the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy), and it was there that Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson acquired his nickname "Stonewall."



Official Visitor Map of Manassas National Battlefield Park (NBP) in Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Manassas - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Manassas National Battlefield Park (NBP) in Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Chesapeake & Ohio Canal - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with DOI's Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with DOI's Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Bicycle Map of Virginia. Published by the Virginia Department of Transportation.Virginia State - Virginia State Bicycle Map

Bicycle Map of Virginia. Published by the Virginia Department of Transportation.

https://www.nps.gov/mana/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manassas_National_Battlefield_Park Manassas National Battlefield Park, located north of Manassas, in Prince William County, Virginia, preserves the site of two major American Civil War battles: the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, and the Second Battle of Bull Run which was fought between August 28 and August 30, 1862 (also known as the First Battle of Manassas and the Second Battle of Manassas, respectively). The peaceful Virginia countryside bore witness to clashes between the armies of the North (Union) and the South (Confederacy), and it was there that Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson acquired his nickname "Stonewall." On July 21, 1861, two armies clashed for the first time on the fields overlooking Bull Run. Heavy fighting swept away any notion of a quick war. In August 1862, Union and Confederate armies converged for a second time on the plains of Manassas. The Confederates won a solid victory bringing them to the height of their power. Located right off Interstate 66, just 26 miles west of Washington, DC. Brawner Farm Interpretive Center Begin your exploration of the Second Battle of Manassas at the Brawner Farm Interpretive Center. Here you will find an electronic map which provides the story and troop movements of Second Manassas. Three rooms of exhibits provide information on the campaign and some of the personalities of Second Manassas, the civilian experience and the current Brawner farmhouse. This building is open seasonally from late spring through early fall. Check our calendar and guided tours webpage for tour information. From I-66 either direction: Take Exit 43B to US 29 North. Make a left onto Pageland Lane (at a stoplight). Drive one half mile and look for the park sign on the right. From Henry Hill Visitor Center: Exit visitor center and make a right on VA 234 Sudley Road. Make a left at the first stop light on to US 29. After about two and a half miles make a right at the stop light on to Pageland Lane. Drive one half mile and look for the park sign on the right. Henry Hill Visitor Center Begin your visit to the park at the Henry Hill Visitor Center. Here, you can pick up a park brochure, trail guide, or learn about the daily schedule of interpretive programs. A museum features artifacts related to the First and Second Battles of Manassas as well as a 6-minute electronic map showing the troop movements during the first battle. Walking tours of the fighting on Henry Hill are offered weekly. Check our calendar or guided tours webpage for current scheduled programs. The Henry Hill Visitor Center is located on Virginia Route 234, approximately 3/4 mile north of I-66 at Exit 47/ 47B. Bull Run Monument Red sandstone obelisk surrounded by post and rail fence. The Bull Run Monument on Henry Hill is among the nation's earliest Civil War monuments. Stone House View of Stone House, with worm rail fence and well in front yard. The historic Stone House, a battlefield landmark, sheltered Union wounded in both battles of Manassas. 14th Brooklyn Monument Civil War cannon and granite and bronze monument under a cloudy sky. The 14th Brooklyn Monument overlooks the scene of heavy fighting near Groveton during Second Manassas. Henry House Rustic farmhouse, flanked by shade tree, stone monument, and white outbuilding, on top of a hill. The Henry House, built over the ruins of the wartime dwelling, welcomed returning veterans to the battlefield after the war. Stonewall Jackson Monument Bronze statue of Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson on horseback in an open field. The statue of Confederate Gen. T. J. "Stonewall" Jackson stands on Henry Hill, near the spot where he earned his famous nickname. Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program’s Rodney Flora A veteran of the U.S. Navy, Rodney Flora applied to the Historic Preservation Training Center’s Traditional Trades Apprenticeship Program (TTAP) after graduating from Shepherd University. Find out how this veteran found his passion in manual labor, not unlike his military experience. Rodney Flora stands to the right of five other crew and staff members. Pawpaw: Small Tree, Big Impact Pawpaw are small trees that don't grow past 100 feet. Yet they have a big influence-- they're the most commonly observed sapling in our National Capital Region forests. Pawpaw trees are virtually immune to deer browse and also produce the largest edible fruit native to North America! A hand holds a lumpy green pawpaw fruit Lichens and Air Quality Lichens are durable enough to grow on tree bark and bare rock, yet are sensitive to pollution and air quality. One species in particular was used to track levels of air-borne lead over a 100 year period! Pale green lichen growing on rock. Women Amidst War The extreme demands of wartime industry and the loss of traditional family breadwinners to military service caused hardship, but also presented opportunities to women for employment, volunteerism, and activism that previously had been unavailable to them. While many of these gains would be temporary, the Civil War nonetheless represents an important step forward in American society's view of the role of women. Women were increasingly seen (and saw themselves) as the foundat Photo of women at a house on the Cedar Mountain battlefield Archeology in the Park - Manassas National Battlefield Park Until its destruction by fire in 1993, a rare example of a pre-Civil War African American homestead existed on the Grounds of the Manassas National Battlefield Park. Subsequent archeological excavations at the site unearthed a surprising discovery. An image of Robinson House with two people sitting on the front porch from March 1862 From The Front Lines to the Hospital For the wounded near the front, their first recourse for care lay at the numerous aid stations scattered across the battlefield. Farmhouses, barns, and outbuildings provided places for the wounded to be gathered until they could be sent to the main hospital in the rear. Print of a field hospital NPS Structural Fire Program Highlights 2014 Intern Accomplishments An Innovative Technology of War Among the technical innovations to come out of the Civil War were advancements in the methods the armies had to communicate among themselves. Signal flags, torches and rockets were used to pass along messages and reconnaissance, while codes and ciphers ensured that the messages wouldn't be intercepted and read by the enemy. Union signal station on Antietam battlefield Death and Dying The somber aftermath of Civil War battles introduced Americans--North and South--to death on an unprecedented scale and of an unnatural kind, often ending in an unmarked grave far from home. Neither individuals, nor institutions, nor governments were prepared to deal with death on such a massive scale, for never before or since have we killed so many of our own. The Civil War revolutionized the American military's approach to caring for the dead, leading to our modern cult Photo of freshly buried marked and unmarked graves near Petersburg, Va. Medicine and Medical Practices The story of Civil War medicine is a complex one. Through the dedication, innovation and devotion of surgeons and medical support staff, the foundation for today's modern military medicine was laid. Modern photograph of Civil War medicine bottles Prescribed fire in the national capital area Learn how the National Park Service uses prescribed fire in the National Capital Area. Forest Regeneration 2018 In 2018, tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot in Rock Creek Park showing some vegetation recovery. American Eels in the Potomac Watershed American eels are found everywhere along the Atlantic Coast, but many aspects of these fish remain poorly understood. They are perhaps one of the most mysterious fish in the Potomac watershed. Hands hold a 2 to 3 foot long eel over a red container. Civil War Battlefields: A Haven for Grassland Birds Civil War battlefields have become a haven for declining grassland birds. As grassland habitat dwindles in the eastern U.S., grasslands, shrublands, and the pastures that make up battlefield parks are playing an ever more important role as habitat for a special group of birds. A grasshopper sparrow singing from atop a cable. National Capital Region Energy Savings Performance Contract The National Park Service is investing $29 million in 81 individual energy efficiency and water conservation projects at national parks throughout the greater Washington region. Cherry Blossoms at the National Mall The Military Experience The course of the war was the cumulative result of political, economic, and social policies that affected (and were affected by) military operations and battles waged across a front spanning 2,000 miles. The battles and campaigns of 1861-65 ultimately demonstrated that the simple application of massive military force, even with innovations in technologies and tactics, was insufficient to resolve a conflict between two sections mobilized against one another politically, socia Engraving of soldier warming himself by a fire Photo of U.S. Sanitary Commission office. Forest Regeneration 2017 Tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot showing tree seedling and low-growing plant recovery. Go green for the National Park Service’s