"The Liberty Bell" by NPS photo , public domain


National Historical Park - Pennsylvania

Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia preserves several sites associated with the American Revolution and the nation's founding history. The park comprises much of Philadelphia's most-visited historic district. The park has been nicknamed "America's most historic square mile" because of its abundance of historic landmarks, and the park sites are located within the Old City and Society Hill neighborhoods of Philadelphia. The centerpiece of the park is Independence Hall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, where the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted in the late 18th century. Across the street from Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, an iconic symbol of American independence, is displayed in the Liberty Bell Center.



Official Visitor Map of Independence National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Independence - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Independence National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail in New Jersey. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail in New Jersey. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NRes) in New Jersey. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).New Jersey Pinelands - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NRes) in New Jersey. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Tourism and Transportation Map of Pennsylvania. Published by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.Pennsylvania - Tourism and Transportation Map

Official Tourism and Transportation Map of Pennsylvania. Published by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation.


Brochure of World Heritage Sites in the United States. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park Service - World Heritage Sites

Brochure of World Heritage Sites in the United States. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/inde/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independence_National_Historical_Park Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia preserves several sites associated with the American Revolution and the nation's founding history. The park comprises much of Philadelphia's most-visited historic district. The park has been nicknamed "America's most historic square mile" because of its abundance of historic landmarks, and the park sites are located within the Old City and Society Hill neighborhoods of Philadelphia. The centerpiece of the park is Independence Hall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, where the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted in the late 18th century. Across the street from Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, an iconic symbol of American independence, is displayed in the Liberty Bell Center. The park represents the founding ideals of the nation, and preserves national and international symbols of freedom and democracy, including Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell. The Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both debated and signed inside Independence Hall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Independence National Historical Park is located in an urban area served by Interstates 95 and 676. The park is also easily accessible by public transportation, including SEPTA and PATCO mass transit routes. Whether you choose driving, the bus or the train, we recommend that you start your visit at the Independence Visitor Center at 6th and Market Streets. See the park's website for specific directions. Independence Visitor Center The Independence Visitor Center is located at 6th and Market Streets. Pick up a park map, plan your visit, and watch films in the Independence Visitor Center. Ask knowledgeable park rangers about programs, walking tours and special events. City concierge staff will gladly assist you with information about lodgings and restaurants. The Independence Visitor Center is located on 6th and Market Streets and can be reached by car from Interstates 95 and 676. Parking may be available (fee applies) at the Independence Visitor Center underground garage. Enter on either 5th or 6th Street, between Market and Arch Streets. There is also a parking garage (fee applies) on 2nd Street between Chestnut and Walnut Streets. The visitor center is also easily accessible by public transportation, including SEPTA and PATCO mass transit routes. The Liberty Bell Color photo of the Liberty Bell with Independence Hall in the background. Recognizable for its crack, the Liberty Bell remains significant today for its message of liberty. Independence Visitor Center A color photo of the Independence Visitor Center showing a brick building with tall windows. Plan your visit, use the restrooms, and take advantage of the free WiFi in the Independence Visitor Center. Independence Hall Color photo of Independence Hall as seen from the north side of Chestnut Street. Known as the birthplace of the United States, Independence Hall houses the room where the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both signed. The Assembly Room in Independence Hall A color photo of the Assembly Room showing 18th century chairs and green, cloth covered tables The Assembly Room in Independence Hall is where the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution were both signed. The Benjamin Franklin Museum A color photo of the exterior of the Benjamin Franklin Museum in Franklin Court. Explore Franklin's life and character in the Benjamin Franklin Museum. The museum features artifacts, computer animations, and interactive displays that are geared toward visitors of all ages. The Franklin Court Printing Office A color photo of a printing press in the Franklin Court Printing Office. Franklin's printing office no longer survives, but it would have had equipment similar to what you'll see in the Franklin Court Printing Office. Portrait Gallery in the Second Bank of the United States The exterior of the Second Bank of the United States showing a marble building with eight columns. The Second Bank of the United States houses a fine collection of over 100 portraits, many of them by 18th century artist Charles Willson Peale. Women's History Self-Guided Walking Tour at Independence Explore women's history at Independence National Historical Park with this self-guided walking tour. Be inspired by the actions of women who worked within and without the system to contribute to society, and to effect societal change. Black and white illustration of women carrying woman suffrage signs The Justice Bell Rings for Women's Suffrage on Independence Square The Justice Bell pealed in celebration of women's voting rights on Independence Square on September 25, 1920. Speeches, pageantry, and the bell ringing linked women's rights to the nation's founding on this historic landscape. Detail, front page of newspaper from 1920 showing a young woman next to a large bell. June 14, 1787: The Small States Prepare to Rebel Concerned for the interests of the small states, William Paterson of New Jersey asked for time to prepare an alternative to the Virginia Plan. Head-and-shoulders portrait of William Paterson in profile. June 1, 1787: National Executive Debated The Committee of the Whole debated issues related to the national executive - term of office, method of selection. James Madison (VA) proposed a single executive aided by a council, but the Convention postponed voting on the matter. Color pastel portrait of James Madison, showing a man with white hair in a gray suit. June 2, 1787: Debate Continues on the National Executive Benjamin Franklin (PA) produced a written speech proposing that the executive serve without pay. The Convention discarded this proposal without debate or vote. Color portrait of Benjamin Franklin holding papers, and with his chin resting on his thumb. June 3, 1787: Convention Adjourned Connecticut nationalist Jeremiah Wadsworth had some concerns about one delegate in particular. Detail, color pastel portrait of Jeremiah Wadsworth showing a man with white hair in a blue coat. Thomas Jefferson and Robert Hemings in Philadelphia Thomas Jefferson and his enslaved servant Robert Hemings slept, worked, and shopped in Philadelphia in the summer of 1776 while Jefferson was attending the meetings of the Second Continental Congress. Color photo of a bedroom with a four poster bed with green bed curtains, side chair, and trunk. Archeology at Franklin Court How do you celebrate the enduring legacy of Benjamin Franklin, one of our most familiar inventors, scientists, and “inquiring minds” of the revolutionary era? Archeologists assessed the archeological research that has been done at Franklin Court in Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia. The archeological collections provide insight into Franklin at home with his family and reveal more about his fascination with science. Franklin portals. Suffragists Rally on Independence Square, 1911 and 1912 Alice Paul championed strategies fairly new to the suffrage movement, like open-air meetings