"Halema‘uma‘u lava lake" by NPS/J. Wei , public domain

Hawaiʻi Volcanoes

National Park - Hawaiʻi

Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park is located in the U.S. state of Hawaii on the island of Hawaii. The park encompasses two active volcanoes: Kīlauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, and Mauna Loa, the world's most massive shield volcano. For visitors, the park offers dramatic volcanic landscapes, as well as glimpses of rare flora and fauna. Check before your visit what sections of the park are open for the public!



Map of the Kahuku Unit of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (NP) on Hawaii. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Hawaiʻi Volcanoes - Kahuku

Map of the Kahuku Unit of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park (NP) on Hawaii. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official visitor map of Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail (NHT) in Hawaiʻi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Ala Kahakai - Visitor Map

Official visitor map of Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail (NHT) in Hawaiʻi. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

US Topo 7.5-minute map of Pohue Bay Quadrangle in Hawaii County, Hawaii. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).US Topo 7.5-minute - HI Hawaii - Pohue Bay 2017

US Topo 7.5-minute map of Pohue Bay Quadrangle in Hawaii County, Hawaii. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

US Topo 7.5-minute map of Kahuku Ranch Quadrangle in Hawaii County, Hawaii. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).US Topo 7.5-minute - HI Hawaii - Kahuku Ranch 2017

US Topo 7.5-minute map of Kahuku Ranch Quadrangle in Hawaii County, Hawaii. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

US Topo 7.5-minute map of Papa Quadrangle in Hawaii County, Hawaii. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).US Topo 7.5-minute - HI Hawaii - Papa 2017

US Topo 7.5-minute map of Papa Quadrangle in Hawaii County, Hawaii. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

US Topo 7.5-minute map of Puuokeokeo Quadrangle in Hawaii County, Hawaii. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).US Topo 7.5-minute - HI Hawaii - Puuokeokeo 2017

US Topo 7.5-minute map of Puuokeokeo Quadrangle in Hawaii County, Hawaii. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Driving Map of the Island of Hawaiʻi (Hawaii). Published by the Hawaii Tourism Authority.Hawaiʻi - Driving Map

Driving Map of the Island of Hawaiʻi (Hawaii). Published by the Hawaii Tourism Authority.

Vintage map of Hawaiian Islands - Hawaii South 1951. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Hawaiʻi - Vintage USGS Map - Hawaii South 1951

Vintage map of Hawaiian Islands - Hawaii South 1951. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).


Brochure of World Heritage Sites in the United States. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park Service - World Heritage Sites

