"Great Basin landscape, Great Basin National Park, 2013." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Great Basin

National Park - Nevada

Great Basin National Park is in eastern Nevada near the Utah border. It's in the Great Basin Desert and contains most of the South Snake mountains. In the north, the mountain-hugging Wheeler Peak Scenic Drive leads to towering Wheeler Peak. Nearby is one of several ancient bristlecone pine groves. The marble Lehman Caves have distinctive stalactites and other formations. Park wildlife includes bighorn sheep.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Great Basin National Park (NP) in Nevada. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Great Basin - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Great Basin National Park (NP) in Nevada. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of Mt. Moriah in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.Mt. Moriah - OHV Trails

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of Mt. Moriah in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of Sacramento Pass Recreation Area in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.Sacramento Pass - OHV Trails

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of Sacramento Pass Recreation Area in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.

Map of Dispersed Camping On BLM Near Great Basin National Park in the BLM Bristlecone Field Office area in Nevada. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Great Basin - Dispersed Camping

Map of Dispersed Camping On BLM Near Great Basin National Park in the BLM Bristlecone Field Office area in Nevada. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Map of Upper Campground and Trails at Sacramento Pass Recreation Area in the BLM Bristlecone Field Office area in Nevada. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Sacramento Pass - Upper Campground and Trails

Map of Upper Campground and Trails at Sacramento Pass Recreation Area in the BLM Bristlecone Field Office area in Nevada. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Map of Lower Campground and Trails at Sacramento Pass Recreation Area in the BLM Bristlecone Field Office area in Nevada. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Sacramento Pass - Lower Campground and Trails

Map of Lower Campground and Trails at Sacramento Pass Recreation Area in the BLM Bristlecone Field Office area in Nevada. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of Lincoln County in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.Lincoln County - OHV Trails

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of Lincoln County in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of Silver State in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.Silver State - OHV Trails

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of Silver State in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.

Map of the Annular Solar Eclipse - October 14, 2023 - near Ely in Nevada. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Annular Solar Eclipse - October 14, 2023 - Ely

Map of the Annular Solar Eclipse - October 14, 2023 - near Ely in Nevada. Published by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of White Pine County in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.White Pine County - OHV Trails

Off-Highway Vehicle (OHV) Trails Map of White Pine County in Nevada. Published by Nevada Off-Highway Vehicles Program.

Statewide Map of Nevada Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Bureau of Land Management (BLM).Nevada State - Surface Management Responsibility

Statewide Map of Nevada Surface Management Responsibility. Published by Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

Official Highway Map of Nevada. Published by the Nevada Department of Transportation.Nevada State - Highway Map

Official Highway Map of Nevada. Published by the Nevada Department of Transportation.