and rallies. The rallies on Independence Square in 1911 and 1912 drew large crowds and spread the message of "Votes for Women." Black and white photo of Alice Paul, a young woman seated at a desk. June 22, 1787: Debate Over Congressional Pay The delegates meeting inside the Assembly Room of the Pennsylvania State House (Independence Hall) discussed the substance of "fixed stipends to be paid out of the National Treasury." Color illustration of a two story brick building with steeple. June 24, 1787: Sunday Recess On this Sunday recess, delegates like Rufus King took time to write letters. Others may have reflected on the major issues they debated in convention that week. Color head-and-shoulders portrait of Rufus King, showing a balding man in a dark suit. June 15, 1787: The New Jersey Plan William Paterson (NJ) introduced what would become known as the New Jersey Plan. The plan included nine resolutions, and reflected the small states' interest in maintaining an equal vote in Congress. Image of manuscript showing handwritten notes in dark ink on white paper. Designing the Parks: Learning in Action The Designing the Parks program is not your typical internship. Each year since 2013, this program at the Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation has introduced a cohort of college students and recent graduates to NPS design and planning professions through projects related to cultural landscape stewardship. In the internships, made possible by partner organizations, participants focus on an in-depth project that directly engages with a national park unit. A group of young people stand on forest trail and listen to two maintenance employees May 31, 1787: Debate on the Legislature The Committee of the Whole took a vote on portions of the Virginia Plan, including the bicameral legislature and popular election for members of the first house (today's House of Representatives). Detail, George Washington's copy of the Virginia Plan, showing black ink on white paper. May 29, 1787: Virginia and Pinckney Plans Submitted Virginia Governor Edmund Randolph addressed the inadequacies of the Articles of Convention, and put forth 15 resolutions comprising a new framework of government. Black and white image of Edmund Randolph, showing a head-and-shoulders portrait. May 26 - 27, 1787: Adjourned until Monday The Rules Committee worked on Saturday, but delegates like James Madison took time during the two-day recess to write letters. Color portrait of James Madison, showing a man with white hair wearing a gray suit. May 30, 1787: Committee of the Whole Nathaniel Gorham of Massachusetts presided over the Committee of the Whole on this day, and for the next 15 days, as the delegates debated the Virginia and Pinckney plans. Black and white image of Nathaniel Gorham, showing a head-and-shoulders portrait. May 28, 1787: Nine States Now Present Oliver Ellsworth and other delegates from his state of Connecticut arrived, along with delegates from Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Color image of a portrait of Oliver Ellsworth, showing a man in a high-collared coat. May 14 - 24, 1787: No Quorum for the Convention Delegates gathered in the Pennsylvania State House each day to check progress towards a quorum. Color photo of a two story, red brick building with bell tower and adjacent wing building. May 25, 1787: Quorum With quorum achieved, the delegates got down to the business at hand, naming Alexander Hamilton and two other men to a Rules Committee. Color image of a portrait of Alexander Hamilton showing his face and neck. The “Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States” Philadelphia’s July Fourth, 1876 celebration kicked off the nation’s one-hundredth birthday celebration to large, enthusiastic crowds. Among those in the city for the festivities was the National Woman’s Suffrage Association (NWSA), an organization founded in 1869 to advocate for a constitutional amendment insuring women’s right to vote. An illustration of Richard Henry Lee reading the Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1876. June: A Month of Milestones The times are a changin’, and there’s no better time to honor those moments of change than in June. Over the course of America’s history, the month of June is filled with cultural changes, and some seasonal ones too. So just before the season changes and summer begins, take some time to visit these parks that commemorate extraordinary moments. Painting of suffragist on a horse Emancipation and the Quest for Freedom Although the abolition of slavery emerged as a dominant objective of the Union war effort, most Northerners embraced abolition as a practical measure rather than a moral cause. The war resolved legally and constitutionally the single most important moral question that afflicted the nascent republic, an issue that prevented the country from coalescing around a shared vision of freedom, equality, morality, and nationhood. Slave family seated in front of their house The Philadelphia LGBTQ Heritage Initiative The history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer people (LGBTQ) is a vital part of the history of our city and our nation. The Philadelphia LGBTQ Heritage Initiative encourages citizens to ensure that this chapter of history is not only preserved, but celebrated. Pennsylvania state marker commemorating Annual Reminder Days in front of Independence Hall June 29, 1787: Hot Debate Over Representation After some hot debate over representation, Oliver Ellsworth (CT) put forth a compromise for proportional representation in the lower house, and equal representation in the Senate. Color head-and-shoulders portrait of Oliver Ellsworth, a man with white hair in a blue coat. June 30, 1787: Fireworks of All Sorts Heated - and sometimes bitter - debate marked this day's proceedings as the delegates argued over representation in the legislature. Color photo of a room with rows of desks facing one main table in the front of the room. June 23, 1787: Eligibility for Other Federal Offices The debate on eligibility for members of the lower house to hold other federal offices took most of the day. Color image of the handwritten U.S. Constitution, showing Article 1 June 18, 1787: Hamilton Speaks Alexander Hamilton (NY) spoke for hours, comparing the Virginia and New Jersey Plans, and introducing his own plan of government. Detail, color portrait of Alexander Hamilton showing his face. June 20, 1787: Abandoning the Articles of Confederation The delegates considered the one-house legislature of the Articles of Confederation, and voted against it. Detail, image of handwritten Articles of Confederation document, showing large text at top. June 16, 1787: Comparing the Plans James Wilson (PA) put forth a point-by-point comparison of the Virginia and New Jersey Plans, with arguments in favor of the Virginia Plan. Detail, color portrait of James Wilson showing his face with round-frame spectacles. June 17, 1787: Sunday Recess On this Sunday recess, delegates may have been reflecting on the arduous work still ahead of them. Color Birch view of 2nd and Market Streets showing the steeple from Christ Church. May 13, 1787: Washington Arrives in Philadelphia Washington initially resisted attending the federal convention but then served as its presiding officer. He arrived in Philadelphia one day before the convention was due to begin. Detail, color portrait of George Washington showing his head and shoulders. June 9, 1787: Debate Over Proportional Representation Luther Martin (MD), an ardent support of state's rights, appeared and took his seat today, on the day when the small states launched their attack on proportional representation. Print of Luther Martin, showing a head-and-shoulders view of a man in colonial garb. June 12, 1787: State Ratifying Conventions The Committee of the Whole had a busy day with topics ranging from the process of ratifying conventions for their new framework of government to age requirements for senators. Color photo of a room with rows of desks facing one main table in the front of the room. June 11, 1787: Representation in the Legislature Roger Sherman (CT) moved that representation in the legislature be proportional in the first house, and by state with one vote per state in the Senate. Color head-and-shoulders portrait of Roger Sherman, showing a man with brown hair in colonial garb. June 10, 1787: Recess The delegates enjoyed a day of recess after a week of progress on all three branches of government. Color print of the State House yard showing people strolling near a brick wall. Philadelphia's Heritage of LGBTQ Activism From American colonists declaring independence from Great Britain, to abolitionists fighting against slavery, to women's suffragists demanding voting rights, to civil rights activists calling for equality, Philadelphia has a deep history of social and political conflict and engagement. Philadelphia's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer (LGBTQ) history follows this rich tradition of protest and action. Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell. NPS Photo by Megan Springate The Schuylkill River Sojourn: Fostering Environmental Stewardship and Community Kayaks gathered at a stop on the Schuylkill River Sojourn / Image courtesy of Schuylkill River National Heritage Area Kayaks gathered at a stop on the Schuylkill River Sojourn June 27, 1787: Retain the Articles of Confederation? Luther Martin, delegate from Maryland, spoke at length in defense of a general government that would represent state governments, not individuals. Detail, black and white engraving of Luther Martin, showing his head and shoulders. June 25, 1787: Election of Senators This day's debates centered on the election of members of the upper house. Robert Morris, delegate from Pennsylvania, later served in the U.S. Senate from 1789 to 1795. Detail, color portrait of Robert Morris showing a man with white hair in a blue suit. June 26, 1787: Terms of Service for Senators The battle over terms of service in the Senate may have caused some of the delegates, like Oliver Ellsworth, to feel somber over the task at hand. Detail, color portrait of Oliver Ellsworth, showing a man with white hair in a blue coat. June 28, 1787: Franklin's Proposal for Prayer At the end of a day of heated debate, Benjamin Franklin put forth a motion to begin the daily sessions with a prayer. Detail, color portrait of Benjamin Franklin showing an older man with a receding hair line. 2012 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients In 2012, seven rangers were awarded the national and region Freeman Tilden Awards for innovative and exciting interpretive programs. Learn their stories and more about their award-winning programs. Renee Albertoli June 21, 1787: Work Resumes on the Virginia Plan The delegates turned their attention back to the Virginia Plan, with much debate over the lower house. Detail, color portrait of William Blount showing his face and shoulders in an oval frame. Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail e-Newsletter Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail, WARO quarterly e-newsletter June 6, 1787: Electing the Lower House John Adams was not present at the Constitutional Convention but his newly published book (advertised for sale in a Philadelphia newspaper this day) would prove to have significant influence. Detail, color portrait of John Adams showing just his face. June 8, 1787: Veto Powers Charles Pinckney (SC) moved to give the legislature power to veto state laws. Some of the delegates vehemently opposed that plan. Print of Charles Pinckney, showing a heads-and-shoulder view of a man in 18th century suit. June 5, 1787: Debate on the Judiciary James Wilson (PA) argued that the judiciary should be appointed by the executive rather than the legislature. Detail, color portrait of James Wilson showing his face with round-frame spectacles. June 4, 1787: A Single Executive Resolved into the Committee of the Whole, the Convention considered Charles Pinckney's (SC) motion for a single executive. Print of Charles Pinckney, showing a heads-and-shoulder view of a man in 18th century suit. June 7, 1787: Electing the Senate Election of Senators proved to be a hot topic. U.S. Senators would later meet in the room shown here in the 1790s. Color photo of a room with desks and chairs facing a central dias. The Declaration of Independence -- Draft Copy Though he “turned to neither book or pamphlet,” Thomas Jefferson relied on his knowledge of philosophy as well as the sentiments of the Virginia Constitution, the Declaration of Rights, and Richard Henry Lee’s resolution when he drafted the Declaration of Independence. Black and white image of the rough draft of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence -- Engrossed Version There is only one original, engrossed version of the Declaration of Independence. It is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C. Color image of the handwritten Declaration of Independence with brown ink on cream paper.The The Declaration of Independence -- Stone Facsimile While the original engrossed Declaration of Independence is faded, this facsimile on copperplate is much easier to read. William J. Stone engraved the facsimile at the request of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. Color image of the Declaration of Independence with black handwritten text on cream paper. The Declaration of Independence -- Dunlap Broadside Intended to spread the word, the Dunlap broadside printings were distributed through the colonies. Color image of the Declaration of Independence printed by John Dunlap. The Declaration of Independence -- John Binns This version of the Declaration of Independence designed by John Binns reflects growing patriotic sentiment in the early 1800s. Color image of the Declaration of Independence designed by John Binns in 1816. The Declaration of Independence -- Goddard Broadside Mary Katharine Goddard first printed the names of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Color image of the Declaration of Independence printed by Mary Katharine Goddard. Memory and Truth: Excavating “Liberty” at the President’s House Located near the Liberty Bell and Independence Hall in Philadelphia, the President's House site is a historical paradox of freedom and enslavement. George Washington and John Adams stayed there during their time as president, along with their families and household staff. The experiences of Washington's enslaved workers provide a sharp contrast to the symbols of liberty and freedom that lie just blocks away. An archeologist discusses the President’s House site with visitors. June 19, 1787: Deficiencies of the New Jersey Plan James Madison made eight arguments against the New Jersey Plan, moving the Virginia Plan back to the center of consideration. Color portrait of James Madison, showing a man with white hair wearing a gray suit. June 13, 1787: Report from the Committee of the Whole Had today's Committee of the Whole report been accepted without change, the U.S. Constitution would have been quite different. Image of handwritten U.S. Constitution showing dark ink on parchment-colored paper. Ona Judge Escapes to Freedom Martha Washington was going to give Ona Judge to her granddaughter. Judge decided to seize her freedom while the Washington family was eating dinner. Color illustration depicting a woman in 18th century clothing holding needlework in her hands. Mary Katharine Goddard Takes a Stance Look carefully at the bottom half of this printed Declaration of Independence. Do you see the name Mary Katharine Goddard? Read more about a woman who played an important role in Philadelphia, Baltimore, and American history. Color image of the bottom half of the printed Declaration of Independence. Junior Ranger Challenge Up for a challenge? The Junior Ranger Challenge program is a series of challenges for kids to work on with their families, or classmates and teachers. Begin with the Liberty Bell challenge, and then keep on going! Color photo of the Liberty Bell, a cracked bronze bell with wooden yoke. Sara Karpinski, Park Ranger, Independence National Historical Park Sara Karpinski is a Park Ranger at Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia. This park includes Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell. Watch the video to learn about her career in the National Park Service. Screen Capture of Sara Karpinski in a storage area Sara Falch, Park Ranger, Independence National Historical Park Sara Falch is a Park Ranger. She works at Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia. Watch the video to learn about her career in the National Park Service. Screen capture of Ranger Sara Falch The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Did You Know: The Justice Bell and the Fight for Women's Access to the Vote The bell is called the Justice Bell, but has also been known as the Women’s Liberty Bell and the Suffrage Bell. It was commissioned by Katharine Wentworth Ruschenberger in 1915. She was one of the 70,000 members of the Pennsylvania Woman Suffrage Association, and a leader of the organization in Chester County. A close replica of the Liberty Bell, the bronze Justice Bell was cast without a crack. Casting the Justice Bell, Troy, NY. Courtesy LoC Mary Newport Founds a Baking Dynasty Mary Newport established a successful pastry business in Philadelphia in the 1700s. Two of her nieces claimed the title of "Successor." Illustration of a newspaper ad with the words "Pastry Cook" appearing most prominent. The Second Bank of the United States: Ordovician Fossils in 19th Century Flooring The National Park Service preserves dozens of examples where fossils occur within the building stones of historic structures. At Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, fossil rich stone quarried in Vermont are visible on the floor of the Second Bank of the United States. inside of bank building The Civil War in American Memory America's cultural memories of the Civil War are inseparably intertwined with that most "peculiar institution" of American history - racial slavery. But in the struggle over Civil War memory which began as soon as the war was over and continues to this day, rival cultural memories of reconciliation and white supremacy have often