Brochure of World Heritage Sites in the United States. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/havo/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawaiʻi_Volcanoes_National_Park Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park is located in the U.S. state of Hawaii on the island of Hawaii. The park encompasses two active volcanoes: Kīlauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, and Mauna Loa, the world's most massive shield volcano. For visitors, the park offers dramatic volcanic landscapes, as well as glimpses of rare flora and fauna. Check before your visit what sections of the park are open for the public! Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park protects some of the most unique geological, biological, and cherished cultural landscapes in the world. Extending from sea level to 13,680 feet, the park encompasses the summits of two of the world's most active volcanoes - Kīlauea and Mauna Loa - and is a designated International Biosphere Reserve and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park is located on the island of Hawai‘i. From Hilo: 30 miles southwest on Highway 11 (a 45 minute drive); from Kailua-Kona: 96 miles southeast on Highway 11 (2 to 2 1/2 hour drive), or 125 miles through Waimea and Hilo via highways 19 and 11 (2 1/2 to 3 hours). Kahuku Visitor Contact Station Located at the Kahuku Unit of the park in the district of Kaʻū, the Kahuku Visitor Contact Station provides park information, assistance, and books and gifts available through Hawaiʻi Pacific Parks Association. Kahuku is located in the district of Kaʻū, near mile-marker 70.5 on Highway 11, a one-hour drive from Kīlauea Visitor Center. Kīlauea Visitor Center Make Kīlauea Visitor Center your first stop when entering the park. Rangers and volunteers are on duty in the visitor center daily and will provide visitors with the latest information on the current eruption, hiking information, things to do and the daily schedule of ranger-led activities. Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park is located on the island of Hawai‘i. From Hilo: 30 miles southwest on Highway 11 (a 45 minute drive); from Kailua-Kona: 96 miles southeast on Highway 11 (2 to 2 1/2 hour drive), or 125 miles through Waimea and Hilo via highways 19 and 11 (2 1/2 to 3 hours). Kīlauea Visitor Center is a short distance from the park entrance on the right. Kulanaokuaiki Kulanaokuaiki is located off Hilina Pali Road at 3,200 feet (975 m), there are nine walk-in campsites with picnic tables. There is an accessible vault toilet; however, no water is available and campfires are not permitted. Use fueled camping stoves only. This campground is subject to closure when the area is dry and during times of high fire risk. No dogs or pets are allowed at this campground to protect endangered nene. Per site 10.00 There is a self pay station at the campground Kulanaokuaiki Campground Primitive campsite Primitive campsite Kulanaokuiki Campground Visitors looking at Mauna Loa from a campsite Kualanaokuiki Campground on the slopes of Kīlauea Kulanaokuiki Campground Visitors at a campsite Kualanaokuiki Campground Kulanaokuaiki Campground View of campground and accessible vault toilet View of campground and accessible vault toilet Nāmakanipaio Nāmakanipaio Campground is located 31.5 miles south of Hilo on Highway-11 at 4,000' elevation. It is a large, open grassy area with tall eucalyptus and 'ōhi'a trees. This campground has restrooms, water, picnic tables and barbecue pits. Campfires are permitted in the barbeque pits only. If there are more than 2 people in your party, you can expand to 4 people per site with another tent. Maximum stay is 7 days. Per tent site 15.00 There is a self pay station at the campground. Park entrance fees also apply which are paid at the park entrance station or the after hours self pay station on the Kīlauea Visitor Center lanai. Nāmakanipaio Campsite Tent camping Tent camping Nāmakanipaio Campsite Campsite with picnic table and firepit Campsite with picnic table and firepit Nāmakanipaio Campground View of Nāmakanipaio Campground View of Nāmakanipaio Campground Nāmakanipaio Campground Pavilion Nāmakanipaio Campground Pavilion Nāmakanipaio Campground Pavilion Nāmakanipaio Campground Restrooms Restrooms at Nāmakanipaio Campground Nāmakanipaio Campground Pavilion Halapē Rocky coastline with palm trees and a cliff beyon Coastline of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kīlauea Iki A cloud-filled volcanic crater at sunrise with a mountain rising behind Sunrise at Kīlauea Iki Hōlei Pali Lava flows and ferns in front of a cliff at sunset Lava flows from the Mauna Ulu eruption drape the Hōlei Pali Steam Vents Trees and tall grass through steam at sunrise Wahinekapu (Steaming Bluff) The Kahuku Unit Grassy hill dotted with trees underneath a blue sky with white clouds The Kahuku Unit of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park once was one of the largest cattle ranches in Hawaiʻi Tide Pools Green vegetation in tide pools on a rocky ocean coastline Tide pools along the Puna Coast Nāhuku A lava tube lit by warm electric light Nāhuku (Thurston Lava Tube) Lava Trees A lava tree in a black lava field with small living trees and a rainbow behind Lava trees memorialize trees that once stood in the path of encroaching lava ʻAe Fern Ferns rising from a lava field About 200 species of ferns can be found across the Hawaiian Islands. Sixty-five percent of these species are considered endemic, found nowhere else in the world. ʻŌhiʻa Red ʻōhiʻa blossom The red blossoms of the ʻōhiʻa are a Hawaiian cultural icon Nēnē Nēnē spreading winds on edge of a crater The threatened nēnē is the official state bird of Hawaiʻi