"View from Maryland Heights" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Harpers Ferry

National Historical Park - WV, VA, MD

Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. The park includes land in Jefferson County, West Virginia; Washington County, Maryland and Loudoun County, Virginia. The park includes the historic town of Harpers Ferry, notable as a center of 19th-century industry and as the scene of John Brown's abolitionist uprising. The landmarks the site on which Thomas Jefferson once said, "The passage of the Potomac through the Blue Ridge is perhaps one of the most stupendous scenes in Nature" after visiting the area in 1783.

location

maps

Tail Map of Appalachian National Scenic Trail (NST) in Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Appalachian - Trail Map

Tail Map of Appalachian National Scenic Trail (NST) in Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (NHP) in West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Harpers Ferry - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (NHP) in West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Chesapeake & Ohio Canal - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with DOI's Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with DOI's Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Bicycle Map of Virginia. Published by the Virginia Department of Transportation.Virginia State - Virginia State Bicycle Map

Bicycle Map of Virginia. Published by the Virginia Department of Transportation.

https://www.nps.gov/hafe/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpers_Ferry_National_Historical_Park Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. The park includes land in Jefferson County, West Virginia; Washington County, Maryland and Loudoun County, Virginia. The park includes the historic town of Harpers Ferry, notable as a center of 19th-century industry and as the scene of John Brown's abolitionist uprising. The landmarks the site on which Thomas Jefferson once said, "The passage of the Potomac through the Blue Ridge is perhaps one of the most stupendous scenes in Nature" after visiting the area in 1783. At the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers, on the ancestral home of the Tuscarora and Shawnee people, lies Harpers Ferry. Here you can explore John Brown's Raid against slavery. Find your connection to the struggle for freedom, education, and civil rights at Storer College. Discover miles of trail in the Blue Ridge and along Civil War battlefields. Harpers Ferry NHP's Visitor Center is located along US Route 340 in West Virginia. The park entrance is 8 miles east of Charles Town, WV and 20 miles southwest of Frederick, MD. Harpers Ferry NHP Visitor Center The Visitor Center is located at the main entrance of the park at 171 Shoreline Drive, Harpers Ferry, WV 25425. Visitors may ask questions, pick up park maps and brochures, and more. From this location, visitors may park their vehicles and take a shuttle bus to the Lower Town district of the park. *Park passports stamps located at Bookshop in Lower Town* *Purchase park entrance passes at the entrance station, located just outside the Visitor Center parking area* Lower Town Information Center The Lower Town Information Center is not currently staffed by rangers. However, maps and information are available at the "Place in Time" exhibit space. View of Lower Town Harpers Ferry as seen from Maryland Heights View of Lower Town Harpers Ferry as seen from Maryland Heights View of Lower Town Harpers Ferry as seen from Maryland Heights Aerial view of Lower Town Harpers Ferry Aerial view of Lower Town Harpers Ferry Aerial view of Lower Town Harpers Ferry View from Jefferson Rock View from Jefferson Rock View from Jefferson Rock Artillery at Murphy-Chambers Farm Artillery at Murphy-Chambers Farm Artillery at Murphy-Chambers Farm John Brown's Fort in Winter John Brown's Fort in Winter John Brown's Fort in Winter Allstadt Farm Cultural Landscape The Allstadt Farm is a vernacular landscape that was a diversified agricultural operation at the time of the John Brown Raid and the Civil War. The cultural landscape is significant in four distinct areas and periods of history: agricultural history (1793-1901), social history (1859-1861), military history (1861-1865), and industrial history (1901-1957). View of the property looking north (Jeff Everett, NPS, 2005) Pawpaw: Small Tree, Big Impact Pawpaw are small trees that don't grow past 100 feet. Yet they have a big influence-- they're the most commonly observed sapling in our National Capital Region forests. Pawpaw trees are virtually immune to deer browse and also produce the largest edible fruit native to North America! A hand holds a lumpy green pawpaw fruit Lichens and Air Quality Lichens are durable enough to grow on tree bark and bare rock, yet are sensitive to pollution and air quality. One species in particular was used to track levels of air-borne lead over a 100 year period! Pale green lichen growing on rock. "I had rather die than be a slave" Who were John Brown's raiders? Why did they join him? What was the fate of each man? Learn about them all in this article. black and white images of three of John Brown's raiders John Brown's Raid Learn about John Brown's Raid - a summary of Brown's preparations, a timeline of the raid, and the aftermath. sketch of the action between local militia and raiders in Harpers Ferry Frederick Roeder Because of its