https://www.nps.gov/grba https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Basin_National_Park Great Basin National Park is in eastern Nevada near the Utah border. It's in the Great Basin Desert and contains most of the South Snake mountains. In the north, the mountain-hugging Wheeler Peak Scenic Drive leads to towering Wheeler Peak. Nearby is one of several ancient bristlecone pine groves. The marble Lehman Caves have distinctive stalactites and other formations. Park wildlife includes bighorn sheep. From the 13,063-foot summit of Wheeler Peak to the sagebrush-covered foothills, Great Basin National Park hosts a sample of the incredible diversity of the larger Great Basin region. Come and partake of the solitude of the wilderness, walk among ancient bristlecone pines, bask in the darkest of night skies, and explore mysterious subterranean passages. There's a lot more than just desert here. From the East or West: From U.S. Highway 6 & 50, turn south on Nevada State Highway 487 and travel 5 miles to Baker, NV. In Baker turn west on Highway 488 and travel 5 miles to the park. From the South (Utah): Travel north on Utah State Highway 21 through Milford, UT and Garrison, UT, Highway 487. Turn west on Highway 488 in Baker and travel 5 miles to the park. From the South (Nevada): Travel north on U.S. Highway 93. No public transportation is available to, or in, Great Basin National Park. Great Basin Visitor Center Phone: (775) 234-7520 Located just north of the town of Baker on the west side of NV Highway 487. The Visitor Center contains an information desk staffed by park rangers, exhibits about the ecology and history of the park, a theater with the park film, and brochures. From Baker, NV take 487 .5 miles north. The Great Basin Visitor Center is on the right. Lehman Caves Visitor Center Phone: (775) 234-7510 Lehman Caves Visitor Center is located 5.5 miles up from the town of Baker, NV. At this visitor center visitors can plan their visit, purchase cave tour tickets, watch the park movie, and explore exhibits about the caves and the darkness of Great Basin National Park. From Baker, NV take 488 5.5 miles to the end of the road. Baker Creek Campground Baker Creek Campground contains 37 campsites. All sites are available, when the campground is open (seasons permitting), on a first-come-first-served basis. Potable water is not available. Nightly Fee 20.00 $20 per night per site. $10 for senior/access pass holders. No checks. Baker Creek Campground Sign Green sign with white text "Baker Creek Campground" Baker Creek Campground is located on the Baker Creek Road Dump Station No overnight camping allowed. Dump Station is for dumping garbage and RV sewage. Dump Station Fee 10.00 $10 to dump RV sewage Dump Station Great Basin Dump Station with sewage hose, water fill up, and dumpsters Dump station located near Lehman Cave Visitor Center Grey Cliffs Campground For visitors to Great Basin National Park, Grey Cliffs Campground is an ideal place to setup and start exploring. Experience the solitude of the desert, the smell of sagebrush after a thunderstorm, the darkest of night skies, and the beauty of Lehman Caves. Nightly Fee 20.00 $20 nightly fee for single site. Nightly Group Fee 30.00 $30 nightly fee when using group sites. Minimum 9 people. Maximum 12 people per site or 30 people per loop. Grey Cliffs Green sign with white text that says "Grey Cliffs Campground" Grey Cliffs campground is the first left on Baker Creek Road Lower Lehman Campground Among the lush green vegetation which hugs Lehman Creek, you'll secure your tent or park your RV within earshot of clear mountain water which has tumbled 3000 vertical feet from the lakes and snowfields of the high Snake Range. Naturally landscaped with red-barked water birch, aspen and white fir a stroll through this sky island ecosystem provides for great bird-watching or a cooling dip in the stream while placing you just minutes from spectacular Lehman Caves. Nightly Fee 20.00 Campsites are $20 per night per site. $10 for senior/access pass holders. No checks. Lower Lehman Campground Lower Lehman Campsite. Picnic table, grill, green tent, and blue skies. Site #8 Snake Creek Primitive Campgrounds Make yourself at home in the Snake Creek Campsites along the Snake Creek River, located on the south-eastern side of the park. These sites are nestled among Aspen groves and at the base of impressive limestone cliffs. Sites to choose from include, Monkey Rock, Squirrel Springs, Pinnacles, Eagle Peak. The Shoshone and Johnson Lake trail sites are a short 0.5 mile hike from the parking lot at the end of the Snake Creek Road. Camping Fees 0.00 There are no camping fees for the Snake Creek Campgrounds. All sites are First-Come-First-Served. Maximum stay is 14 days. Snake Creek Primitive Campground Squirrel Springs Campground sign with mountain in background Squirrel Springs, one of six primitive campgrounds, located in the Snake Creek area. Upper Lehman Campground Whether you prefer the rich smell of summer mahogany riding air currents blended with the vanilla of ponderosa pine, or the sound of a clear mountain stream babbling beneath a symphony of swaying white fir, you won't regret your