Rainforest Rays of light shine through a misty rainforest with ferns covering the understory Lush rainforest surrounds Crater Rim Trail near the Halemaʻumaʻu Trail Hula at Kīlauea A hula dancer in a red dress above a forested area Kīlauea is home to important and sacred cultural sites stretching back centuries. Mauna Loa 1940 Cone A lava cone rising behind a flow of lava with caldera walls beyond Mauna Loa, the largest active volcano on the planet, stands more than 13,000 feet above sea level Puʻu Loa Petroglyphs Petroglyphs of human figures carved into gray rock Puʻu Loa features the largest group of petroglyphs in Hawaiʻi. Halemaʻumaʻu Crater A tree stands on the edge of a misty caldera Halemaʻumaʻu from along Crater Rim Trail NPS Structural Fire Program Highlights 2014 Intern Accomplishments Army Couple Visits 59 National Parks When you’re a dual-military couple, it can be a challenge to try to find things to do together, especially when you’re at separate duty stations or on deployment. For one Army couple, what started out as a simple idea to get out of the house turned into a five-year adventure. Couple standing in front of The Windows at Arches National Park. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] hot lava Veteran Story: Kekoa Rosehill Kekoa Rosehill joined the U.S. Marines on September 12, 2001. He got his first permanent job using the Pathways Recent Graduate hiring authority. Today, he is a supervisory park ranger at Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. Kekoa Rosehill in camouflage face paint and military fatigues. Park Air Profiles - Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Air quality profile for Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Gives park-specific information about air quality and air pollution impacts for Hawai'i Volcanoes NP as well as the studies and monitoring conducted for Hawai'i Volcanoes NP. Lava flow field in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Kilauea Historic District Cultural Landscape The Kilauea Administration and Employee Housing Historic District is located along Crater Rim Drive, approximately one quarter-mile west of the Hilo entrance station of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Developed along the relatively dormant northeast edge of Kilauea Caldera, this 43-acre historic district is located within a dense, native ohia forest. employee house Voices of Science: The Rarest Goose in the World The Hawaiian Goose, or nēnē, is the rarest goose in the world. It’s found only in the state of Hawaii. In the 1950’s, the species was on the brink of extinction. With the help of biologists like Kathleen Misajon in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, the nēnē population is rebounding. A pair of black and white striped birds Voices of Science: Night Skies in Hawai'i Volcanoes For generations, night skies have inspired those who choose to look up. They helped the original Polynesian wayfinders find their way across the sea. They inspire the visitors that join night sky programs in national parks. They're also important to sensitive species in the wild. In Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, you can appreciate the stars like nowhere else on the planet. And the park is working hard to keep it that way. A star filled sky above a person in shadow Climate Change Clues from Monitoring As climate changes, significant changes in weather conditions impact the natural environment by shifting patterns of precipitation, promoting extremes in storm behavior, and influencing bird migration, invasive species spread, coral reef decline, and much more. The Pacific Island Network (PACN) undertakes systematic long-term monitoring of a wide variety of natural resources to accurately determine if change is occurring and why. Precipitation seen over the lush valleys of Kalaupapa National Historical Park. Sea Level Rise & Anchialine Pools Anchialine pools are brackish coastal ecosystems without a surface connection to the ocean, where groundwater and ocean water (from underground) mix. In Hawai‘i, groundwater flows through these pools and out to wetlands and coral reefs making them valuable indicators of broad-scale groundwater recharge and contamination. An anchialine pool in Pu‘uhonua O Hōnaunau National Park Potential impacts of projected climate change on vegetation management in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park Natural resource managers at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park want to know how climate change, and increased temperatures and variable rainfall will alter plant distributions, especially in the Special Ecological Areas (SEAs), which are focal sites for managing rare and endangered plants. A flowering shrub growing in a barre lava field Voices of Science: The Coquistador A noisy little amphibian is causing quite the ruckus on Hawaii Island - the invasive coqui frog. Coming all the way from Puerto Rico, the coqui frog has invaded Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. Coqui threaten the native ecosystems and shatter the natural soundscapes in the park. But The Coquistador is on the case! Biological Resource Technician Kim Dilman works by night, removing frogs from the landscape to protect sensitive areas and preserve the native, natural resources. A small red frog sitting on a reddish green leaf Voices of Science: Lava and Change Some of the biggest changes on Hawai’i come from the active volcano on the island. Lava flowing across the island incinerates everything in its path. But lava also creates new land. Land that will eventually support species and habitats found nowhere else on earth. Gray and red lava on top of black hardened lava Early Detection Pilot