birthday! We're adding energy- and water-saving improvements to save money! How can you do the same in your home? National Mall and Memorial Parks Yearly Savings 50.9 M gallons of water, $1 M, 2.7M kwh. Sustainability in Action: Reducing Manassas National Battlefield Park’s Carbon Footprint NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] park entrance sign Stream Restoration Dreams: Stage Zero Learn “stage zero” stream restoration basics and how they could be applied in Mid-Atlantic streams. Water spreads across the ground around standing and fallen trees The Nash Site Discovered during a 1990 archeological survey, historical evidence indicates that the Nash Site was occupied by an African-American family, Philip Nash and his wife and children. National Park Service archeologists excavate the Nash site. Lost, Tossed, and Found Using photographs, illustrations, and maps, this article focuses on the African-American experience, in slavery and freedom, in the immediate vicinity of Manassas National Battlefield Park. Aerial view of Excavations at Portici. Shows plantation land and surrounding trees Ash Tree Update 2017 The state of ash trees in 2017 in the National Capital Region after more than 10 years of harm from the invasive emerald ash borer. A white ash leaf Forest Regeneration 2019 In 2019 tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in National Capital Area parks. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A brown bird with a white breast and dark spots on its chest stands on the leaf-littered ground. Eastern Hemlocks in the National Capital Region Many evergreen, Eastern hemlock trees, typically found growing alongside forest streams, have succumbed to two insect pests. In the National Capital Region, we looked for surviving trees, and what other tree species are poised to replace hemlocks. An evergreen branch with white fuzzy nubs along the stems. DOI Region 1, National Capital Area Utilizes Prescribed Fire as a Management Tool Resource and facility managers in the National Capital Area (NCA) are relying more frequently on prescribed burning as a tool to protect, restore, enhance and maintain historic Civil War sites. Fire in grasses burn near a Civil War cannon. Cultural Continuity Artifacts found at both the Robinson House and the Nash Site indicate that the Robinson family retained a portion of their African identity. Mancala gaming pieces from Manassas National Battlefield Park The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Oak Decline Learn more about oak decline where a host of stressors interact to weaken trees over time, leading to what becomes "death by a thousand cuts." Looking up into the canopy of a mature oak showing symptoms of oak decline. Spring Amphibian Timeline Learn how the progression of amphibian appearances unfurls every spring. A gray tree frog clings to a small tree branch. Amphibian Diversity & Habitat Connectivity Habitat fragmentation is a major threat to amphibian communities, especially in National Capital Region parks at risk due to the region's growing urbanization. A small frog crouches on a lichen-covered rock. Finding Identity Through Material Culture: The Robinson's Tableware and Glassware Conducting an analysis on the collection of glass and ceramics from the Robinson family provides the opportunity to study what types of goods the family used during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. American shell-edged plate broken in 4 pieces. The Robinson House - Historical Background The Robinson House site was the home of a free African-American family, the Robinsons, from the late 1840s through 1936. It stood until 1993 when arsonists burned part of the structure. Robinson House ca. 1900, Manassas National Battlefield Park. Finding Identity Through Material Culture: The Nash Site Differences in the material culture of the Robinson and Nash sites illustrate the diversity within the African-American community in this area. Colonoware bowl, a low-fired earthenware, found on the Nash Site Archeological Excavations at the Robinson House Archeological excavations at the Robinson House site were performed in 1995 and 1996 and focused around and within the existing house foundations and in the outlying yard areas. Screening for artifacts at Robinson House A Confederate Winter Camp The investigation of a Confederate winter camp site at Manassas National Battlefield Park by professional archeologists found the remains of 20 Civil War-era structures. Manassas Stonehouse Archeology at Brawner Farm Once the scene of fierce and bloody battle, the Brawner Farm today is a landmark in a quiet corner of the Manassas Battlefield. Photo of the Brawner Farm, incorporating pieces of the masonry and brick from the original farmhouse A New Economy of War Dozens of wounded Federal troops found shelter inside the massive walls of the Stone House during both Battles of Manassas. Its location at the junction of two major turnpikes put it in the center of battle each time. Photo of the Stone House at Manassas National Battlefield Park "My Very Dear Wife" - The Last Letter of Major Sullivan Ballou Like many