strategic military importance, Harpers Ferry was the object of Union and Confederate attention throughout the war. The town's residents, including Frederick Roeder, were often caught in the crossfire. Wartime photograph of Harpers Ferry National Park Service Visitor and Resource Protection Staff Focuses on Week of Leadership Staff from all levels of the National Park Service in law enforcement, United States Park Police, as well as fire and aviation spent a week learning leadership lessons from one another as well as from a diverse group of leaders during the last week of September 2019. A group of women and men on a rocky outcrop in high desert. Storer College Students in World War I Learn about the contributions of Storer College students and alumni in World War I. Storer College was founded in 1867 and was the first institution of higher learning for African Americans in West Virginia. Over 100 students and alumni of the school enlisted and contributed to the United States' efforts during the Great War. African American man wearing a World War I uniform, a United States flag is on display behind him Preparing an Expedition Lewis had volunteered to lead another expedition that Jefferson had proposed years earlier. When Jefferson was elected President in 1801, he asked the 29-year-old Lewis to serve as his personal secretary (assistant). Some believe that Jefferson was grooming Lewis to lead the new expedition he was proposing. 1954 stamp commemorating the lewis and clark expedition Harpers Ferry Meriwether Lewis traveled to Harpers Ferry for supplies needed for his journey. He relied on the U.S. Armory and Arsenal at Harpers Ferry for guns and hardware - among other things - that would meet his unique requirements. On March 16, 1803, Lewis arrived with a letter from Secretary of War Henry Dearborn addressed to Armory superintendent Joseph Perkins. interpretive sign in harpers ferry Reconstruction During Reconstruction, the Federal government pursued a program of political, social, and economic restructuring across the South-including an attempt to accord legal equality and political power to former slaves. Reconstruction became a struggle over the meaning of freedom, with former slaves, former slaveholders and Northerners adopting divergent definitions. Faced with increasing opposition by white Southerners and some Northerners, however, the government abandoned effor Picture depictsing former slaves and free blacks voting following the passage of the 15th amendment Emancipation and the Quest for Freedom Although the abolition of slavery emerged as a dominant objective of the Union war effort, most Northerners embraced abolition as a practical measure rather than a moral cause. The war resolved legally and constitutionally the single most important moral question that afflicted the nascent republic, an issue that prevented the country from coalescing around a shared vision of freedom, equality, morality, and nationhood. Slave family seated in front of their house Medicine and Medical Practices The story of Civil War medicine is a complex one. Through the dedication, innovation and devotion of surgeons and medical support staff, the foundation for today's modern military medicine was laid. Modern photograph of Civil War medicine bottles NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, West Virginia, Virginia, and Maryland Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] town of harpers ferry viewed from overlook Forest Regeneration 2018 In 2018, tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot in Rock Creek Park showing some vegetation recovery. 11 Ways National Parks Influenced World War I (and vice versa) Uncover the hidden history of World War I in the national parks! A Renault tank and infantry move through a field Remembering the Niagara Movement at Harpers Ferry Participants commemorate an early civil rights movement at Harpers Ferry National Historical Park and explore different perspectives on the past at the park's annual Remembering the Niagara Movement. A group of people holding white flowers stand together and look into the camera Camp Hill: From War-Torn Landscape to Land of Opportunity Now a gentle green hilltop in West Virginia and part of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, Camp Hill has transformed from a barren Civil War landscape to the home of an African American institution of higher education. In 1867, Storer College was founded to train African American teachers. Former armory buildings became educational buildings, surrounded by over 40 acres of picturesque grounds. A tinted postcard shows a group of students and teachers in front of a large brick building. American Eels in the Potomac Watershed American eels are found everywhere along the Atlantic Coast, but many aspects of these fish remain poorly understood. They are perhaps one of the most mysterious fish in the Potomac watershed. Hands hold a 2 to 3 foot long eel over a red container. The Wives and Children of John Brown Learn about John Brown's family in this article. sepia tone image of Mary Ann Day Brown and two of her daughters; from the 1840s National Capital Region Energy Savings Performance Contract The National Park Service is investing $29 million in 81 individual energy efficiency and water conservation projects at national parks throughout the greater Washington region. Cherry Blossoms at the National Mall 2012 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients In 2012, seven rangers were awarded the national and region Freeman Tilden Awards for innovative and exciting interpretive programs. Learn their stories and more about their award-winning programs. Renee Albertoli Archeology in the Park - Harpers Ferry National Historical Park The Musket Factory site on the grounds of the Harpers Ferry, Virginia Armory has been the focus of a multi-year, multi-disciplinary study that includes a thorough examination of the site's archaeological resources. Substantial efforts have been made to make the process of these investigations and their findings accessible to the public. Photo of archeologist excavating the U.S. Armory grounds at Harpers Ferry The Fall of Harpers Ferry Description of the battle at Harpers Ferry Photograph of men of the 22nd New York State Militia near by Harper's Ferry Forest Regeneration 2017 Tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in the parks of the National Capital Region. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A forest plot showing tree seedling and low-growing plant recovery. Go green for the National Park Service’s birthday! We're adding energy- and water-saving improvements to save money! How can you do the same in your home? National Mall and Memorial Parks Yearly Savings 50.9 M gallons of water, $1 M, 2.7M kwh. Industry and Economy during the Civil War Both North and South mobilized industry to an unprecedented degree. But the North, which already had a head start in nearly every realm of industrial and agricultural development, far outpaced the South during the war. Unhampered by the southern opposition in such areas as providing free land to farmers and subsidizing a transcontinental railroad before the war, Congress passed sweeping legislation to expand the economy. As the war dragged on, in part because many of the ba Lithograph showing industrial and technological advancements of the Civil War Taking Care of Those in Need Taking care of the wounded and sick soldiers of the Civil War was taken on my civilians and military professionals. Civilians helped out with a variety of tasks in a hospital, while the doctors tried their best with the large numbers of casualties. Photograph staff at a field hospital Stream Restoration Dreams: Stage Zero Learn “stage zero” stream restoration basics and how they could be applied in Mid-Atlantic streams. Water spreads across the ground around standing and fallen trees Peregrine Falcons return to Harpers Ferry National Historical Park It has been decades since peregrine falcons nested on Maryland Heights at Harpers Ferry, but in recent years the birds are showing an interest in the historic nesting site again. Learn about the history of this species at Harpers Ferry NHP and the recent developments of their return. peregrine falcon on a cliff face about to take flight United States Armory Grounds and Potomac Riverfront Cultural Landscape In 1797, the United States Congress purchased land for a federal Armory at Harpers Ferry. The United States Armory property once included various sites in the town of Harpers Ferry. Now part of Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, the site is historically significant for its associations with manufacturing, transportation, and tourism. Looking north through the Armory gates circa 1862 (HF 0027) Ash Tree Update 2017 The state of ash trees in 2017 in the National Capital Region after more than 10 years of harm from the invasive emerald ash borer. A white ash leaf Forest Regeneration 2019 In 2019 tree seedlings and small saplings are in short supply in National Capital Area parks. Without these trees of tomorrow, what will our forests look like? A brown bird with a white breast and dark spots on its chest stands on the leaf-littered ground. Eastern Hemlocks in the National Capital Region Many evergreen, Eastern hemlock trees, typically found growing alongside forest streams, have succumbed to two insect pests. In the National Capital Region, we looked for surviving trees, and what other tree species are poised to replace hemlocks. An evergreen branch with white fuzzy nubs along the stems. The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Archeology at the US Armory When 6 acres of the former Armory were added to Harpers Ferry National Historical Park in West Virginia, the park acquired not only the original site of John Brown’s Fort but also the archeological remains of other important structures including the Wager Warehouse and the Smith and Forging Shop. Archeologists surveyed, tested, and mapped these important resources. [photo] Historic photo of the U.S. Armory at Harpers Ferry. Oak Decline Learn more about oak decline where a host of stressors interact to weaken trees over time, leading to what becomes "death by a thousand cuts." Looking up into the canopy of a mature oak showing symptoms of oak decline. Spring Amphibian Timeline Learn how the progression of amphibian appearances unfurls every spring. A gray tree frog clings to a small tree branch. Amphibian Diversity & Habitat Connectivity Habitat fragmentation is a major threat to amphibian communities, especially in National Capital Region parks at risk due to the region's growing urbanization. A small frog crouches on a lichen-covered rock. Mapping an Armory Grounds Tailrace at Harpers Ferry National Historical Park Harpers Ferry NHP archeology program is involved in an ongoing investigation of the Lower Armory Grounds. NPS archeologists