stay at Upper Lehman Campground. At 7500 feet in elevation and 3 miles up the Wheeler Peak Scenic Drive a stay at Upper Lehman is just a brief cruise from high alpine trails that will take you into the heart of the Snake Range. Nightly Fee 20.00 Campsites are $20 per night per site. $10 for senior/access pass holders. No checks. Upper Lehman Campsite Picnic table, grill, empty tent pad. Surrounded by pine trees with a view of mountain tops. Site #21 Wheeler Peak Campground Located at 9500', Wheeler Peak campground offer a great experience camping at high elevation. Nestled in aspen groves in the shadow of Wheeler Peak, temperatures can be cold even during the summer. Potable water is not available. Nightly Fee 20.00 The Nightly Fee covers a one night stay in one campsite. Wheeler Peak Campground Green sign with white text showing the way to "Wheeler Peak Campground". Snow on the ground. Wheeler Peak Campground Sign in snow Wheeler cirque blue sky with green trees in mountain cirque Trail to ancient bristlecone pine trees. Bristlecone at night Bristlecone pine tree with a dark blue sky behind it with a bright Jupiter shining Planets like Jupiter shine bright at Great Basin Lehman Caves Grand Palace Parachute formation Brown and tan cave formation in the shape of a parachute Lehman Caves of Great Basin National Park offers incredible views of a rare subterranean world. Milky Way at Great Basin National Park Colorful Milky Way over the red lit Lehman Caves Visitor Center Come see the Milky Way at Great Basin National Park. Remember to check the moon phase. Great Basin Visitor Center Tan and green Visitor center with mountains in the background. Great Basin Visitor Center just six miles from the park entrance Alpine Flowers White, yellow,, and pink alpine flowers. Flowers grow even at the high altitudes of the Great Basin National Park Golden Eagle Golden Eagle flying with wings spread wide Wildlife is abundant at Great Basin National Park including birds, deer, fish, and mountain lion. Snow Covered Mountains Snow covered mountains with brown trees in the foreground Snow can come early, even in the fall at Great Basin. Comet NEOWISE Ancient bristlecone with comet NEOWISE in the background Great Basin National Park offers truly dark-skies that rarely seen within the United States. Cave Management Plans, Summer Bat Crew, & Biomonitoring Development of the Lehman Caves Management Plan and Wild Caves and Karst Management Plan are nearing completion. Bat surveys, quarterly biomonitoring in Lehman Caves along with a cave climate change study were a focus of cave activity for 2017. view out of cave opening to distant mountains and trees Army Couple Visits 59 National Parks When you’re a dual-military couple, it can be a challenge to try to find things to do together, especially when you’re at separate duty stations or on deployment. For one Army couple, what started out as a simple idea to get out of the house turned into a five-year adventure. Couple standing in front of The Windows at Arches National Park. The Sounds of Spring When the weather warms, national parks across the country rouse from winter’s sleep. The sounds you hear in parks reflect this seasonal change. They contribute to the unique soundscape of these special places, and are among the resources that the National Park Service protects. Sandhill cranes dance in a courtship ritual in flooded grasslands at Great Sand Dunes NP. Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. Bat Projects in Parks: Great Basin National Park Bat demographics, hibernacula, occupancy, and outreach in Great Basin National Park. View of Great Basin National Park wilderness Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. White Pines Healthy in Great Basin National Park The Mojave Desert Network monitors two white pine species in Great Basin National Park, limber pine and Great Basin bristlecone pine. These trees are important foundation species that support wildlife and plants. However, white pines face threats from mountain pine beetles, a warming climate, and the non-native pathogen that causes white pine blister rust. Recent collaborative monitoring documented that surveyed pines are healthy, with no incidence of blister rust infection. Great Basin bristlecone pine on a rocky mountain slope overlooking the sagebrush steppe below. Series: Inside Earth – NPS Cave & Karst News – Summer 2017 This newsletter is produced as a forum for information and idea exchanges between National Park Service units that contain caves and karst landscapes. It also provides a historical overview and keeps partners and other interested folks aware of cave and karst management activities. 4 rangers walk through shoe cleaning station Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Lehman Caves Virtual Tour Lehman Caves in Great Basin National Park is a beautiful, well-decorated cave that has been visited since 1885. But due to its remoteness and the pandemic in 2020, many people have a hard time getting to the cave in rural Nevada. Fortunately, the half-mile tour route was scanned with LiDAR in February 2020 and the resulting pointcloud was made into a high definition virtual cave tour. Now anyone with an Internet connection can visit the cave. Person conducting LiDAR at the base of a stairway in Lehman Caves. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Great Basin National Park, Nevada Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. park scene mountains at night Ordovician Period—485.4 to 443.8 MYA Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains national parks, along with the Blue Ridge Parkway that connects them, pass through rocks from the core of the Appalachian Mountains. The mountains began forming during the Ordovician and eventually attained elevations similar to those of the Himalayas. rock with fossil brachiopod shells Cambrian Period—541 to 485.4 MYA The flat layers of rock exposed in Grand Canyon National Park encompass much of the Paleozoic, beginning in the Cambrian where they record an ancient shoreline. rock with fossil burrow tracks Paleozoic Era During the Paleozoic Era (541 to 252 million years ago), fish diversified and marine organisms were very abundant. In North America, the Paleozoic is characterized by multiple advances and retreats of shallow seas and repeated continental collisions that formed the Appalachian Mountains. Common Paleozoic fossils include trilobites and cephalopods such as squid, as well as insects and ferns. The greatest mass extinction in Earth's history ended this era. fossil corals in a rock matrix Blanket Cave National Youth Park—Activity Enjoy a fun activity and learn about caves even when you can't get out to a park. In this activity you will build your own cave and learn how to make it like a "real" natural cave. Find out about cave formations and wildlife, and how to be safe and care for caves. New "Blanket Cave National Youth Parks" are springing up all across America! Join the fun! cartoon drawing of a childs and a park ranger exploring a cave Plan Like a Park Ranger: Top 10 Know Before You Go Plan like a park ranger using these top ten tips for visiting. See you along the trail! Series: Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) Newsletters From 2009 to 2015, the Pacific Ocean Education Team published a series of short newsletters about the health of the ocean at various National Park Service sites in and around the Pacific Ocean. Topics covered included the 2010 tsunami, marine debris, sea star wasting disease, ocean acidification, and more. Ocean waves wash in from the right onto a forested and rocky shoreline. POET Newsletter Summer 2010 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from Winter 2009. Articles include: Stewardship Without Boundaries: Conserving Our Ocean Ecosystem from Baja to the Bering Sea; A Seamless Network of Parks, Sanctuaries, Refuges & Reserves; Life Entwined with the Sea: The Non-Coastal Park Connection; Take the Plunge into Ocean Stewardship; Nearshore Vertebrates in Four Hawaii Parks; and Ocean Stewardship: A Commitment to Collaboration. Sea stacks rise above ocean waves washing ashore. A wooded ridge rises in the distance. POET Newsletter Winter 2009 Pacific Ocean Education Team (POET) newsletter from Winter 2009. Articles include: Stewardship Without Boundaries: Conserving Our Ocean Ecosystem from Baja to the Bering Sea; A Seamless Network of Parks, Sanctuaries, Refuges & Reserves; Life Entwined with the Sea: The Non-Coastal Park Connection; Engage Visitors in Ocean Park Stewardship; Inventory Map & Protect Ocean Parks; and Ocean Stewardship: A Commitment to Collaboration for Conservation. A color map indicating the depth of the Pacific Ocean floor. Darker blue represents deeper oceans. Saving Our Sagebrush Sea A recent study underscores the importance of protecting sagebrush lands in national parks to prevent a national treasure from disappearing. Sagebrush lands in front of the Teton Range in Wyoming Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Beatrice Rhodes Beatrice Rhodes spent ten years (1920-30) as the steward of Lehman Caves in Great Basin National Park along with her first husband. Her time there coincided with the era’s burgeoning automobile tourist industry, fueling a desire among many to explore the US West and escape the pressures of urban modernity. Rhodes’ role as an advertiser, tour guide, and even entertainer at the Lehman Caves embodied this trend to seek excitement and individuality in the rural West. Rough, single story log cabin with door and window in shrubby desert Battle of the Bark Trees shade us from the sun, provide homes for wildlife, stabilize Earth’s surface, and produce food for humans and animals alike. Some are massive, and others are miniscule by comparison, but what makes one better than the other—we’ll let you decide! Check out our iconic trees below and find your favorite! Five thick barked red-brown trees are backlit by the sunlight. Pollinators in peril? A multipark approach to evaluating bee communities in habitats vulnerable to effects from climate change Can you name five bees in your park? Ten? Twenty? Will they all be there 50 years from now? We know that pollinators are key to maintaining healthy ecosystems—from managed almond orchards to wild mountain meadows. We have heard about dramatic population declines of the agricultural