prevailed. Therein lies the challenge as the National Park Service - a public agency - seeks to "provide understanding" of the Civil War era's lasting impact upon the development of our nation. Elderly Union and Confederate veterans shake hands at the fiftieth anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg Tree of Peace Traditional Mohawk Chief Jake Swamp created the Tree of Peace Society in 1982 to commemorate the Great Law of Peace. His organization planted White Pines all over the country. On April 29, 1988, the Iroquois returned to Philadelphia to plant a White Pine by the First Bank of the United States. White Pine tree with night watch box in background. A small fence with other trees can be seen. The Declaration House Through Time Follow the story of the many changes to the property where Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence. It was newly built when Thomas Jefferson and Robert Hemings took up residence in 1776, but soon changed in function and appearance. Exterior view of a four story red brick building on a corner lot with a National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Calling All B.A.R.K. Rangers You and your four-legged friends can join the ranks of B.A.R.K. Ranger at Independence. The green spaces in the urban environment are great places to explore - responsibly - with your pet. A German Shepherd dog with his dog hanging out looks at the viewer. The Prequel: Women’s Suffrage Before 1848 Most suffrage histories begin in 1848, the year Elizabeth Cady Stanton convened a women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York. There, she unfurled a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments, seeking religious, educational and property rights for women – and the right to vote. While Seneca Falls remains an important marker in women’s suffrage history, in fact women had been agitating for this basic right of citizenship even before the first stirrings of the Revolution. drawing of a group of women in front of a counter Series: On Their Shoulders: The Radical Stories of Women's Fight for the Vote These articles were originally published by the Women’s Suffrage Centennial Commission (WSCC) as a part of the WSCC blog, The Suff Buffs. The Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission was created by Congress to commemorate 100 years of the 19th Amendment throughout 2020 and to ensure the untold stories of women’s battle for the ballot continue to inspire Americans for the next 100 years. In collaboration with the WSCC, the NPS is the forever home of these articles Logo of the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission Series: The Treaties of Fort Stanwix The history of Fort Stanwix, from first contact through the end of the fort's useful military life, symbolizes the broader contest of nations (European, United States and American Indian) for economic and political control of the Oneida Carrying Place, the Mohawk Valley, the homelands of the Six Nation Confederacy, and the rich resources of North America. The following web pages focus on treaties and land transactions negotiated and concluded at Fort Stanwix. An old parchment paper document. In the top margin Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for June 1787 The events of June 1787 begin with debate on the national executive on June 1, and end with arguments over representation in the legislature on June 30. Color engraving showing a street scene in Philadelphia in 1800. Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring 2020 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> two people standing outdoors near a fossil tree base Series: The Declaration of Independence Through Time The presentation of this document through time may surprise you. Color image of the Declaration of Independence designed by John Binns in 1816. Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for May 1787 The events of May 1787 begin with the arrival of George Washington in Philadelphia on May 13, and continue through the approval of a bicameral legislature on May 31. Color photo of a room with rows of tables draped with green cloth facing a central table and chair. Take the Junior B.A.R.K Ranger Challenge Complete the activity to earn your virtual Junior B.A.R.K. Ranger badge. Since you have to find the waste piles (poop), it's a good thing this is a virtual activity, right? Black and white illustration of a badge with the words Virtual Bark Ranger above a paw print. Early Supreme Court Justices Ride the Circuit Early justices on the Supreme Court found themselves quite busy - and rather unhappy - due to the demands of their duty as circuit judges. Originally, a Supreme Court appointment was something less than the political plum of the modern era. Interior view of a courtroom with judges bench on raised dias, jury box, and table for lawyers. The Bells and Clocks of Independence Hall Take a few moments to explore the story behind the many bells and clocks associated with Independence Hall. You may have heard of the Liberty Bell, but what about the Centennial Bell? View of 13,000 pound bell suspended in tower. These Boots Aren't Made for Walking The 1970s was a decade of sweeping social and economic change in the United States. The era of disco and bellbottom jeans also built upon laws and programs developed in the 1960s to provide increased opportunities in the workplace and new economic freedoms for women. A woman wearing a tan dress with a white color, white capped sleeves and a tan boots. Congress Establishes the First Bank of the United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton's bill to establish a national bank generated debate on the floor of Congress. Some opponents argued that the Bank was unconstitutional, opening an on-going battle over the interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Head-and-shoulders portrait of Alexander Hamilton, a man wearing a blue coat and yellow vest. The Supreme Court Decides in Chisholm v. Georgia This decision made by the Supreme Court of the U.S. tested the strength of the new national judiciary against state power. The Court's decision created a tremendous backlash. A document box sits on a table surrounded by a candlestick, walking stick, and bundled papers. The Courts in Old City Hall The courtroom in [Old] City Hall served many courts. Here, on any given day, the drama could focus on anything from assault and battery to crimes on the high sea. Interior view of a courtroom with judges bench on raised dias. How Was the Assembly Room Furnished in the 1700s? What did the Assembly Room look like when the delegates signed the Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution? How do we know what we know? Channel your inner curator and get the details. Interior view of a room with two rows of tables facing a central table. Ray Bloomer: NPS Accessibility Advocate When Ray Bloomer joined the NPS in 1976, he was the first blind person to be hired as an interpretive ranger. Soon, he was leading trainings for rangers across the country. Over the years, as disability rights laws passed, the NPS committed to making parks accessible for all visitors and worked towards improving how all employees approach accessibility. Throughout those changes, Bloomer has persisted in advocating for accessibility in parks through education and alliances. Ray Bloomer touches his fingertips to an interpretive panel on a wooden platform next to a waterway. Alexander Hamilton An overview of the life and accomplishments of Alexander Hamilton. Alexander Hamilton painted portrait. Alexander Hamilton, New Yorker An exploration of Hamilton's time in and contributions to New York City. This painting depicts Hamilton dressed in New York Artillery uniform. Thomas Standard: The Colonial era minister buried beneath St. Paul's Church Rev. Thomas Standard helped to purchase this small bronze bell for St. Paul's in 1758, from the same London foundry where the Liberty Bell was cast. His name is inscribed on the bell, which still hangs in the church steeple. It is the source of local legends and ghost stories. Light greenish church bell, suspended from metal bar, with circular metal wheel visible A Revolutionary Life: Washington's Birthday Through the Years Nine short videos chronicle American history through the lens of George Washington's birthday and how it was (or wasn't) celebrated during critical points during his life. graphic, illustration, bust of washington wearing a birthday hat For Whom the Bell Tolls: The Story of the St. Paul's Bell St. Paul's bell as a focal point of a War Bonds drive campaign in New York City, in 1942. Many people, one dressed in colonial clothes, American flags, man ringing a bell The Tomb of the Unknown Revolutionary War Soldier: Graffiti and the Legacy of the Founding Fathers This program considers these complex questions through a discussion of Independence National Park’s evolving interpretation of the monument and founding fathers like George Washington, new proposals for the National Park Service to document graffiti as part of sites’ history, and how the vandalism of cultural property has been used to make political