recently studied a tailrace tunnel that supplied water to power Armory factories. The investigation has revealed a number of unique and unusual features that facilitate a more complete understanding of the organization of the armory workshops and management of the sources of energy for manufacturing arms. Overview of several excavated features. Memorials for the Future Memorials for the Future, is a competition that aims to rethink the way we develop and experience memorials in Washington, D.C. Memorials for the Future Logo The Civil War in American Memory America's cultural memories of the Civil War are inseparably intertwined with that most "peculiar institution" of American history - racial slavery. But in the struggle over Civil War memory which began as soon as the war was over and continues to this day, rival cultural memories of reconciliation and white supremacy have often prevailed. Therein lies the challenge as the National Park Service - a public agency - seeks to "provide understanding" of the Civil War era's lasting impact upon the development of our nation. Elderly Union and Confederate veterans shake hands at the fiftieth anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg Lewis at Harpers Ferry Harpers Ferry, in the far northeast corner of West Virginia, was a major junction point due to its location of where the Shenandoah River enters the Potomac. Just 70 miles northwest of Washington City, it was here that George Washington proposed to build an armory and arsenal for the young United States. Construction began in 1799. river bend with town and sunset Niagara Movement - Cornerstone of the Modern Civil Rights Movement To combat the injustices of Jim Crow laws and legal segregation, W.E.B. Du Bois and other leading civil rights advocates created the Niagara Movement and held their first public meeting at Storer College in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, invoking the spirit of John Brown. Photo of Niagara Movement members, including W.E.B. DuBois (seated) Harpers Ferry to South Mountain The Battles of Harpers Ferry and South Mountain Photograph of the Railroad bridge in ruins at Harpers Ferry in 1862 The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops Amphibian Disease Risk in the National Capital Area Looking for disease, including ranaviruses and chytrid fungi, is an important part of amphibian monitoring done by the National Capital Region Inventory & Monitoring Network. Learn more about the risks posed by these diseases and the biosecurity protocols field crews use to reduce the risk of accidental spread. Red-spotted newt on brown forest floor leaves. Black spots and eyes contrast with vivid orange skin. Forest Soils Highlights from a 2007-2017 study of soils in National Capital Region Network I&M-monitored parks. Includes discussion of parent materials, heavy metal soil pollutants like lead, and how past land use effects O horizons. Collage of 6 color photos of soil profiles showing colors from orange-y reds to browns and grays. American Chestnuts in the Capital Region In 1904, a deadly fungus began killing American chestnut trees, once one of the most dominant trees of the eastern U.S. Despite overwhelming odds, some American chestnut trees survive today in parks of the National Capital Region Green American chestnut tree leaves on a slender branch. Stiltgrass and Tree Seedling Recovery Recent analysis at Maryland's Catoctin Mountain Park shows Japanese stiltgrass does not limit the growth of tree seedlings in a forest recovering from deer overpopulation. Invasive Japanese stiltgrass blankets the sides of a shady forest road. Spotted Lanternfly 101 What you need to know about spotted lanternfly: a new, invasive, insect pest approaching the National Parks of the Mid-Atlantic. A spotted lanternfly with wings spread showing namesake spots Series: A Most Horrid Picture When the war began, medical practitioners did not know the exact cause of many diseases or the mechanisms of infection, and were only beginning to understand the benefits of cleanliness and good sanitation in disease prevention and healing. As a result, two out of every three deaths in the Civil War were caused by disease rather than injury. Caregivers like Clara Barton, the "Angel of the Battlefield," brought food and supplies to the soldiers and inspired new hope and life to the injured. Modern photograph of a medicine kit from the Civil War Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Series: Remembering John Brown John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry was perceived by everyone in different ways. Some people looked at John Brown as a hero or Christ-like martyr willing to risk and sacrifice everything in order to end slavery. Others looked at Brown as a lunatic, a violent terrorist, or someone who took the fight for abolition too far. In this series, National Park Service staff from across the country examine ways Americans processed and remembered Brown's actions throughout history. John Brown stands by a table pointing to a piece of paper titled "Liberty and Freedom for All." Series: A Savage Continual Thunder In September 1862 Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee changed the course of the Civil War. By crossing the Potomac River he moved from defending the south and its people to invading northern territory. He hoped that a major victory on Union soil would encourage European recognition of the Confederacy, crush