Studies Pacific Islands Inventory & Monitoring Network performs an early detection pilot study at Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park and Haleakalā National Park to document the presence of non-native and invasive plant species. I&M is evaluating the effectiveness of this study to enhance the Early Detection of Invasive Plants protocol and the feasibility of instituting early detection at a larger scale throughout these and other the Pacific island national parks. Monitoring invasive kahili ginger at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Building Capacity for Rare Plants in Hawai‘i The National Park Service at Haleakalā and Hawai‘i Volcanoes have combined resources and know-how to give three dozen species a fighting chance to remain viable in the midst of climate change. Two observers admire a rare flowering Trematolobelia wimmeri, endemic to Hawai‘i Conserving pinnipeds in Pacific Ocean parks in response to climate change The evolutionary record from previous climate perturbations indicates that marine mammals are highly vulnerable but also remarkably adaptable to climatic change in coastal ecosystems. Consequently, national parks in the Pacific, from Alaska to Hawaii, are faced with potentially dramatic changes in their marine mammal fauna, especially pinnipeds (seals and sea lions). black harbor seal Holo Mai Pele (The Journey of Pele) The storied journey of the volcano deity Pele to her home in Halemaʻumaʻu crater on the island of Hawaiʻi The Despotic Chiefs of Kaʻū There were once three despotic chiefs who lived in Kaʻū, on the southern portion of the Island of Hawaiʻi. These are the tales that are told about them. Legend of The Gourd A legend of one ‘ohana in Kaʻū is the story of a young couple who wanted to marry, but whose parents disapproved. ʻŌhiʻa Many Hawaiian moʻolelo involve the ʻōhiʻa tree and its bright, fiery flowers Kamapuaʻa Oral history tells us of the unique birth of a child named Kamapuaʻa or the “hog-child” Punaʻaikoaʻe The kinolau (body form) of the Oʻahu chief Punaʻaikoaʻe can be seen as the koaʻekea, flying over Kīlauea. Pele & Lonomakua How the Hawaiian volcanic deity Pele came to govern fire Pele & Hiʻiaka According to Hawaiian tradition, a battle between the volcano deity Pele and her sister Hiʻiaka took place at the summit of Kīlauea Kaʻehuikimanōopuʻuloa A moʻolelo taking place at Puʻu Loa along the Pānau coast of Kīlauea volcano Crater Rim Historic District Cultural Landscape Crater Rim Historic District, located in and around Kilauea Caldera in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, is significant for associations with early park planning and the Civilian Conservation Corps. It is an example of the naturalistic landscape architecture style perpetuated by the NPS between the First and Second World Wars. The features that were designed to highlight and provide access to this unique volcanic landscape can still be experienced by visitors today. A man leans over a carefully-constructed stone wall, framing a view of a mountainous landscape. Ainahou Ranch House and Gardens Cultural Landscape The 'Ainahou Ranch House and Gardens is located within Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, approximately four miles south and down slope from Kilauea Caldera. The 13.3-acre historic site sits within a native mesic forest at an elevation of 3000 feet. Within this forest, gardens that surround a unique craftsman house create an exotic setting which reflects the site's development by renowned horticulturalist, Herbert C. Shipman from 1941 to 1971. Ranch House Three Big Changes in Three Years at Halemaʻumaʻu Crater From lava to water and back again. Three big changes have occurred at Halemaʻumaʻu crater in three years. Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: Park Air Profiles Clean air matters for national parks around the country. Photo of clouds above the Grand Canyon, AZ Pele The Hawaiian volcano deity and creator of volcanic landscapes Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Scientists Examine Why Some Pacific Islands National Parks Have More Non-native Plants than Others Invasive non-native species represent one of the main threats to vulnerable island biodiversity. But why do some national parks in the Pacific Islands have more non-native plant species than others? Scientists examined how native plant communities, environment, and geography are associated with non-native plant species invasion across national parks in the Pacific islands to help understand this threat. Yellow flowers of non-native Kahili ginger blanket a forest floor. The First Woman Ranger at Hawai’i National Park Yellowstone wasn’t the only park to have a woman ranger in 1922. That same year, M. Lydia Barrette became the first temporary women ranger at Hawai’i National Park (now Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park and Haleakalā National Park). Lydia Barrett 1922 Blanket Cave National Youth Park—Activity Enjoy a fun activity and learn about caves even when you can't get out to a park. In this activity you will build your own cave and learn how to make it like a "real" natural cave. Find out about cave formations and wildlife, and how to be safe and care for caves. New "Blanket Cave National Youth Parks" are springing up all across America! Join the fun! cartoon drawing of a childs and a park ranger exploring a cave Substitute Rangers As the 1940s dawned, the United States was still dealing with the economic woes of the Great Depression and trying not to get drawn in WWII. Even as it continued to manage New Deal Program work in national and state parks, the NPS remained understaffed as a government bureau. The emergency relief workers and about 15 percent