soldiers on the eve of the first major battle of the Civil War, Sullivan Ballou feared he might not survive the conflict. The letter he wrote to his wife, expressing his anxiety, remains on the the most famous, and poignent, written during the war. Kurz & Allison print of the First Battle of Manassas Defeat at Manassas Leads to the Fortification of Washington After a humiliating defeat at Manassas, the Union army realized that the war would be a long struggle and that the fortification of the nation's capital needed to be extended and expedited. The massive construction thus began, establishing a defensive ring around the city that would make Washington, D.C. one of the most fortified cities in the world. Fast and Flexible Cavalry acted as the eyes and ears of the army for both the Union and Confederacy, conducting reconnaissance and gathering intelligence. In addition to combat, cavalry also screened marches of infantry, guarded wagon trains, and raided enemy supplies. Image of an advertisement for joining the Calvary Constant Attack The Battle of Second Manassas rages on with Stonewall Jackson leading the charge Photograph of General Stonewall Jackson The Attack Continues Second Manassas would prove to be more of a challenge then the Union forces believed Lithograph of General Kearny's gallant charge, at the Battle of Chantilly August 28, 1862 The Confederate army, under Jackson's command, was closing in on Manassas for a second time during the war. Photograph of Manassas Junstion 1862 Amphibian Disease Risk in the National Capital Area Looking for disease, including ranaviruses and chytrid fungi, is an important part of amphibian monitoring done by the National Capital Region Inventory & Monitoring Network. Learn more about the risks posed by these diseases and the biosecurity protocols field crews use to reduce the risk of accidental spread. Red-spotted newt on brown forest floor leaves. Black spots and eyes contrast with vivid orange skin. Forest Soils Highlights from a 2007-2017 study of soils in National Capital Region Network I&M-monitored parks. Includes discussion of parent materials, heavy metal soil pollutants like lead, and how past land use effects O horizons. Collage of 6 color photos of soil profiles showing colors from orange-y reds to browns and grays. Brawner Farmstead Cultural Landscape The Brawner Farmstead landscape is in the northwest corner of Manassas National Battlefield Park in Virginia. Fighting broke out here on August 28, 1862 between "Stonewall" Jackson's wing of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and a division of the Third Corps of the Union Army of Virginia. In addition to its association with the Second Battle of Manassas, the landscape is historically significant for the agricultural development of the area. Distant farm buildings at the end of a straight unpaved road through open, agricultural land. Stiltgrass and Tree Seedling Recovery Recent analysis at Maryland's Catoctin Mountain Park shows Japanese stiltgrass does not limit the growth of tree seedlings in a forest recovering from deer overpopulation. Invasive Japanese stiltgrass blankets the sides of a shady forest road. Falling Stars: James A. Garfield and the Military Reputations of Generals Irvin McDowell, George McClellan, and Fitz John Porter During the Civil War, James A. Garfield was elected into the House of Representatives but they did not begin session until the end of 1863. While waiting to begin his new position Garfield was part of one of the most celebrated military trials in American history: the court martial of Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter. Find out more about the trial and what part James A. Garfield played! nineteen men in suits sitting around a table James A. Garfield and the “Yankee Dutchman”: Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel Major General Franz Sigel and James A. Garfield met each other in 1862. General Garfield's letters during the Civil War were put into a book called, The Wild Life of the Army: Civil War Letters of James A. Garfield. This article will examine the relationship and admiration Garfield had for a fellow Union officer. Franz Sigel Spotted Lanternfly 101 What you need to know about spotted lanternfly: a new, invasive, insect pest approaching the National Parks of the Mid-Atlantic. A spotted lanternfly with wings spread showing namesake spots Series: A Most Horrid Picture When the war began, medical practitioners did not know the exact cause of many diseases or the mechanisms of infection, and were only beginning to understand the benefits of cleanliness and good sanitation in disease prevention and healing. As a result, two out of every three deaths in the Civil War were caused by disease rather than injury. Caregivers like Clara Barton, the "Angel of the Battlefield," brought food and supplies to the soldiers and inspired new hope and life to the injured. Modern photograph of a medicine kit from the Civil War Series: The Burden of Beasts Though the battles were fought by men, Animals played important roles in the Civil War in a variety of capacities. Many units adopted