northern morale, and force President Lincoln to sue for peace. As the Union Army of the Potomac scrambled to meet the Southern threat, President Lincoln hoped that Lee's invasion would lead to a U Lithograph of Battle of Antietam Cambrian Period—541 to 485.4 MYA The flat layers of rock exposed in Grand Canyon National Park encompass much of the Paleozoic, beginning in the Cambrian where they record an ancient shoreline. rock with fossil burrow tracks Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Spotted Lanternfly in Perspective While spotted lanternfly and emerald ash borer are both invasive insect pests, introduced from Asia, that feed on trees (primarily), they have few other similarities. Learn how they differ in host preferences, feeding mode, and life cycle. A spotted lanternfly with black wingspots on a tree branch Brood X Periodical Cicadas FAQ Learn about the Brood X periodical cicadas that emerged in 2021 throughout the Mid-Atlantic U.S. A perched periodical cicada with red eyes and orange wings Forest Regeneration 2020 What is the future of our forests? A look at forest regeneration capacity in National Capital Area national parks based on 2020 monitoring data. hand holding a leaflet on a white ash seedling School House Ridge North Cultural Landscape Along with other landscapes in and around Harpers Ferry, the School House Ridge North property is important for its role in the Battle of Harpers Ferry in September of 1862. Unlike some of the other historic farms in the region, this landscape has been spared from the development of the nearby metropolitan region and still has integrity as a rural landscape, lending to its historic association with agricultural development of the region. Open agricultural fields are visible in the distance through an opening in a row of leafy trees. Flooding and Climate Change Climate change has had a profound effect on the weather. In areas like DC which have been historically wet, changes in atmospheric temperature can lead to more severe storms and greater precipitation. Combined, these factors fuel other extreme weather events like flooding or landslides. Loudoun Heights Split Rock View Virginius Island Cultural Landscape Virginius Island is located in Harpers Ferry Historical Park, at the confluence of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers. The cultural landscape of Virginius Island has three periods of significance: 1750-1820, when the Shenandoah Canal was established; 1820-1855 when the island was organized into smaller parcels of land and the milling industry was established; and 1855-1890, when the island experienced destruction caused by the Civil War and floods. Vegetation grows around a rectangular stone foundation, with a river beyond. Top 10 Tips for Visiting Harpers Ferry National Historical Park Planning to visit Harpers Ferry National Historical Park? Explore these insider tips from park rangers on how to have a memorable and safe experience. Brick buildings, trees in autumn, with a steep, rocky hill, and river. Train emerges from a tunnel. Overview of the Urban Forests The eight urban forests measured in the Urban Ecology i-Tree analyses are diverse. The following articles explore just a few of the common ecological benefits the urban trees in these parks provide to the parks and the surrounding areas. Overview of the Urban Forests icon of tree silhouettes. Icon put over photo of Prince William Forest Avoided Runoff and Urban Forests Surface runoff, particularly from storms, can be a cause for concern in many urban areas because the large amounts of paved surfaces will increase the amount of water that cannot soak into the ground. These large volumes of stormwater runoff can carry surface impurities into streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and oceans, contributing pollution, garbage, and excessive nutrients into aquatic ecosystems. Urban forests, however, are beneficial in reducing surface runoff. Avoided Runoff icon of rain over a tree branch. Icon put over raindrops on red fall leaves Carbon Storage by Urban Forests Climate change is an issue of global concern. Urban trees can help mitigate climate change by storing carbon in tree tissue and sequestering atmospheric carbon from the key greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon Storage & Sequestration icon of CO2 going into a tree. Icon put over photo tree trunk. Air Pollution Removal by Urban Forests Poor air quality is a common problem in many urban areas. It can lead to decreased human health, damage to landscape materials and ecosystem processes, and spoiled scenic views due to reduced visibility. The National Park Service monitors and assesses air quality in park units. The trees in NPS’s urban forests contribute to improved air quality. Air Pollution Removal Icon of green lungs. Icon put over photo of tree canopy gap. Structural Values of Urban Forests A tree’s structural value can be thought of as the cost of having to replace a tree with a similar tree. It can be calculated with factors like the tree trunk area and the tree’s health condition. Various insects and diseases can infest urban forests, potentially killing trees and reducing the health, structural value and sustainability of the urban forest. Structural Values of Trees icon of tree on field. Icon put over photo of snow covered trees. Other Benefits of Urban Forests Other benefits of urban forests include: Trees and Building Energy Use and Oxygen