of NPS staff enlisted or were drafted during the first couple of years of WWII. Winifred Tada, 1940. (Courtesy of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin) Plan Like a Ranger this Summer at Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Plan Like a Park Ranger at Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Visitors view the coast line of Hawaiʻi from a wooden overlook. Series: Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) Newsletters From 2009 to 2015, the Pacific Ocean Education Team published a series of short newsletters about the health of the ocean at various National Park Service sites in and around the Pacific Ocean. Topics covered included the 2010 tsunami, marine debris, sea star wasting disease, ocean acidification, and more. Ocean waves wash in from the right onto a forested and rocky shoreline. POET Newsletter Summer 2010 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from Winter 2009. Articles include: Stewardship Without Boundaries: Conserving Our Ocean Ecosystem from Baja to the Bering Sea; A Seamless Network of Parks, Sanctuaries, Refuges & Reserves; Life Entwined with the Sea: The Non-Coastal Park Connection; Take the Plunge into Ocean Stewardship; Nearshore Vertebrates in Four Hawaii Parks; and Ocean Stewardship: A Commitment to Collaboration. Sea stacks rise above ocean waves washing ashore. A wooded ridge rises in the distance. Magmatic Eruptions Magmatic eruptions include fresh lava or tephra from a magma source. Magmatic eruptions range from quiet effusions of lava to extremely explosive eruptions that can blow apart mountains and send ash clouds around the globe. volcanic eruption with glowing lava seen at night Series: Volcanic Eruption Types The most fundamental way to characterize a volcanic eruption is whether it is magmatic, phreatic, or phreatomagmatic. volcanic eruption seen at a distance Phreatomagmatic (Hydrovolcanic) Eruptions Phreatomagmatic eruptions include fresh lava or tephra, but also include violent steam explosions caused by the interaction of hot magma or lava with water. volcanic eruption Hawaiian Eruptions Fire-fountains and effusive outpourings of very fluid basaltic lavas are the hallmarks of Hawaiian style eruptions. Lava curtain eruption Volcanic Craters Craters are present at many volcanic vents. The size and shape of volcanic craters vary a great deal from volcano to volcano, and they even change during the lifespan of an active volcano. Craters can become filled by lava domes or lava flows, and new craters may form during subsequent eruptions. cinder cone crater Volcanic Vents A volcanic vent is the opening where eruptions occur. Lava, tephra (volcanic ash, lapilli, or bombs), fragmented rock, and/or volcanic gases may be emitted. Vents may be located at the summit or flanks of a volcano and may exist as elongated fissures. erupting lava Crater Lakes Water lakes may exist in craters and calderas (large collapse features) as these depressions can become filled by rainwater or melting snow or ice, or be places where groundwater can accumulate at the surface. Crater lakes can be long-lived or ephemeral, and may contain fresh or acidic waters. crater lake and snowy rim Volcanic Processes—Landslides [Site Under Development] landslide scar on a vegetated slope Fumaroles Fumaroles are places where steam and volcanic gases are emitted. They are present on most active volcanoes. The occurrence of fumaroles and other geothermal features such as hot springs, geysers, and mud pots are important signs that a volcano is active. steam vents on the crater rim Lava Tree Mold Fossils Tree mold impressions are trace fossils that develop within lava flows. tree mold fossil appears as a round hole in lava rock with still glowing lava and wood embers inside Princess Luka Ruth Ke'elikōlani Princess Ruth Keʻelikōlani was a direct descendent of Kamehameha I, the leader who united the Hawaiian islands and founded the kingdom of Hawai‘i. She was an advocate for Hawaiian culture who was best known for defending the town of Hilo during the 1880–1881 eruption of the Mauna Loa Volcano that is part of the Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. An old image of Princess Luka Ruth Keʻelikōlani sitting down and posing for the camera. Ranger Roll Call, 1916-1929 Recent research demonstrates that there were more women rangers and ranger-naturalists in early National Park Service (NPS) history than previously thought. However, the number of women in uniformed positions was quite low in any given year. Ranger Frieda Nelson shows of the suspenders used to hold up her uniform breeches. Shield Volcanoes Shield volcanoes are typically very large volcanoes with very gentle slopes made up of basaltic lava flows. Mauna Loa and Kilauea in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park are shield volcanoes. diagram of a shield volcano with lava features Cinder Cones Cinder cones are typically simple volcanoes that consist of accumulations of ash and cinders around a vent. Sunset Crater Volcano and Capulin Volcano are cinder cones. photo of a dry grassy field with a cinder cone in the distance Lava Lakes Lakes of molten or solidified lava are usually only found in pit craters or calderas (both are types of collapse features) on shield volcanoes. Lava lakes may occasionally occur within other vent areas, or sometimes even on pooled lava flows. Long-lasting lava lakes typically only form in places where there is good connectivity with a shallow magma reservoir. photo of a lava lake taken with a thermal camera Series: Volcanic Features Volcanoes vary greatly in size and shape. Volcanoes also may have a variety of other features, which in turn, have a great range in diversity of