workhorse, the honey bee. Yet what do we really know about the remarkable diversity and resilience of native bees in our national parks? Southeastern polyester bee, Colletes titusensis. The bioblitz: Good science, good outreach, good fun Part contest, part festival, part educational event, and part scientific endeavor, bioblitzes bring together naturalists, professional scientists, and the interested public, who canvass the area over a 24-hour period to find and document all plants and animals. young woman gathers flying insects from a backlit white sheet at night. Studying the Past and Predicting the Future Using Rat Nests In the western United States, packrat middens are one of the best tools for reconstructing recent environments and climates. These accumulations of plant fragments, small vertebrate remains, rodent droppings, and other fossils can be preserved for more than 50,000 years. Packrat middens have been found in at least 41 National Park Service units. Photo of a wood rat. Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 14, No. 2, Fall 2022 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> Photo of a person sitting while using a laboratory microscope. Series: Geologic Time—Major Divisions and NPS Fossils The National Park System contains a magnificent record of geologic time because rocks from each period of the geologic time scale are preserved in park landscapes. The geologic time scale is divided into four large periods of time—the Cenozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Paleozoic Era, and The Precambrian. photo of desert landscape with a petrified wood log on the surface Series: Women's History in the Pacific West - California-Great Basin Collection Biographies from Northern California, Central Valley, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Nevada Map of northern California, Central Valley, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Nevada Lehman Cave Area's Water and Wastewater Systems to be Rehabilitated at Great Basin National Park to Protect Long-Term Visitor Services through GAOA Funding Great Basin National Park, with funding from the Great American Outdoors Act (GAOA), will rehabilitate water and wastewater systems that serve the Lehman Caves area. From the summit of Wheeler Peak to the sage-covered foothills, 150,000 annual visitors come to Great Basin National Park to enjoy the solitude of the wilderness, walk among ancient bristlecone pines, bask in dark night skies, and explore the mysterious passages of Lehman Caves. gray rocks climbing up cave's walls. Some pointy rocks haning down from the ceilding. Outside Science (inside parks): Rattlesnakes in Great Basin National Park Meet biologists Meg Horner and Bryan Hamilton as they explore rattlesnake dens in Great Basin National Park. Rattlesnake NPS Establishes NPSage Initiative to Restore Sagebrush-Steppe Ecosystems Artemisia species, commonly known as sagebrush, are far from being the only species on the landscape. The sagebrush biome is composed of a rich mosaic of thousands of diverse plant species, which are largely driven by differences in climate, soil and elevation. These distinct sagebrush plant and animal communities occur in approximately 70 park units across the western U.S— all of which are experiencing significant threats from wildfire and droughts. Two NPS staff knealing next to plants growing in a nursery Understanding Woodrat Distribution Where do woodrats live in Great Basin National Park? What do they eat? Researchers from the University of Nevada - Reno work to answer these and other questions and find some interesting results. woodrat in cage Uncovering the Mystery of Cave Turnips Turnip stalactites are not your everyday speleothem. In fact, we hardly know anything about them. But due to the research of an intern, we now know a lot more, including that Lehman Caves has over 1,000 turnip stalactites! person lying on back measuring cave turnips Meet the 2023 USA Cave Animal of the Year: Cave Crickets! What lives underground? The Cave Animal of the Year project hopes to spread the news about the intriguing species that call underground home. Meet the 2023 designee: cave crickets. tan cave cricket on cave wall Great Basin Pie Recipes A brief history of the Lehman Caves Orchard and the pie making traditions associated with it! Geologic Fundamentals of Great Basin National Park Caves Caves only form in specific rock layers. This article highlights those rock layers for Great Basin National Park, as well as three different ways that caves form in the park. cave walls with vertical lines Top 10 Things To Know Before Visiting Great Basin Tips from Rangers to be prepared for a visit in the summer of 2023 Series: The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 23, No. 1, Summer 2023 The Midden is the Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park, published each summer and winter. Find out the latest going on at Great Basin National Park in resource management and research, including: * Understanding Woodrat Distribution * Turnip Stalactites * Cave Animal of the Year * Fundamentals of Cave Geology To find past issues, visit: https://www.nps.gov/grba/learn/news/midden.htm