mascots, including dogs, cats, pigs, goats, and even a bald eagle. Key roles such as officer's direction of battles, the transport of messages and orders, and the work of cavalrymen were conducted on horseback. Horses joined mules and oxen in pulling supply wagons, ambulances, and artillery pieces. Without animals it would have been a very different war. "A hor Photograph of Lt. George A. Custer with his dog Series: The Vortex of Hell When the Peninsula Campaign began in 1862 Northern hopes were again raised for a quick victory, but the poor progress of George McClellan resulted in a restless northern public. In sharp contrast, Lee's success in stopping McClellan's advance cast him as the savior of Richmond and cloaked his army with a sense of invincibility. Even as Lee pushed McClellan away from Richmond, Union General John Pope led his army deeper into Virginia, introducing a policy of bringing the war directly to the south Lithograph of Kearny's chage at the Battle of Chantilly Series: African American Households The Robinson House site was the home of a free African-American family, the Robinsons, from the late 1840s through 1936. James Robinson, also known as "Gentleman Jim," was a free African-American born in 1799. James and a slave named Susan Gaskins had six children, all born into slavery. Two National Park Service archaeologists excavating the Nash Site Spotted Lanternfly in Perspective While spotted lanternfly and emerald ash borer are both invasive insect pests, introduced from Asia, that feed on trees (primarily), they have few other similarities. Learn how they differ in host preferences, feeding mode, and life cycle. A spotted lanternfly with black wingspots on a tree branch Brood X Periodical Cicadas FAQ Learn about the Brood X periodical cicadas that emerged in 2021 throughout the Mid-Atlantic U.S. A perched periodical cicada with red eyes and orange wings Forest Regeneration 2020 What is the future of our forests? A look at forest regeneration capacity in National Capital Area national parks based on 2020 monitoring data. hand holding a leaflet on a white ash seedling Series: African American History at Gettysburg Abraham Brian, Basil Biggs, James Warfield, and Mag Palm are just a few of the many individuals that were affected by the Civil War and the Battle of Gettysburg, and each has their own story to tell. We have collected their stories in one place so that you can learn more about their various trials during this tumultuous time in American history. A black and white photograph of a black family posing with a white man and his horse in a dirt road. Prospering Pollinators in Manassas Grasslands How have pollinators been affected by Manassas National Battlefield Park converting ~1,000 acres of grasslands to native, warm-season grasses? A new survey aims to find out. a hovering bumblebee moth reaches its probiscus toward a purple flower September 11, 2001, NPS Oral History Project This oral history project recorded the memories and perspectives of NPS staff who experienced the events of 9/11 and their aftermath. Transcripts and a 2004 report about the NPS response are available online. A petinad hand holds a flame aloft in the air. Beech Trees in the National Capital Area American beech (Fagus grandifolia), the most common tree species in National Capital Area parks, is currently facing the emerging threat of Beech Leaf Disease (BLD). A forest with healthy green leafed beech trees Managing a Right-of-Way Helped This Park Restore Its Grasslands An unexpected and often forgotten place becomes a vital part of one park’s bid to restore a critically imperiled landscape Kelly Ewing walks through a grassland under a power line at Manassas National Battlefield Park Overview of the Urban Forests The eight urban forests measured in the Urban Ecology i-Tree analyses are diverse. The following articles explore just a few of the common ecological benefits the urban trees in these parks provide to the parks and the surrounding areas. Overview of the Urban Forests icon of tree silhouettes. Icon put over photo of Prince William Forest Other Benefits of Urban Forests Other benefits of urban forests include: Trees and Building Energy Use and Oxygen Production. Trees affect energy consumption by shading buildings, providing evaporative cooling, and blocking winter winds. Oxygen production is one of the most commonly cited benefits of urban trees. Other Tree Benefits icon of house with a tree besides it. Icon put over photo of cherry blossoms Structural Values of Urban Forests A tree’s structural value can be thought of as the cost of having to replace a tree with a similar tree. It can be calculated with factors like the tree trunk area and the tree’s health condition. Various insects and diseases can infest urban forests, potentially killing trees and reducing the health, structural value and sustainability of the urban forest. Structural Values of Trees icon of tree on field. Icon put over photo of snow covered trees. Carbon Storage by Urban Forests Climate change is an issue of global concern. Urban trees can help mitigate climate change by storing carbon