form, size, shape, and permanence. Many volcanoes have craters at their summits and/or at the location of other vents. Some craters contain water lakes. Lakes of molten or solidified lava may exist on some volcanoes. Fumaroles and other geothermal features are a product of heat from magma reservoirs and volcanic gases. photo of a lava lake in a summit crater Calderas Calderas are large collapse features that can be many miles in diameter. They form during especially large eruptions when the magma chamber is partially emptied, and the ground above it collapses into the momentary void. Crater Lake and Aniakchak Crater are calderas. photo of oblique aerial view of a volcanic caldera with snow and ice Series: Volcano Types Volcanoes vary in size from small cinder cones that stand only a few hundred feet tall to the most massive mountains on earth. photo of a volcanic mountain with snow and ice Nonexplosive Calderas Nonexplosive calderas are located at the summit of most large shield volcanoes, like Kīlauea and Mauna Loa in Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. They form during VEI 0-1 (Effusive to Severe) eruptions that drain the shallow magma chambers located beneath them. Nonexplosive calderas can contain pit craters, which are smaller collapse structures, as well as lava lakes that can be active for periods of time. photo of a volcanic calders with clouds and a rainbow Series: Volcanic Eruption Styles Categories in this traditional classification are based on the eruption styles of particular volcanoes. These magmatic eruption styles are listed in the order of increasing explosivity. volcanic eruption with glowing lava Staff Spotlight: Michael T. Newman Meet Michael T. Newman, a Visual Information Media Specialist at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park! Michael with park staff and others Ranger Roll Call, 1930-1939 Few women worked in uniformed positions in the 1930s but those who did weren't only ranger-checkers or ranger-naturalists. Jobs as guides, historians, archeologists, and in museums opened to more women. Seven women in Park Service uniforms stand in line inside a cave. Buffalo Soldiers at Hawai'i Volcanoes Between 1915 and 1917, six companies of the 25th Infantry were present in what is now Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. In that time, they assisted in investigations of a lava lake at Halemaʻumaʻu, were among the first soldiers to visit Kilauea Military Camp, and constructed the precursor to the modern day Mauna Loa Trail, which still exists today. African Americans clearing a rocky trail in Hawai'i Pillow Basalts Pillow basalts are named for the rounded shapes that form when lava cools rapidly underwater. photo of golden gate bridge Kīpukas Kipuka are pockets of older land surfaces surrounded by younger lava flows. Kipukas are often stand out as more vegetated areas and may be older lavas or other bedrocks and surface deposits. aerial photo of a kipuka with trees surrounded by fresh lava flows Inflation Structures, Lava-Rise Plateaus & Inflation Pits At least five units of the National Park System contain inflation structures such as lava-rise plateaus and inflation pits. Inflation is the process that occurs when lava continues to be supplied within a solidified crust of a basaltic lava flow, causing the flow surface to be lifted upward. Inflation can cause lava flows to substantially thicken and create other features such as tumuli, inflation pits, and inflation clefts to form. photo of volcanic landscape covered with broken lava rock Lava Flow Surface Features Surface features on a lava flow may reveal important information of the specific dynamics that occurred during the eruption and emplacement of the flow. photo of lava rock with a rippled surface of ropey lava 2021 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service On behalf of the Interpretation, Education, and Volunteers Directorate, we are pleased to congratulate the national recipients of the 2021 George and Helen Hartzog Awards for Outstanding Volunteer Service. Through their extraordinary work and dedication, these volunteers have made an exceptional contribution to their parks and communities. Digital painting with white text invitation to join the Hartzog Awards. Intern and Fellow Highlights: Daniel Anekelea Hübner You may have heard of cultural resources, but what exactly does this work entail and what type of work do interns and fellows do? Meet Daniel Anekelea Hübner (he/him), who is the National Council for Preservation Education intern at Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. Man looking out from a camera standing on a rock Series: Women's History in the Pacific West - Pacific Islands Collection Women's biographies from Hawai'i and Guam Map of parks in Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam and Northern Mariana Islands Series: Geologic Time—Major Divisions and NPS Fossils The National Park System contains a magnificent record of geologic time because rocks from each period of the geologic time scale are preserved in park landscapes. The geologic time scale is divided into four large periods of time—the Cenozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Paleozoic Era, and The Precambrian. photo of desert landscape with a petrified wood log on the surface Guide to the Henry G. Peabody Photograph Collection Finding aid for the Henry G. Peabody Collection Guide to the Thomas J. Allen Photograph Collection Finding aid for the Thomas J. Allen Photographs in the NPS History Collection. 