statements. Graffiti reads Independence Hall and Fugitive Slave Hearings Explore the second floor of Independence Hall where freedom seekers—men, women, and children accused as "fugitive slaves" stood to lose their liberty. Independence Hall tower next to the words "Freedom On Trial" Fugitive Slave Hearings - the Rulings Although the number of "fugitive slave" hearings held in Independence Hall is unknown, newspaper accounts from the time period detail some of the cases. Regina P. Jones Underwood Brake Regina Jones-Brake's career with the National Park Service (NPS) began in 1976 with the bicentennial of the Declaration of Independence. Over the next 33 years, her love of American history compelled her to share untold stories as she advanced from park ranger to management assistant. Regina Jones-Underwood pictured outdoors in her NPS uniform. Geraldine M. Bell When Geraldine Bell first joined the National Park Service (NPS) in 1967 she only planned to stay for three months. She came back in time to play an important role during the celebrations for the bicentennial of the Declaration of Independence. Just three years later she made history as the first Black woman superintendent. Geraldine Bell poses in her NPS uniform, with a badge on her shirt. Series: Native History of the Oneida Carry Many Native Americans lived and died in the vicinity of the Oneida Carry. Tribes, families, and individuals were often pulled in different directions as the European world invaded theirs. Learn more of this history here. Overhead of an old map with a large fence, shaped like a hexagon with little buildings inside. Independence Hall and the Declaration of Common Aims of 1918 Inspired by the Declaration of Independence, the Declaration of Common Aims was debated and signed inside Independence Hall in October 1918. The original document is on view periodically in the West Wing of Independence Hall. One page document with black text on cream paper titled "Declaration of Common Aims" The Philadelphia Campaign of 1777 2022 marks the 245th anniversary of the Philadelphia Campaign during the American Revolutionary War, and many local parks historic sites will be hosting commemorative events. The following list details some of the major engagements that occurred during the Philadelphia Campaign, and the places you can visit pay homage to this era in history. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court Chamber Through Time Imagine watching a trial here or witnessing the British occupation of this courtroom in 1777-1778 or strolling through the National Museum – a memorial of the American Revolution – that once occupied this space. Take a deeper dive into the layers of time. Six Windsor chairs surround a round table covered with a green baize tablecloth. Become a Hopewell Furnace B.A.R.K. Ranger The best way to be a B.A.R.K. Ranger is to demonstrate to other visitors that you know how to explore the park safely and help protect special places like Hopewell Furnace National Historic Area. Pick up your official B.A.R.K. Ranger pledge card at the outside visitor table or from a ranger in the village. You will be asked to complete a few simple activities, learn the B.A.R.K. Ranger Rules and sign your pledge. You can then earn the official B.A.R.K. Ranger badge. B.A.R.K. Ranger badge in front of Hopewell Village. 50 Nifty Finds #4: Getting In the Zone For more than a century the National Park Service (NPS) has won awards and honors for its work preserving cultural and natural resources and sharing the diverse stories of American history. One of its earliest honors came from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco, California, in 1915. But wait…The NPS was created in 1916, right? How could it win an award before it existed? Round bronze medal featuring nude man and woman Independence Hall and the American Civil War Independence Hall is entwined with the American Civil War. From recruiting station to mourning location, Independence Hall and its history may surprise you. Black and white photo of Abraham Lincoln, a man with thick eyebrows and dark beard. 50 Nifty Finds #11: Carving a Place in NPS History Few employees have left as visible a mark on National Park Service (NPS) exhibits as John A. Segeren. His work has been enjoyed by generations of park visitors who never knew his name but appreciated his intricate wood carvings and playful animal figures displayed in parks throughout the system. A master woodcarver described by former President Lyndon B. Johnson as "a legacy to this country," Segeren carved out his own place in NPS history. Round wooden plaque with bison, globe, and waterfall The Carpet in the Senate Chamber of Congress Hall The fate of the original Senate carpet in unknown. But, this modern reproduction reflects the importance of Classical symbolism in the early republic. Oh, and it's stunning... Detail of the Great Seal of the U.S. as a central medallion on an elaborate carpet. Serving in the Congress, 1790 to 1800 Imagine making laws under a new framework of government. Just what was it like to serve in the Congress meeting in Congress Hall from 1790 to 1800? An office space from the 1700s shows a slanted desk with a map over the fireplace. 50 Nifty Finds #26: Racing Bulldozers Preservation of historic structures is an important part of the National Park Service (NPS) mission. For a century, the NPS Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and its partners have struggled to stay ahead of fires, natural disasters, and bulldozers during construction booms which often destroy historic properties. Knowing that everything can't be saved, HABS preserves the architectural heritage of the United States with drawings, photos, and other documentation. Gold shield-shaped badge Chief J.C. Massey HABS A Changing Neighborhood The creation of Independence National Historical Park dramatically altered its surrounding neighborhoods. Detailed plans to create an urban park in Philadelphia led to the area's economic revitalization but displaced many businesses and families. Vendors with horse drawn wagons filled with goods in the bustling Dock Street Market. Restoring the Assembly Room Explore the massive effort that went into restoring the iconic Assembly Room to its historic appearance. A man wearing white overalls standing on scaffolding scraping paint on a decorative door frame. July 1, 1787: Sunday Recess Delegates to the Constitutional Convention enjoyed a recess after a long week of arguments. man riding horse on street past market stalls July 2, 1787: Deadlock Unable to resolve its most difficult question, the Convention adjourns for two days while a committee considers how states will be represented in the United States Congress. Modern color image of the Assembly Room of Independence Hall. July 3, 1787: The Vital Compromise While the Convention was adjourned, a committee tasked with resolving the most difficult issue—congressional representation—arrived at the compromise needed to keep the Convention from failing. map of US depicting the eastern seaboard states Success at the 2023 Girl Scout Convention and Boy Scout National Jamboree Read about the two major Scouting events that took place in July 2023 - the Girl Scout Convention held in Orlando, Florida and the Boy Scouts Jamboree held in Beckley, West Virginia. Phenom by Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts Jamboree July 4, 1787: Independence Day Celebration The Convention was in recess so delegates could enjoy commemorations of the nation's founding. Close up of the Declaration of Independence Uncovering Franklin Court What happened to Ben and Deborah Franklin's house? Explore the site where the Franklins lived and find out what remains. A metal structure outlining the frame of Benjamin Franklin's house. July 6, 1787: Haggling over a Compromise With much discontent still in the atmosphere, the Convention delegates struggled to work out the parameters of how representation would work in congress. Cartouche of map showing cherubs unrolling a scroll with an eagle above them. July 5, 1787: Bitter Arguments The Convention angrily debated a plan to give equal representation to small states and large states in one house of Congress. Empty antique chairs positioned around tables in the Assembly Room of Independence Hall. July 7, 1787: Agitation and Discontentment Delegates from both large and small states argued that the compromise over representation failed to represent their interests. An early United States flag with a liberty cap atop the staff encircled by clouds. July 8, 1787: A Day of Rest After a fraught week, the delegates recessed. A man riding a horse through the streets of Philadelphia in 1800. July 9, 1787: Power and Representation Delegates debated how to assign congressional representation to the states, ultimately clashing over whether states' enslaved populations should count toward their power in Congress. Close-up of detailed wood carving of a half sun on the top back of a chair. July 10, 1787: A New Division For the first time in the Convention, northern and southern states extensively jousted for political power. Engraving