in tree tissue and sequestering atmospheric carbon from the key greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon Storage & Sequestration icon of CO2 going into a tree. Icon put over photo tree trunk. Air Pollution Removal by Urban Forests Poor air quality is a common problem in many urban areas. It can lead to decreased human health, damage to landscape materials and ecosystem processes, and spoiled scenic views due to reduced visibility. The National Park Service monitors and assesses air quality in park units. The trees in NPS’s urban forests contribute to improved air quality. Air Pollution Removal Icon of green lungs. Icon put over photo of tree canopy gap. Incredible Untold Stories of Everyday Life In the Reconstruction period following the Civil War, newly freed African Americans faced monumental challenges to establish their own households, farm their own lands, establish community institutions and churches, and to pursue equal justice under the law in a period of racist violence. A new NPS report presents the story of the extraordinary accomplishments of rural African Americans in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Portrait of well dressed Black woman in round spectacles, short natural hair, and lacy white collar Forest Regeneration 2021 The latest look at forest regeneration capacity in National Capital Area national parks based on monitoring data from 2021. Green forest showing healthy understory of oak seedlings. Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Deer Impacts A healthy forest needs to have enough tree seedlings and saplings to regenerate the forest canopy after a disturbance. Analysis of NPS I&M and other long-term datasets makes it clear that many eastern national parks lack adequate tree regeneration due to decades of over browsing by white-tailed deer. Deer impacts I&M Networks Support Resilient Forest Management NPS Inventory and Monitoring Networks have been tracking forest health in eastern national parks since 2006. This monitoring information can guide resilient forest management and support parks in adapting to changing conditions through the actions described below. Forest health monitoring Managing Resilient Forests. A Regional Initiative Forests cover tens of thousands of acres in eastern national parks and these critical resources face a range of interacting stressors: over-abundant white-tailed deer populations, invasive plant dominance, novel pests and pathogens, among other threats. The Resilient Forests Initiative will help parks address these issue collectively. Forest health monitoring Autumn Amphibians Frog antifreeze and red efts? Learn more about fall amphibian life in the National Capital Area, including marbled salamanders, spring peepers, and red-spotted newts! A red-orange juvenile red-spotted newt climbs a rock Series: Managing Resilient Forests Initiative for Eastern National Parks Forests in the northeastern U.S. are in peril. Over-abundant deer, invasive plants, and insect pests are negatively impacting park forests, threatening to degrade the scenic vistas and forested landscapes that parks are renowned for. With regional collaboration, parks can manage these impacts and help forests be resilient. This article series explores tools available to park managers to achieve their goals. Healthy forests have many native seedlings and saplings. Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Invasive Plants & Pests Park forests are threatened by invasive plants and pests. Strategically tackling invasive plants to protect park’s highest priority natural resources and planning around forest pests and pathogens are important actions in managing resilient forests. Forest Regeneration Ash Tree Update 2021 Emerald ash borer (EAB) has killed most of the 300,000 ash trees in National Capital Region parks since 2014. Fewer than 80,000 living ash trees remain. Some ash-dominated swamps transformed into shrublands as ash root systems re-sprouted after EAB attack. In dry habitats, EAB proved more quickly fatal. A sunny swamp with dead tree trunks emerging from dense shrubs Series: Amphibian Monitoring in the National Capital Region Amphibians are a crucial part of both aquatic and land ecosystems, and National Capital Region parks are home to at least 20 different amphibian species. Learn how amphibian populations are changing based on more than fifteen years of NPS monitoring by the National Capital Region Inventory & Monitoring Network. Northern red salamander on a patch of sun dappled moss Amphibian Monitoring Update 2023 Learn how amphibians in the National Capital Region are faring based on fifteen years of NPS monitoring. Explore population changes, threats and stressors, and data-informed tools for protecting amphibian populations in our parks. Eye level view of a red salamander creeping along bright green moss Manassas Amphibian Monitoring 2023 Manassas is hopping! Learn what recent amphibian monitoring data shows us about amphibian populations in the park! American toad (Bufo americanus) Vines on Trees at Forest Edges Learn how climbing vines affect tree growth and mortality in