22 in 2022: An Explore Nature Year in Review As we reflect on 2022, we offer you 22 interesting and exciting science and nature events from parks of the national park system. From a brief, yet dramatic eruption of the world's largest active volcano to celebrating the 60th anniversary of the National Natural Landmarks program, 2022 was filled with amazing moments. the glow of two volcanoes erupting in hawaii volcanoes national park Perimeter Fencing at Three Hawaiʻi Parks to be Reconstructed Through GAOA Funding to Protect Unique Park Ecosystems Three Hawaiʻi National Parks, with funding through the Great American Outdoors Act, will reconstruct approximately 64 miles of perimeter exclusionary fencing segments most likely to fail. Perimeter exclusionary fencing is a type of fencing used to keep invasive animals outside of protected areas and continues to be an effective tool used to support the protection of those area’s ecosystems from damage. A wire fence running along rocky terrain Outside Science (inside parks): BioBlitz in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park This episode of Outside Science (inside parks) takes us to Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park for BioBlitz. Follow along as students and scientists of all ages work together to identify as many species as possible. A child looks out over the ocean through a pair of binoculars Travel Blog: The Pacific Islands Writing Prompt: Travel Blog written by Audrey Nelson for "A Day in the Life of a Fellow" Article Series. Audrey is a NPS Workforce Management Fellow, in partnership with Northwest Youth Corps Map of the Pacific Islands My Park Story: National Parks as Places of Healing Parks are places to experience wonder and awe, to gain perspective and inspiration, and to strengthen relationships with each other and the natural world. They are also places of healing, of comfort, and of relief from our chaotic worlds. Join National Park Service employee, Tyler Walsh, as she shares her park story of how Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park served as a place of connection and healing for her. lava glows in a crater below as the milky way shines in a starry night above 2022 Excellence in Education Awards View regional recipients of the National Park Service Excellence in Education Awards, which recognize expertise within the field of education. Young students participate in an activity with a park ranger at a table outdoors. 50 Nifty Finds #30: So Funny It Hurt Humor is a form of commentary that often reveals serious truths. Cartoonists combine artistic talents with razor-sharp wits to shine light on political and social issues. In most cases, those artists are external observers. In the National Park Service (NPS), employees in the 1960s to 1980s drew cartoons, published in official newsletters, that provide unique insights into NPS organizational culture, working conditions, and employees' concerns—many of which still exist today. A ranger showing a coloring book to a visitor saying that they care about children's education Project Profile: Collect Seed for Resilient Pacific Islands The National Park Service is collaborating with a range of partner organizations to coordinate native seed collection for ecosystem restoration and rare species conservation in Pacific Island parks. Seeds will be collected and curated for use in species reintroduction and conservation efforts, post-fire restoration, and to develop sustainable seed supply chains for island parks. a plant nursery with various native plants Guide to the Stephen Tyng Mather Film Collection This finding aid describes the Stephen Tyng Mather Film Collection, part of the NPS History Collection. A practical tool to reduce the effects of air tour noise How far can you hear a sound from a specific place on Earth? An active space is a spatial guide that provides an answer to that question. We used a new, observer-based, audibility modelling toolkit, NPS-ActiveSpace v2.0.0, to measure aircraft noise in two national parks. The toolkit produced estimates of active space that land managers can use to reduce the effects of air tour noise. acoustic monitoring equipment in the snow Study finds Hawaii pilots fly lower than recommended altitude The Federal Aviation Administration recommends pilots fly higher than 2,000 feet above the ground when flying over protected areas. But it’s been hard to figure out how high aircraft are flying over Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Researchers used Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast technology to locate overflights at the park. They found that pilots routinely fly lower than 2,000 feet, and most prefer lower altitudes to higher ones. a map of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park with white lines showing overflight routes FY23 Burned Area Rehabilitation – Bipartisan Infrastructure Law Funded Accomplishments for the National Park Service In FY23, there were 24 national parks throughout the country that received assistance for both Emergency stabilization as well as Burned Area Recovery funds for approximately 34 fire incidents. Both sources of funds are provided to stabilize and protect values-at-risk that are threatened by post-fire events such as flashfloods, debris flows, and erosion. A woman wearing gloves and a hard hat kneels in front of a fence; a man is in the background From Buffalo Soldier to Bath Attendant: The Story of Hugh Hayes and Hot Springs National Park Learn about the life of Hugh Hayes, an African American man from Tennessee, and how his life as a Buffalo Soldier and bath attendant at Hot Springs National Park connected him to significant moments in American history. African American man wearing a white shirt and tie sits in a wooden chair Unlocking Earth's Secrets, Layer by Layer Those splendid rocks in our national parks aren’t just scenic wonders; they’re scientific and cultural treasures. A new geological inventory could help protect them. Two women with helmets look at a multi-layered rock cliff A Fertile Landscape: Unearthing Agricultural Archeology at Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Archeologists at the University of Hawai’i Mānoa and National Park Service staff at Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park want to know more about the stone walls - kuaiwi - in the Kaʻū Field System. Why did ancient Hawaiians build them and what can they teach modern farmers about cultivating a more sustainable future? Archeologist shows three students how to sift dirt to find artifacts from excavations