ranger next to table of small mammal skeletons and skins Bats Are in Danger. Here’s How and Why We’re Helping Them. Bats are amazing animals and a formidable force against insect pests, but a nasty fungal disease is killing them. A coordinated national response brings hope. GIF of a bat with big ears in a gloved hand, rotating its head and opening and closing its mouth. Project Profile: Develop Native Plant Capacity for Sagebrush Parks The National Park Service will establish a native seed collection and plant propagation facility on the Oregon State University (OSU)-Cascades Campus, in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, and private industry. a sagebrush steppe environment adjacent to a yellow aspen grove on a hillside Project Profile: Build Resilient Sagebrush Neighborhoods The National Park Service will implement nature-based solutions to rapid, fire driven, transformations that are occurring in parks across the sagebrush biome, using the Resist-Accept-Direct (RAD) framework and the Sagebrush Conservation Design. The National Park Service will achieve lasting benefits through partnerships and pooling funding sources. Work will occur in eight parks across the Intermountain and Pacific West Regions. a sagebrush bush and a bag full of sagebrush seeds What’s Dripping in the Cave? Lehman Caves continues to confound us with interesting phenomenon. Check out how snow melt made interesting bubbles at the end of some of the soda straws in the cave. Why? When? Where? We can only answer a few questions right now in this ongoing mystery. short one-inch soda straws in a cave, one on right has a bubble, ones on left have normal drips The Highs and Lows of Monitoring Temperature in the Park How does temperature and humidity change from the valley floor to the top of Wheeler Peak? Researchers from Ohio and Georgia have been studying that using a network of tiny sensors. Round metal housing in dead tree Series: The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 23, No. 2, Winter 2023 The Midden is the Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park, published each summer and winter. Find out the latest going on at Great Basin National Park, Nevada in resource management and research. The Midden, Winter 2023, Vol. 23 No 2. See past issues of The Midden at: https://www.nps.gov/grba/learn/news/midden.htm mountain lake surrounded by tall mountain cliffs and a few trees along with snow Bringing Fire Back to the Landscape Great Basin National Park is a wonderful place, but it's missing something. Since Europeans started settling in the area, fire has been suppressed quickly, resulting in poor landscape conditions. This article shares how the Park is going to start remedying that. map of prescribed fire areas in Baker Creek area of Great Basin National Park Mountain Pine Beetles Camping out near Wheeler Peak Mountain pine beetles can kill limber pine, a common tree in Wheeler Peak Campground. How can this be prevented so that campers have shade and animals have an important tree? Forest health specialists undertook a study to determine when mountain pine beetle was most active so that pheromones to dissuade their attack could be applied at the right time. Forest health staff prepare a black funnel trap in front of a dead tree Leave it to Beaver… Dam Analogs Beavers are wonderful architects of small dams that can help riparian areas. But what can you do if there aren't beavers in the area? Check out how park staff have been using beaver dam analogs to improve stream habitat. Pool forming upstream of a beaver dam analog Fish Move Postponed Park staff continue working to make the best possible Bonneville cutthroat trout refugia. A recent scientific test produced results that are delaying a fish movement, with plans to do additional testing and then continue as originally planned. colorful trout in hands next to net over grass Monitoring Habitat Use by Rattlesnakes Where do rattlesnakes go in the summer in Great Basin National Park? How far do they travel? What do they eat? Learn how researchers from the University of Nevada-Reno are addressing these questions in a new research study. rattlesnake in green vegetation with half-devoured young cottontail rabbit next to it Restoring the Sagebrush Sea, One Carbon-coated Seed at a Time The battle against invasive cheatgrass continues. The use of carbon-coated seed technology holds promise and is currently being tested in Great Basin National Park. hand holding black seeds Human Connections with Historic Cave Inscriptions People have been writing names and dates in Lehman Caves since 1885. Meet the families of two early visitors to the cave who help shed some light on what it might have been like to visit the cave back then. Tan stalactite with Japanese writing on it The Oasis Newsletter: Fall 2023 This biannual newsletter of the Mojave Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring Program features: an intern's summary of her experience working with our vegetation crew; two recent web publications on a nation-wide effort to conserve bats and monitoring vital signs in times of rapid change; outreach to MOJN park web managers to assist in increasing science