of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney in uniform standing facing front right July 11, 1787: North vs. South, East vs. West A seemingly simple issue—the census—resulted in a long day of difficult, complex arguments that exposed regional rivalries. Sketch of Mariner's compass- circle with two lines bisecting it and cardinal directions noted July 12, 1787: Progress Toward Compromise Delegates rehashed some of the previous day's arguments on the census, but started to find resolution. Wooden chairs placed behind tables covered with green cloth. July 14, 1787: Revisiting the Compromise The Convention almost took a step backwards when several delegates forced a vote to revisit the key compromise from over a week earlier giving each state an equal vote in one house of the legislature. Luther Martin wearing black coat facing front-left. July 13, 1787: A Two-headed Snake The divisions in the nation were illustrated both by the day's arguments and by a curious scientific specimen in Benjamin Franklin's possession. Franklin wearing a brown coat seated next to a table with a hat. July 16, 1787: The Great Compromise Passes The Convention's most important compromise passed by the narrowest of margins. Hand holding a quill pen writing on a paper with the words "July 16, 1787." July 15, 1787: A Sorely Needed Recess After a week of lurchingly slow progress that ended with a proposal to undo a key compromise, the delegates had a day off to rest, contemplate, and catch up on correspondence. A busy green scene of people working and relaxing along the Delaware River. July 17, 1787: The Supreme Law of the Land Having passed a major compromise the day before, the Convention could now make quicker progress. Several important measures passed regarding the Constitution's primacy over state laws and constitutions and regarding how the executive would function. Sketch of an eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and arrows in the other. July 23, 1787: Ratification The Convention decided that the means for ratifying the Constitution would be state conventions. The delegates also decided to create a committee to draft the Constitution. 1784 map depicting the United States. July 22, 1787: Adjourned After a productive week, the Convention was in recess this Sunday. Men, women, and children walking and relaxing in the shade on a sunny day. July 20, 1787: Impeachment After a lively debate, a solid majority of the delegates decided that the national executive should be impeachable. Close-up view of US Constitution, Article 2. July 18, 1787: A Republican Form of Government The Convention made important progress creating the judicial branch and agreed on language giving the federal government the authority to suppress domestic insurrections. Front view of the US Supreme Court building, Washington DC. July 19, 1787: The Guardian of the People On this day, it was now clear that the Convention was favoring creating an executive office of great power and importance. The delegates also determined that an electoral college would choose this national executive. Profile of George Washington in military uniform encircled by the state seals. July 26, 1787: A Last Debate before Adjourning After concluding (for the time being) the argument over how Presidents would be appointed, the Convention debated qualifications for government officers before adjourning to give the Committee of Detail time to draft the Constitution. Historical sketch of the front of Independence Hall on parchment paper. July 27, 1787: Adjourned The Convention was in recess while the Committee of Detail drafted the Constitution of the United States. Draft of the Constitution with hand-written notes in the margin. July 24, 1787: Irresolution The Convention took a step backward when it undid a prior decision regarding how the President of the United States would be chosen. The resulting day would have been tedious and frustrating for the attendees. Assembly room of Independence Hall, wooden chairs in a semi-circle and tables with green cloth. July 25, 1787: Stuck Today was another day when the Convention could not resolve the difficult, interconnected issues concerning the appointment of the President of the United States. Front view of Independence Hall with the clock tower shrouded in mist. July 28, 1787: A Flight to Freedom While the Convention was in recess for the drafting of the Constitution, James Madison was trying to track down "Anthony," a man he had enslaved who had just fled for the second time. Sketch of a man checkign papers of four runaway enslaved people. July 29, 1787: Still in Recess The Convention continued its adjournment to allow for the drafting of the Constitution. A man riding away on a horse in a busy street in Philadelphia in 1800. July 30, 1787: Gone Fishing As the recess continued, Madison attended to some personal affairs, Franklin went about Pennsylvania government business, and Washington went fishing. Color drawing of two shad fish July 31, 1787: A Stranger in Black A Revolutionary War veteran had a surprising encounter with a Convention delegate. Sketch of two people meeting in the woods. August 3, 1787: Still Fishing While other delegates attended to matters political and personal, George Washington and two Pennsylvania delegates went on a second fishing trip during the Convention's recess. Drawing of fish lying flat with blue background August 4, 1787: A System Founded on Justice and Equity The Convention was in recess and its deliberations were secret, but Americans were already bracing for an argument over the United States Constitution. Close-up view of a newspaper from 1787 describing the Constitutional Convention August 1, 1787: The Eyes of the World on Philadelphia Multiple letters from this day of recess indicate that observers from Virginia to as far as England eagerly awaited the results of the Convention. Map of the world in two circles, divided through the Atlantic Ocean. August 2, 1787: A Day in Motion While some delegates who had left Philadelphia during the recess were in the process of returning, Thomas Jefferson shipped three boxes of books to James Madison. Sketch of clock face with roman numerals. August 5, 1787: Recess Over Perhaps the delegates felt anxious on the last day they were adjourned before reconvening to complete the Constitution which had just been drafted by the Committee of Detail. Case clock on west side of Indendence Hall August 6, 1787: A First Draft For the first time, a written draft of the Constitution was presented to the delegates, incorporating the resolutions they had debated for over two months. Type set draft of the Constitution with hand-written notes. August 7, 1787: The Right to Vote At a time when most Americans already couldn't vote, the delegates considered—and ultimately rejected—restricting suffrage even further. Busy street scene in Philadelphia in th 1790s. August 16, 1787: The Powers of Congress The Convention started going through the powers that the draft Constitution explicitly granted to the United States Congress. While there was extensive debate over whether Congress should be able to create paper money and tax exports, several important measures passed unanimously without debate. Drawing of a bald ealge with outstretched wings perched atop a half sphere. August 17, 1787: Rebellion and War The Convention wrestled with one of the most dangerous responsibilities that resides in government: the power of the sword. Trumbull's scene of the Battle of Bunker Hill. August 14, 1787: Preventing Corruption The Convention wrestled with how to keep Congress from becoming corrupted. Should members be eligible for other offices in the federal government? Should they be salaried by their states or the United States? The circle of corrupt officials- two winged figures fighting over swirling waters. August 15, 1787: The Veto The interaction of the three branches of government was a primary concern today as the Convention tried to determine if and how the judiciary and the President could overturn legislation. white background with bold letters spelling VETO. August 19, 1787: Recess Despite the impatience of many delegates, the Convention was adjourned today after a week of significant progress. Relaxing garden scene with a group of people sitting on a bench and a cat sauntering past. August 18, 1787: More Power to Congress The Convention took several steps to dramatically increase the already expansive powers of the United States Congress. Perhaps most significantly, the Convention gave Congress the power to create a standing army and moved in the direction of letting Congress control state militias. Revolutionary war solidier in white uniforms and blue jackets firing in a line. August 20, 1787: Necessary and Proper The delegates spent half a day arguing over an almost never used part of the Constitution—the section defining treason—and almost no time debating one of the Constitution’s most controversial and significant sections, which gave Congress the ability “to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested, by this Constitution, in the Government of the United States.” Sketch of a man sitting at a table with a tricornered