National Capital Region park forests. This material was originally presented in a 2016 resource brief. Vines climb on trees at the forest edge at Rock Creek's Barnard Hill Park. Re-Growing Southeastern Grasslands Native grasslands once covered vast swaths of the southeastern U.S. Learn how national parks in DC, Maryland, and Virginia are working on conserving, rehabilitating, and restoring these grassland communities. A sunny grassland with rolling hills in the distance What We’re Learning and Why it Matters: Long-Term Monitoring in the National Capital Region Knowing which natural resources are found in the national parks, and whether they're stable or changing, helps decisionmakers make sound choices. The National Capital Region Network is building that knowledge. After over fifteen years of monitoring, we've learned a lot about park ecosystems, how they're changing, and what they may look like in the days to come. Find out what we’ve learned and how it’s being used to help managers plan for the future. Field crew measures the diameter of a tree. Plan Like a Park Ranger 1-Day Itinerary Manassas National Battlefield Today, in an increasingly urbanizing area, Manassas National Battlefield Park preserves the natural beauty and historic significance of this land and offers opportunities for both learning and recreation. While many visitors already know about popular spots like the Brawner Farm or the Stone House, we encourage you to explore areas throughout the over 4,500-acre battlefield. Civil Rights and the Civil War in the National Capital Area The Civil War showed the cracks in the loosely held peace between the North and South. As the end of slavery through the Emancipation Proclamation established a reason for African Americans to join the fight, the stage was set for African American men to fight for their own freedom and rights as citizens of America. An unidentified African American soldier sits with a leg crossed over the other for his portrait. Tree Rings and the Tales They Tell Ecologists with the National Capital Region use tree cores from 36 different species to learn about the age of trees in park forests. Tree core samples taken from forest plots, laid side-by-side. Forest Regeneration 2022 Tree seedlings and small saplings are still in short supply in National Capital Region national parks. A look at forest regeneration capacity based on monitoring data from 2022. Sunlight filtering through a green forest with green seedlings covering most of the forest floor. A Forest Monitoring Cycle Like No Other What if your office were the woods? Your break room a mossy log? This is the reality for members of the Inventory & Monitoring forest vegetation crew. The team has collected data on forest health in NCR parks every year since 2006 and recently completed the fourth cycle of forest vegetation monitoring (2018-2022). Learn what staff biologists and technicians have to say about their experiences in the field these past five years. Five members of a forest crew leap for joy in a sun-soaked forest. Ash Tree Update 2022 Emerald ash borer are still decimating ash trees in the National Capital Region. Read on for the latest look into the state of ash trees in our parks based on forest monitoring data. Metallic emerald ash borer beetle atop a chewed leaf Resilient Forest Briefs for National Capital Region Parks As part of the ongoing conversation about managing resilient forests, short briefs on the resilience and regeneration status of each NCR park are now available. These summaries are based on 12 years of NPS forest vegetation monitoring data. bio tech gazing up through a sunlit forest Project Profile: Restore Grasslands in Appalachian Parks This National Park Service (NPS) will increase the ecological and cultural value of parks in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States by restoring native grasslands in approximately 400 acres of agricultural land across six parks. shrubby grasslands with white fluffy flowers Project Profile: Manage Grassland Invasive Species in Appalachia This National Park Service will increase the ecological and cultural value of parks in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States by restoring native grasslands in approximately 400 acres of agricultural land and open lands across six historic parks in the National Capital Area and Northeast Region. grasslands and trees are visible beyond a weathered wooden fence Battling to Save Battlefield Birds A recent analysis of two focal grassland birds—the eastern meadowlark and the grasshopper sparrow—at four battlefield national parks, showed that how grasslands are managed affects the survival and reproduction of birds in those places. Researchers used eight years of NPS grassland bird monitoring data to learn how different practices, in particular farming practices, help conserve these vulnerable species. grasshopper sparrow perched on a post with green background From TTAP to NPS: Carolyn Currin Carolyn Currin participated in the Traditional Trades Advancement Program and is now an NPS employee. Learn more about her experience going from an internship to a