Production. Trees affect energy consumption by shading buildings, providing evaporative cooling, and blocking winter winds. Oxygen production is one of the most commonly cited benefits of urban trees. Other Tree Benefits icon of house with a tree besides it. Icon put over photo of cherry blossoms Incredible Untold Stories of Everyday Life In the Reconstruction period following the Civil War, newly freed African Americans faced monumental challenges to establish their own households, farm their own lands, establish community institutions and churches, and to pursue equal justice under the law in a period of racist violence. A new NPS report presents the story of the extraordinary accomplishments of rural African Americans in Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. Portrait of well dressed Black woman in round spectacles, short natural hair, and lacy white collar Forest Regeneration 2021 The latest look at forest regeneration capacity in National Capital Area national parks based on monitoring data from 2021. Green forest showing healthy understory of oak seedlings. Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Deer Impacts A healthy forest needs to have enough tree seedlings and saplings to regenerate the forest canopy after a disturbance. Analysis of NPS I&M and other long-term datasets makes it clear that many eastern national parks lack adequate tree regeneration due to decades of over browsing by white-tailed deer. Deer impacts I&M Networks Support Resilient Forest Management NPS Inventory and Monitoring Networks have been tracking forest health in eastern national parks since 2006. This monitoring information can guide resilient forest management and support parks in adapting to changing conditions through the actions described below. Forest health monitoring Managing Resilient Forests. A Regional Initiative Forests cover tens of thousands of acres in eastern national parks and these critical resources face a range of interacting stressors: over-abundant white-tailed deer populations, invasive plant dominance, novel pests and pathogens, among other threats. The Resilient Forests Initiative will help parks address these issue collectively. Forest health monitoring Autumn Amphibians Frog antifreeze and red efts? Learn more about fall amphibian life in the National Capital Area, including marbled salamanders, spring peepers, and red-spotted newts! A red-orange juvenile red-spotted newt climbs a rock Series: Managing Resilient Forests Initiative for Eastern National Parks Forests in the northeastern U.S. are in peril. Over-abundant deer, invasive plants, and insect pests are negatively impacting park forests, threatening to degrade the scenic vistas and forested landscapes that parks are renowned for. With regional collaboration, parks can manage these impacts and help forests be resilient. This article series explores tools available to park managers to achieve their goals. Healthy forests have many native seedlings and saplings. Staff Spotlight: George McDonald Meet George McDonald, the Chief of Youth Programs and the Experienced Services Program Division. George oversees projects and programs that involve youth and young adults working at National Park Service sites across the country, primarily focusing on individuals 15 to 30 years old, and those 35 years old or under who are military veterans. These projects generally cover natural and cultural resource conservation. Learn more about him. George McDonald smiling at Grand Canyon National Park Women in Landscape-Scale Conservation: Dorothy Borowy Dorothy Borowy is proud of her contributions to several grassland restoration projects in the Washington, DC, area. smiling woman stands in an aisle in a greenhouse with potted flowering plants Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Invasive Plants & Pests Park forests are threatened by invasive plants and pests. Strategically tackling invasive plants to protect park’s highest priority natural resources and planning around forest pests and pathogens are important actions in managing resilient forests. Forest Regeneration Ash Tree Update 2021 Emerald ash borer (EAB) has killed most of the 300,000 ash trees in National Capital Region parks since 2014. Fewer than 80,000 living ash trees remain. Some ash-dominated swamps transformed into shrublands as ash root systems re-sprouted after EAB attack. In dry habitats, EAB proved more quickly fatal. A sunny swamp with dead tree trunks emerging from dense shrubs Beech Trees in the National Capital Area American beech (Fagus grandifolia), the most common tree species in National Capital Area parks, is currently facing the emerging threat of Beech Leaf Disease (BLD). A forest with healthy green leafed beech trees Series: Amphibian Monitoring in the National Capital Region Amphibians are a crucial part of both aquatic and land ecosystems, and National Capital Region parks are home to at least 20 different amphibian species. Learn how amphibian populations are changing based on more than fifteen years of NPS monitoring by the National Capital Region Inventory & Monitoring Network. Northern red salamander on a patch of sun dappled moss Amphibian Monitoring Update 2023 Learn how amphibians in the National Capital Region are faring based on fifteen years of NPS monitoring. Explore population changes, threats and stressors, and data-informed tools for protecting amphibian populations in our parks. Eye level view of a red