hat reading a piece of paper. August 8, 1787:Slavery and Representation As the Convention considered the makeup of the House of Representatives, Rufus King and Gouverneur Morris delivered a spectacular, and unheeded, condemnation of slavery and how it increased the representation (and power) of slave states under the Constitution. Rufus King silhouette facing left. August 12, 1787: Recess After a productive, relatively drama-free week, the Convention was adjourned for Sunday. Three women, a man, and a child dancing in a cirlce while a dog runs by along the banks of a river. August 11, 1787: Continuing Debate on Congress The Convention had another mostly conflict-free day, with the only sour note being the distaste multiple delegates voiced at the thought of New York City continuing as the capital city. View of New York city with ships in the harbor 1761. August 10, 1787: Qualifications and Quorums In a relatively uncontentious day, the Convention discussed whether federal politicians should be required to own property and what would constitute a quorum in each house of Congress. Staight angle view of the Assembly Room with empty wooden chairs and an ornate glass chandelier. August 9, 1787: Immigrants as Senators The day's chief argument was over how long immigrants should be US citizens before being eligible to serve as Senators. The debate became personal when delegates drew from their experiences as immigrants to argue for opposing stances on the issue. Sketch of people at the dock with a soldier holding a rifle and a women sitting down holding a baby. August 13, 1787: Immigrants as Representatives The delegates returned to the emotionally charged debate over how long immigrants should hold citizenship before allowed to serve in the United States Congress. Seal of United States Congress- eagle holding olive branch and arrows with banner in its beak. August 21, 1787: The Slave Trade After nasty arguments over direct taxation and taxation of exports, the day ended with an explosive exchange over whether Congress should be permitted to ban the importation of enslaved Africans. Two white men grabbing a black man to take away on a boat. August 22, 1787: Slavery in a Republic The first half of this day continued the previous day’s debate over the slave trade, leading to the Convention’s longest debate over slavery. Enslaved people lying packed in a ship. August 23, 1787: The Supreme Law of the Land In a day otherwise filled with frustrating debates over militias and legislative powers, the Convention easily passed one of the most important passages in the entire Constitution. Justice depicted as a person in a robe holding a sword. August 25, 1787: The Slavery Compromise The cost of gaining support for the Constitution from many of the southern states was now clear: the slave trade would be permitted to continue until at least the year 1808. 18th century ship on the high seas with sails open. August 26, 1787: A Day of Rest With the Convention adjourned for Sunday, the delegates could rest after a difficult week. Meanwhile, one of their most vocal members was quickly sliding into opposition to the Constitution he’d helped craft. A busy market scene with people bustling around stalls. August 24, 1787: How to Choose a President Not for the first time, the delegates wrestled with the almost insoluble problem of how to choose the President of the United States. Seal of the Office of the President of the United States. September 1, 1787: An End in Sight The Convention adjourned quickly today. A committee was working on the last sticking points. While most felt good about the work they’d accomplished, a handful of delegates had recently come out in opposition to the Constitution. Elbridge Gerry in background of a mural of the framers of the Constitution with arms crossed. August 27, 1787: Line by Line In a day with no major decisions, the delegates demonstrated their thoroughness and erudition as they worked out the powers of the executive and judiciary branches. Two quill pens lying on a piece of paper. August 28, 1787: Slogging On Progress continued. While most delegates were eager to leave, one wanted to return before the Convention ended. Portrait of Alexander Hamilton facing front-left wearing a black coat. August 30, 1787: Self-governance Post-revolutionary Americans agreed that just governance only came with the consent of the governed, but this value came in tension today. What if people in a state’s territory wanted to form a new state without their legislature’s consent? How many states should have to ratify the Constitution in order to make it binding, and what would happen to states that didn’t ratify? Map of North America in 1787 August 29, 1787: A Bargain with Slavery In a day marked by strong sectional divides (North vs. South, East vs. West), a deal held which permitted the slave trade to continue for at least another two decades. Close up of Article 1 Section 9 of the engrossed Constitution of the United States. August 31, 1787: The Fountain of All Power In considering how the Constitution would be ratified, the Convention came firmly down on the side of the Constitution getting its legitimacy directly from the people of the United States and not from the state governments. Sketch of the base of a Roman fountain. September 5, 1787: Refining the Proposal The Convention continued its debate over the proposed Electoral College, which was to elect the President of the United States. How many electoral votes should the winning candidate need to receive? And what would happen if no candidate received enough votes to win? Close up of the clock tower of Independence Hall with clear blue sky background. September 2, 1787: Fraying at the Edges Delegates had much to consider during the Sunday recess. Sculpture of a man seated on a rock with his chin resting on his fist while in contemplation. September 3, 1787: Separation of Powers Ever fearful of too much power being concentrated in one group of people, the Framers of the Constitution took steps to ensure that sitting members of Congress couldn’t simultaneously serve in a Presidential administration. The three great seals of the President, Congress, and the Supreme Court. July 21, 1787: Separation of Powers The delegates pondered the relationship between the branches of government: should the judiciary join the executive in vetoing legislation? Who should appoint federal judges: the national executive or the Senate? Minerva, with a shield and a flag, pours libations on an altar fire. September 4, 1787: The Electoral College The Convention had considered many ways of choosing the President, and all of them were subject to objections. Today, the idea of having an Electoral College choose the President started to gain favor. Electoral count on parchment paper with states and numbers handwritten. September 7, 1787: Presidential Power Having spent three days arguing over how Presidents would be elected, the Convention spent a surprisingly short amount of time of time describing what powers Presidents would have. Silhouette of profile of George Washington from shoulders up. September 10, 1787: Amendments and Ratification The Convention decided how the Constitution could be amended, but not how it would be ratified. Meanwhile, Edmund Randolph (VA) expressed his strong opposition to the Constitution and gave his reasons. Silhouette profile of Edmund Randolph facing right. September 13, 1787: Sumptuary Laws The only notable issue discussed today was the proposal to add sumptuary laws (laws regulating luxuries) to the Constitution. The Convention unanimously voted to create a committee for this purpose. Whether the committee ever met is unknown. It never released a report. Drawing of a luxurious dress from the 18th century cream colored with small flower patterns. September 12, 1787: No Bill of Rights For the first time in the whole Convention, a proposal was made for a Bill of Rights. The consensus was clear: almost none of the delegates thought the Constitution of the United States needed a Bill of Rights. Orginial engrossed Bill of Rights- ink on parchment paper. September 11, 1787: The Second Draft The Convention adjourned while the Committee of Style finished the second draft of the United States Constitution. Close-up of wooden stair bannister in Independence Hall. September 15, 1787: Unanimity and Dissent The Convention completed its substantial work today and unanimously approved the Constitution. However, two states (New York and Rhode Island) were not part of the vote because they were not fully represented at the Convention, and two Virginians and one Massachusettsan refused to sign and support the Constitution and gave their reasons why. From left to right: Portraits of George Mason, Edmund Randolp, and Elbridge Gerry September 14, 1787: All the Possibilities With the Convention coming to a close, several delegates seized one of the last opportunities to add various clauses to the Constitution. Most of them failed, but they offer fascinating insights into other ways the United States government could have worked. Painting of white clouds with a vibrant blue sky background. September 16, 1787: A Final Recess While a scribe handwrote the Constitution, the delegates enjoyed one last Sunday rest in Philadelphia. Relaxed street scene of Philadelphia in 1800. Tree-lined street with people walking on the sides. September 17, 1787: A Republic, If You Can Keep It Thirty-nine names were signed to the Constitution of the United States, while three delegates refused to sign, despite eloquent pleas from Benjamin Franklin and others. Ultimately, the signatures had no legal consequence, for the Constitution would only be enacted if nine of the thirteen states ratified it. The ultimate deciders, both in 1787 and in the future, were to be the people of the United States. Close-up of the words "We the People" as written on the Constitution. Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for July 16 to 31, 1787 Delegates to the Constitutional Convention began to find compromise in their continued effort to design new a framework of government. A quill pen writing on parchment paper on a table covered with red cloth. Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for August 16 to 31, 1787 As the summer wore on, debates intensified over issues such as choosing a president, powers of congress, and slavery. Two quill pens lying flat held on paper. Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for July 1 to 15, 1787 As the temperature rose in early July debate, distrust, and division became heated among delegates to the Constitutional Convention—compromise proved elusive. Early map of the 13 states tinted with watercolors. Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for September 1787 Delegates debated and compromised on the final issues of the Constitution. Although not perfect in anyone's eyes, most of the delegates left satisfied by what they had accomplished. Close up of the United States Constitution focusing on the words September 6, 1787: The Electoral College Completed After three days, the Convention finally agreed on a plan for how the Electoral College’s election of the President would work. Close-up view of printed words explaining the electoral college in Article 2 of the Constitution. September 8, 1787: Ready for a Second Draft Today the Convention finished its monthlong review of the first draft of the Constitution and appointed a Committee of Style to write a second draft. Two quill pens lying flat in a paper quill holder. September 9, 1787: Homesick With a Committee of Style appointed to write a second draft of the Constitution, the delegates were anxious for the Convention to be over so they could return home. Ink drawing of a country house with a stone fence and wood gate in front. Series: The Constitutional Convention: A Day by Day Account for August 1 to 15, 1787 Delegates to the Constitutional Convention debated a wide range of topics such as voting privileges, qualifications for holding office, and veto powers and pored over the first draft of the Constitution. Tall case clock on the side of Independence Hall. Displaying the Liberty Bell Where has the Liberty Bell been displayed? Explore the many homes of this iconic symbol. Liberty Bell with crack running up the front hanging from a wooden yoke. The Market Street Houses Stroll along Market Street in Old City and explore the last surviving properties owned by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia. Red brick row homes with tan shutters and an open carriage way. What Was Lost? Buildings were razed and landscapes altered while creating Independence National Historical Park. How were decisions made about what survives and what gets destroyed? Aerial view showing tall buildings surrounded by trees and a large bridge in the distance. 50 Nifty Finds #40: Helping Hands Although they don’t wear the National Park Service (NPS) standard uniform, volunteers are a vital part of NPS operations. Volunteer uniforms and insignia have changed over time, but each has represented the dedication of those who freely give their time and talents for the benefit of national parks and the American people. Gold and Green volunteer vests
World Heritage Sites in the United States Governor’s House, La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historical Site Red-footed booby, Papahaˉnaumokuaˉ kea Morning Glory Pool, Yellowstone National Park © HARVEY BARRISON © KRIS KRUG JEFF SULLIVAN PHOTOGRAPHY 2 Kluane /  Wrangell-St. Elias / Glacier Bay /  Tatshenshini-Alsek 1 Statue of Liberty Grand Canyon National Park © MICHAEL BELL PIXABAY/SKEEZE © MICHAEL LOYD Olympic National Park 3 WA SH I N GTO N - 19 81 Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park vii • ix vii • viii • ix • x A L A SK A (US), C A N A DA - 1979 Features temperate rainforest, glaciers, peaks, alpine meadows, old-growth forest, and wilderness coastline. Critical habitat for endangered species including northern spotted owl and bull trout. www.nps.gov/olym Over 24 million acres of wild lands and waters are changed by glaciers and volcanic activity. www.nps.gov/glba, www.nps.gov/wrst www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/yt/kluane www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/explore vii • ix © MIKE CRISS Montana (US), Canada - 1995 World’s first international peace park. Rich biodiversity and outstanding scenery with prairie, forest, alpine, and glacial features. www.nps.gov/glac www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/ab/waterton/ Grinnell Point © MIKE KOCH Old Faithful © MARK STEVENS 23 © STEVE BOND Yellowstone National Park vii • viii • ix • x Renowned for geothermal features, Yellowstone has the world’s largest concentration of geysers. Protects grizzly bears, wolves, bison, and elk. www.nps.gov/yell iii • iv I L L I N O I S - 19 82 With over 1,100 properties, the World Heritage List This urban complex flourished 1000– 1350 CE (Common Era). Regional center for prehistoric Mississippian culture. www.cahokiamounds.org shows a shared global commitment to preserve the world’s most important natural and cultural sites. Monks Mound Learn more about the World Heritage sites in the 22 4 Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site Preserved for All Humanity W YO M I N G, M O N TA N A , I DA H O - 1978 © JIM WARK/AIRPHOTO United States, described here with selection criteria Redwood National and State Parks This gift from France to the United States is a symbol of international friendship, peace, progress, freedom, democracy, and human migration. Renowned for art and engineering. www.nps.gov/stli World Heritage Sites in the United States can be pur- Coastal mountain home to California brown pelicans, sea lions, bald eagles, and ancient redwood forest—the world’s tallest trees. www.nps.gov/redw i • vi N E W YO R K - 19 8 4 scription year, and websites. The Passport booklet C A L I F O R N I A - 19 8 0 Statue of Liberty 5 in Roman numerals (details other side), location, in- vii • ix Black bear, Great Smoky Mountains National Park chased at www.eparks.com. For more on the World Pixabay Heritage List: whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/us. © AMY HUDECHEK Natural Papahaˉnaumokuaˉkea iii • vi • viii • ix • x Cultural Mixed 21 6 H AWA I I - 2010 Independence Hall This vast living “cultural seascape” embodies kinship of people to place in Native Hawaiian cosmology. Includes seamounts, endemic species, critical habitats, and coral reefs. www.papahanaumokuakea.gov vi P EN N S Y LVA N I A - 1979 An international symbol of freedom and democracy, this 18th-century building is where the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were created and signed. www.nps.gov/inde Greg McFall / NOAA 20 Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park © TODD LANDRY viii H AWA I I - 19 87 Earth’s greatest mass of volcanoes, including Mauna Loa and Kilauea, tower over a “hotspot” in the mantle. Continuous geologic activity builds an ever changing landscape home to rare and endemic species. www.nps.gov/havo 21 7 PACIFIC OCEAN 0 Hawaii Everglades National Park viii • ix • x 20 F LO R I DA - 1979 800 Kilometers 0 800 Miles North America’s largest subtropical wilderness has several vital habitats for plants and animals including Florida panthers and manatees. Key area for bird migration and breeding. www.nps.gov/ever NPS Yosemite National Park 19 vii • viii © CARLTON WARD JR. C A L I F O R N I A - 19 8 4 Glacial erosion helped sculpt this scenic landscape. Soaring granite cliffs, polished domes, high waterfalls, sequoia groves, wilderness, deep-cut valleys, and alpine meadow habitats. www.nps.gov/yose 18 Chaco Culture iii Castillo San Felipe del Morro N E W M E X I CO - 19 87 © ANGEL LOPEZ Prehistoric, monumental masonry structures in Chaco Canyon, along with a network of roads and outlier sites like Aztec Ruins, exhibit the vast influence of the ancestral Puebloan culture on the Southwestern landscape. www.nps.gov/azru, www.nps.gov/chcu © JOCELYN PANTALEON HIDALGO The 20th-century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site vi © OJEFFREY PHOTOGRAPHY P U ERTO R I CO - 19 8 3 ii Strategic defensive structures represent early European military architecture, e

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