and research content on their sites; and a variety of staffing updates. Woman with brimmed hat bends down to place a 3-foot tall blue flag along a transect in sagebrush. The Oasis Newsletter: Spring 2021 The Spring 2021 issue of the Mojave Desert Network newsletter bids farewell to our Ecologist and welcomes an Interim Ecologist and three field scientists hired this winter to support our monitoring projects. The newsletter also highlights recent outreach activities and collaborations with park staff, as well as a new project brief and a web article. We feature an article about the Dome Fire that killed an estimated 1.3 million Joshua trees in Mojave National Preserve. National Park Service scientist kneels on soil and filters a water sample from a desert spring. The Oasis Newsletter: Fall 2021 The Fall 2021 issue of the Mojave Desert Network newsletter highlights the recent "inconclusive" detection of a fungus causing bat disease; provides monitoring project updates and schedules; highlights recent project briefs and a data release report; features the network's first virtual science symposium; and summarizes staffing changes. Hiker walks on trail through golden aspen trees. The Oasis Newsletter: Fall 2022 This biannual newsletter of the Mojave Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring Program features: an update column from Allen Calvert, Network Program Manager; highlights from our first in-person science symposium in three years; a new project brief on selected large springs monitoring; outreach efforts in parks; and a variety of staffing updates. Four field staff smile in a selfie after finishing their last monitoring plot. Monitoring Vital Signs in Times of Rapid Change Environmental changes are occurring at increasing rates over the last century in the Mojave Desert. Examples include rising temperature, decreasing precipitation, and more frequent extreme events like wildfire and flooding. Learn more about what we are monitoring in the Mojave Desert Network parks, some early changes we are seeing, and how what we are learning can be used to help managers plan for the future. Two scientists stand over a small spring amidst desert shrubs in Death Valley National Park. The Oasis Newsletter: Spring 2022 In this newsletter, you will find our recent project summary on Desert Springs monitoring, staffing updates, highiights and links for an Inventory and Monitoring Division Scientists' training, a feature on fossil monitoring in Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, and our spring and summer field schedule. Two scientists use a leveling rod and a digital level to read water channel elevation. The Oasis Newsletter: Spring 2023 This biannual newsletter of the Mojave Desert Network Inventory and Monitoring Program features: updates from regional Inventory & Monitoring Program Managers' meeting, satellite vegetation analysis and bird diversity in Joshua Tree National Park, staffing changes, our spring monitoring schedule, and a few images highlighting recent fieldwork. Woman stands in desert springs vegetation, stretching a meter tape out to monitor it. Life at the Top: Range Shifts of Four High Elevation Plants Nachlinger catchfly, Holmgren’s buckwheat, Nevada primrose, and Pennell beardtongue are all rare, herbaceous plant species of conservation concern. They occur in high elevation habitats and are endemics, meaning they are limited to Great Basin National Park or a few other ranges in eastern Nevada. Four endemic plant species that are found on the alpine slopes of Great Basin National Park Hidden Stories of Snake Creek Cave For thousands of years, humans have entered caves and made their mark. From rock writing to historic inscriptions, these cultural resources capture a moment of the composer’s life. Such is the case for the more than 200 historic inscriptions within Snake Creek Cave in Great Basin National Park. A potential cattle brand written on a cave wall using carbide. A Closer Look at Nevada Primrose At the summit of Mt. Washington grows a rare plant with a unique backstory. Primula cusickiana var. nevadensis, the Nevada Primrose, is a perennial plant with showy purple petals (Panel D in image to the right), and was first described as its own species in 1967 by Noel Holmgren. It is part of the Primula cusickiana species complex: a group of related plants with similar morphologies found throughout the Great Basin. Four variations of primrose found in the great basin region Preserving Historic Lehman Orchard Lehman Orchard changed for the better this past summer. With funding from the Southern Nevada Public Lands Management Act Conservation Initiative, park staff replaced the irrigation system, planted new fruit trees, installed new fencing, and designed and installed informational signs and a viewing platform. The upgrades and orchard restoration work completed this year will help preserve Lehman Orchard for years to come. Lehman Orchard in the fall with leaves of green, yellow, and orange colors. Genetic Analysis of West Desert Bonneville Cutthroat Trout The Bonneville Cutthroat Trout is a subspecies of cutthroat trout that lived throughout the Bonneville Basin, which included Lake