salamander creeping along bright green moss Harpers Ferry Amphibian Monitoring 2023 Harpers Ferry is hopping! Learn what recent amphibian monitoring data shows us about amphibian populations in the park! American toad (Bufo americanus) Plan Like a Park Ranger 1-Day Itinerary Harpers Ferry Harpers Ferry National Historical Park has occupied a prominent place in American history from the very start. Home to an armory and arsenal starting in 1799, it is most famous for its role in John Brown’s raid. While John Brown’s raid was a significant moment, there is so much more to the history of Harpers Ferry! We have crafted this itinerary to tell these important stories of Harpers Ferry from the Civil War to civil rights. Vines on Trees at Forest Edges Learn how climbing vines affect tree growth and mortality in National Capital Region park forests. This material was originally presented in a 2016 resource brief. Vines climb on trees at the forest edge at Rock Creek's Barnard Hill Park. Re-Growing Southeastern Grasslands Native grasslands once covered vast swaths of the southeastern U.S. Learn how national parks in DC, Maryland, and Virginia are working on conserving, rehabilitating, and restoring these grassland communities. A sunny grassland with rolling hills in the distance What We’re Learning and Why it Matters: Long-Term Monitoring in the National Capital Region Knowing which natural resources are found in the national parks, and whether they're stable or changing, helps decisionmakers make sound choices. The National Capital Region Network is building that knowledge. After over fifteen years of monitoring, we've learned a lot about park ecosystems, how they're changing, and what they may look like in the days to come. Find out what we’ve learned and how it’s being used to help managers plan for the future. Field crew measures the diameter of a tree. Abolitionism and Freedom in the National Capital Area This timeline follows events revolving around civil rights in the National Capital Area and related people, places, parks and more. An Illustration of Arlington House Civil Rights and the Civil War in the National Capital Area The Civil War showed the cracks in the loosely held peace between the North and South. As the end of slavery through the Emancipation Proclamation established a reason for African Americans to join the fight, the stage was set for African American men to fight for their own freedom and rights as citizens of America. An unidentified African American soldier sits with a leg crossed over the other for his portrait. Reconstruction in the National Capital Area The legacy of Reconstruction is filled with triumph and trials, gains and losses. Though the era resulted in the dawn of the Jim Crow era, it did see a rise in Black political and social representation and power. Read more about the Reconstruction era in this timeline following the history of civil rights in America. Group portrait of African American legislators during Reconstruction. Tree Rings and the Tales They Tell Ecologists with the National Capital Region use tree cores from 36 different species to learn about the age of trees in park forests. Tree core samples taken from forest plots, laid side-by-side. Series: Geologic Time—Major Divisions and NPS Fossils The National Park System contains a magnificent record of geologic time because rocks from each period of the geologic time scale are preserved in park landscapes. The geologic time scale is divided into four large periods of time—the Cenozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Paleozoic Era, and The Precambrian. photo of desert landscape with a petrified wood log on the surface 50 Nifty Finds #11: Carving a Place in NPS History Few employees have left as visible a mark on National Park Service (NPS) exhibits as John A. Segeren. His work has been enjoyed by generations of park visitors who never knew his name but appreciated his intricate wood carvings and playful animal figures displayed in parks throughout the system. A master woodcarver described by former President Lyndon B. Johnson as "a legacy to this country," Segeren carved out his own place in NPS history. Round wooden plaque with bison, globe, and waterfall Forest Regeneration 2022 Tree seedlings and small saplings are still in short supply in National Capital Region national parks. A look at forest regeneration capacity based on monitoring data from 2022. Sunlight filtering through a green forest with green seedlings covering most of the forest floor. A Forest Monitoring Cycle Like No Other What if your office were the woods? Your break room a mossy log? This is the reality for members of the Inventory & Monitoring forest vegetation crew. The team has collected data on forest health in NCR parks every year since 2006 and recently completed the fourth cycle of forest vegetation monitoring (2018-2022). Learn what staff biologists and technicians have to say about their experiences in the field these past five years. Five members of a forest crew leap for joy in a sun-soaked forest. African Americans and the Great Outdoors There is the prevailing misconception that African Americans do not participate in outdoor recreation; however, this misconception is far from reality. While racially exclusionary practices attempted to impose limits on African American participation in outdoor recreation, African Americans participated in opportunities offered by the larger society and also carved