full-time position. A woman smiles looking through the wooden frame that is attached to a work table. Back to the Future: National Park Service to convert agricultural acres to native grasslands The National Park Service is investing funds from the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law to increase the ecological and cultural values in landscape restoration projects in six parks in Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland and western Pennsylvania. The initial work will focus on converting approximately 400 acres of open lands that have been previously used for agriculture into native grasslands. a sunset over a battlefield with lone cannon NCR's Forest Interior Birds Explore how forest interior breeding birds are faring in National Capital Region (NCR) parks. These species prefer the shadiest and quietest core of the forest landscape and are excellent indicators of a healthy forest ecosystem. We look at data on wood thrush, ovenbird, Kentucky warbler, Louisiana waterthrush, hooded warbler, and scarlet tanager from a report summarizing population trends for forest birds in NCR parks. a woodthrush perched on a branch with blurred green foliage background Mary Jane Dogan House Virtual Visit The Mary Jane Dogan house is located near Groveton, the site of the Second Battle of Manassas. It was erected between 1878 and 1880 for Mary Jane Dogan by noted Alexandria, Virginia, builder Alexander Lyles. The house incorporates building components salvaged from earlier structures on site. Many residents faced with deprivations after the Civil War rebuilt using the remnants of previous structures. Explore the house via HDP’s animation and archival HABS documentation. 3D rendering of small wooden house surrounded by trees Veteran Story: Jim Burgess Jim Burgess served three years in the U.S. Army. He joined the National Park Service in 1976 Today he serves as the park's museum specialist. Find out more about his transition to a career with the National Park Service. A man in a dress Army uniform. Groveton School House The Groveton Schoolhouse that currently stands within the Manassas National Battlefield Park was built in 1917, but the history of the Groveton School predates the Civil War. Series: A Timeline of Resistance: The Perseverance of African Americans from the Revolutionary War to the Civil Rights Era The story of African American’s fight for equality did not begin or end with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. In the National Capital Area, dedicated activism and self-determination has been documented since the Revolutionary War through the present day. This series consists of six articles that outline distinct timelines of resistance and activism in the fight for freedom. A young African American girl gazes at the camera holding a banner for the March on Washington Guide to the Annie Snyder Collection This Finding aid describes the Annie Snyder Collection, part of the Manassas National Battlefield Park Museum Collection. Guide to the Emanuel “Tersh” Boasberg Papers This Finding aid describes the Emanuel “Tersh” Boasberg Papers, part of the Manassas National Battlefield Park Museum Collection. Forest Regeneration 2023 Tree seedlings and small saplings are slowly increasing in National Capital Region national parks. A look at forest regeneration capacity based on monitoring data from 2023. Three people stand in a forest, smiling and pointing to a large tree trunk between them. Incised Fumewort (Corydalis incisa) Incised fumewort (Corydalis incisa) is a "high risk" invasive plant in the mid-Atlantic US with the potential to become widespread and cause a lot of damage. Learn how to identify it, differentiate it from the native yellow corydalis (Corydalis flavula), and help be on the lookout for this invasive species. A cluster of incised fumewort with green leaves and bright purple tubular flowers with violet ends. When Forests Come Down with a Bug: Forest Pests in the Greater DC Area Beech leaf disease, emerald ash borer, spotted lanternfly, spongy moth, oak decline and oak wilt are all pests present in National Capital Region (NCR) park forests. Learn about their effects and spread based on NCR Inventory & Monitoring data, and get the heads up on elm zigzag sawfly and beech bark disease. A black and red insect sits on a leaf. Updated Species Database Will Help Boost Amphibian Conservation Across the National Park System To steward amphibians effectively, managers need basic information about which species live in parks. But species lists need constant maintenance to remain accurate. Due to recent efforts, the National Park Service now has an up-to-date amphibian species checklist for almost 300 parks. This information can serve as the basis for innumerable conservation efforts across the nation. A toad sits on red sand, looking into the camera. Flying Squirrels: A Field Note Southern flying squirrels are common in eastern forests, but are rarely seen by humans because they are nocturnal. Learn more about these unique animals! A flying squirrel clings to a tree trunk.

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