World Heritage Sites in the United States Governor’s House, La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historical Site Red-footed booby, Papahaˉnaumokuaˉ kea Morning Glory Pool, Yellowstone National Park © HARVEY BARRISON © KRIS KRUG JEFF SULLIVAN PHOTOGRAPHY 2 Kluane /  Wrangell-St. Elias / Glacier Bay /  Tatshenshini-Alsek 1 Statue of Liberty Grand Canyon National Park © MICHAEL BELL PIXABAY/SKEEZE © MICHAEL LOYD Olympic National Park 3 WA SH I N GTO N - 19 81 Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park vii • ix vii • viii • ix • x A L A SK A (US), C A N A DA - 1979 Features temperate rainforest, glaciers, peaks, alpine meadows, old-growth forest, and wilderness coastline. Critical habitat for endangered species including northern spotted owl and bull trout. www.nps.gov/olym Over 24 million acres of wild lands and waters are changed by glaciers and volcanic activity. www.nps.gov/glba, www.nps.gov/wrst www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/yt/kluane www.env.gov.bc.ca/bcparks/explore vii • ix © MIKE CRISS Montana (US), Canada - 1995 World’s first international peace park. Rich biodiversity and outstanding scenery with prairie, forest, alpine, and glacial features. www.nps.gov/glac www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/ab/waterton/ Grinnell Point © MIKE KOCH Old Faithful © MARK STEVENS 23 © STEVE BOND Yellowstone National Park vii • viii • ix • x Renowned for geothermal features, Yellowstone has the world’s largest concentration of geysers. Protects grizzly bears, wolves, bison, and elk. www.nps.gov/yell iii • iv I L L I N O I S - 19 82 With over 1,100 properties, the World Heritage List This urban complex flourished 1000– 1350 CE (Common Era). Regional center for prehistoric Mississippian culture. www.cahokiamounds.org shows a shared global commitment to preserve the world’s most important natural and cultural sites. Monks Mound Learn more about the World Heritage sites in the 22 4 Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site Preserved for All Humanity W YO M I N G, M O N TA N A , I DA H O - 1978 © JIM WARK/AIRPHOTO United States, described here with selection criteria Redwood National and State Parks This gift from France to the United States is a symbol of international friendship, peace, progress, freedom, democracy, and human migration. Renowned for art and engineering. www.nps.gov/stli World Heritage Sites in the United States can be pur- Coastal mountain home to California brown pelicans, sea lions, bald eagles, and ancient redwood forest—the world’s tallest trees. www.nps.gov/redw i • vi N E W YO R K - 19 8 4 scription year, and websites. The Passport booklet C A L I F O R N I A - 19 8 0 Statue of Liberty 5 in Roman numerals (details other side), location, in- vii • ix Black bear, Great Smoky Mountains National Park chased at www.eparks.com. For more on the World Pixabay Heritage List: whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/us. © AMY HUDECHEK Natural Papahaˉnaumokuaˉkea iii • vi • viii • ix • x Cultural Mixed 21 6 H AWA I I - 2010 Independence Hall This vast living “cultural seascape” embodies kinship of people to place in Native Hawaiian cosmology. Includes seamounts, endemic species, critical habitats, and coral reefs. www.papahanaumokuakea.gov vi P EN N S Y LVA N I A - 1979 An international symbol of freedom and democracy, this 18th-century building is where the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were created and signed. www.nps.gov/inde Greg McFall / NOAA 20 Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park © TODD LANDRY viii H AWA I I - 19 87 Earth’s greatest mass of volcanoes, including Mauna Loa and Kilauea, tower over a “hotspot” in the mantle. Continuous geologic activity builds an ever changing landscape home to rare and endemic species. www.nps.gov/havo 21 7 PACIFIC OCEAN 0 Hawaii Everglades National Park viii • ix • x 20 F LO R I DA - 1979 800 Kilometers 0 800 Miles North America’s largest subtropical wilderness has several vital habitats for plants and animals including Florida panthers and manatees. Key area for bird migration and breeding. www.nps.gov/ever NPS Yosemite National Park 19 vii • viii © CARLTON WARD JR. C A L I F O R N I A - 19 8 4 Glacial erosion helped sculpt this scenic landscape. Soaring granite cliffs, polished domes, high waterfalls, sequoia groves, wilderness, deep-cut valleys, and alpine meadow habitats. www.nps.gov/yose 18 Chaco Culture iii Castillo San Felipe del Morro N E W M E X I CO - 19 87 © ANGEL LOPEZ Prehistoric, monumental masonry structures in Chaco Canyon, along with a network of roads and outlier sites like Aztec Ruins, exhibit the vast influence of the ancestral Puebloan culture on the Southwestern landscape. www.nps.gov/azru, www.nps.gov/chcu © JOCELYN PANTALEON HIDALGO The 20th-century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site vi © OJEFFREY PHOTOGRAPHY P U ERTO R I CO - 19 8 3 ii Strategic defensive structures represent early European military architecture, e

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