out spaces of their own. African American Girl Scouts setting up tents for a day trip at Paradise Park Firefighting corps helps military veterans transition to civilian life From January through April, 2023, the National Capital Region (NCR) hosted a three-member, Appalachian Conservation Corps (ACC) crew of wildland firefighters. This crew, however, was unique: all three members were veterans. Two firefighters use handtools on a fireline with battlefield monuments in the background. National Capital Region firefighters help fight wildland fire in western Maryland In April 2023, ten wildland firefighters from parks in the National Park Service's National Capital Region spent two days helping state and local partners suppress a wildland fire near Clear Spring, Maryland. A firefighter uses a handtool to work on a fire burning in a downed log. Ash Tree Update 2022 Emerald ash borer are still decimating ash trees in the National Capital Region. Read on for the latest look into the state of ash trees in our parks based on forest monitoring data. Metallic emerald ash borer beetle atop a chewed leaf Resilient Forest Briefs for National Capital Region Parks As part of the ongoing conversation about managing resilient forests, short briefs on the resilience and regeneration status of each NCR park are now available. These summaries are based on 12 years of NPS forest vegetation monitoring data. bio tech gazing up through a sunlit forest Reconstruction Era African American Schools in the South Learn about the development of Black post-emancipation schools in the South as part of the legacy of Black communities’ dedication and commitment to ensuring civil rights. Ten case studies highlight Reconstruction Era education stories and sites in and around national parks. Sepia-toned image of students standing outside of a small, white wooden school building. Battling to Save Battlefield Birds A recent analysis of two focal grassland birds—the eastern meadowlark and the grasshopper sparrow—at four battlefield national parks, showed that how grasslands are managed affects the survival and reproduction of birds in those places. Researchers used eight years of NPS grassland bird monitoring data to learn how different practices, in particular farming practices, help conserve these vulnerable species. grasshopper sparrow perched on a post with green background NCR's Forest Interior Birds Explore how forest interior breeding birds are faring in National Capital Region (NCR) parks. These species prefer the shadiest and quietest core of the forest landscape and are excellent indicators of a healthy forest ecosystem. We look at data on wood thrush, ovenbird, Kentucky warbler, Louisiana waterthrush, hooded warbler, and scarlet tanager from a report summarizing population trends for forest birds in NCR parks. a woodthrush perched on a branch with blurred green foliage background Series: A Timeline of Resistance: The Perseverance of African Americans from the Revolutionary War to the Civil Rights Era The story of African American’s fight for equality did not begin or end with the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. In the National Capital Area, dedicated activism and self-determination has been documented since the Revolutionary War through the present day. This series consists of six articles that outline distinct timelines of resistance and activism in the fight for freedom. A young African American girl gazes at the camera holding a banner for the March on Washington Forest Regeneration 2023 Tree seedlings and small saplings are slowly increasing in National Capital Region national parks. A look at forest regeneration capacity based on monitoring data from 2023. Three people stand in a forest, smiling and pointing to a large tree trunk between them. Incised Fumewort (Corydalis incisa) Incised fumewort (Corydalis incisa) is a "high risk" invasive plant in the mid-Atlantic US with the potential to become widespread and cause a lot of damage. Learn how to identify it, differentiate it from the native yellow corydalis (Corydalis flavula), and help be on the lookout for this invasive species. A cluster of incised fumewort with green leaves and bright purple tubular flowers with violet ends. When Forests Come Down with a Bug: Forest Pests in the Greater DC Area Beech leaf disease, emerald ash borer, spotted lanternfly, spongy moth, oak decline and oak wilt are all pests present in National Capital Region (NCR) park forests. Learn about their effects and spread based on NCR Inventory & Monitoring data, and get the heads up on elm zigzag sawfly and beech bark disease. A black and red insect sits on a leaf. Updated Species Database Will Help Boost Amphibian Conservation Across the National Park Service To steward amphibians effectively, managers need basic information about which species live in parks. But species lists need constant maintenance to remain accurate. Due to recent efforts, the National Park Service now has an up-to-date amphibian species checklist for almost 300 parks. This information can serve as the basis for innumerable conservation efforts across the nation. A toad sits on red sand, looking into the camera. Flying Squirrels: A Field Note Southern flying squirrels are common in eastern forests, but are rarely seen by humans because they are nocturnal. Learn more about these unique animals! A flying squirrel clings to a tree trunk.

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