Bonneville and its tributaries, at the end of the last ice age. Once thought to be extinct, genetically pure populations have been found in recent decades in Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, and Nevada. The Bonneville Cutthroat Trout is the only species of trout native to Great Basin National Park and east central Nevada. A Bonneville Cutthroat Trout held over a stream Shifting Baseline It is easy to see national parks as static and unchanging. But the world is always moving, and slower, gradual changes often go unnoticed. Over time these changes may become accepted as the status quo, the way things have always been. A mountain landscape with pinyon pines and junipers in abundance. Lehman Caves Temp and Humidity before, during, and after Closure Lehman Caves was closed to the public for 427 days due to COVID, from March 19, 2020 to May 22, 2021. This may have been the longest closure since the cave was opened for tours since 1885. The temperature in the cave drastically changed during the closure. Graph of temperatures at the Doghouse panel in Lehman Caves just before COVID ended 2021 Reptile BioBlitz A BioBlitz is a short-term event to learn about the biodiversity of an area. In Great Basin National Park, we focus on one specific taxa, either plant or animal, each year over 48 hours. Rattlesnake coiled on some rocks. International Year of Caves and Karst 2021 Great Basin National Park is participating in the International Year of Caves and Karst 2021, a celebration of our natural underground spaces. This year we also prepare to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the designation of Lehman Caves National Monument on January 24, 2022. A public ceremony will be held at the Park on August 6, 2022. Pool deposits create rimstone dams, like these seen in the Cypress Swamp. Thinning Project Outreach In October 2021, fire crews began work on the 65-acre Boundary Thin. This is one of several projects the park is working on to reduce fuels, protect life and property, and restore plants and animals. Based on questions and comments from the community and visitors, we wanted to provide more information on this project. Lehman Orchard in the fall with yellow, green, and orange leaves. Nevada Bat Plan On warm summer nights, vast numbers of bats fly above our heads. Bats are the only mammals capable of true flight and use high frequency echolocation calls to detect and capture insect prey. Because we can’t see or hear them, we are largely unaware of the incredible abundance of bats. A Western Big-Eared Bat leaves her pup at a cave roost to forage for the night. A Peek Inside the Wheeler Cirque Glacier Today we have lots of evidence of these past glaciers, with moraines, cirques, and more. The glacial ice, both exposed and in the rock glacier, helps provide a water source in late summer, when many other water sources have dried up. The cool ice supports a flock of gray-crowned and black rosy finches, who fly from one spot to another to eat insects that have fallen into the snow and ice. View into the crevasse on the Wheeler Cirque Glacier. Short Recap on Strawberry Creek Canyon n 2016, a lightning-ignited fire burned over 2,700 acres of the Strawberry Creek watershed in Great Basin National Park. Park biologists have partnered with the Nevada Department of Wildlife, the Bureau of Land Management, and other agencies to treat, restore, and monitor the area post-fire. The upper meadow in Strawberry Creek three years post-fire. Changes in the Park Upcoming changes coming to Great Basin National Park The new astronomy amphitheater bathed in red light to help with night sky viewing. Series: The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 21, No.1, Summer 2021 The Midden is the Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park, published each summer and winter. Find out the latest going on at Great Basin National Park, Nevada in resource management and research. The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 21, No. 2, Summer 2021 The upper meadow in Strawberry Creek three years post-fire. 2021 Reptile BioBlitz Results Results of the 2021 Reptile BioBlitz at Great Basin National Park A BioBlitz participant holds a kingsnake up close. Cool Bug Facts: The Pinyon and The Engraver The pinyon engraver beetle (Ips confusus) is a member of the Bark Beetle subfamily Scolytinae. These native beetles play an important role in pinyon-juniper forests by killing weak or damaged pinyon pine trees. This can improve habitat diversity, create canopy gaps allowing shade intolerant species in the seed bank to germinate, provide snag habitat, and contribute organic material to the soil, not to mention the beetles themselves are a part of the food web. Globs of sap formed by pitch tubes sometimes trap invading beetles. A Season of Change at Baker Lake In the years to come, we hope to also introduce Bonneville Cutthroat Trout into Baker Lake and create a new, thriving population of native trout for future generations to enjoy. A large part of our work this season has been preparing Baker Lake to be treated with the piscicide rotenone in the summer of 2021. Treating the lake with rotenone will allow the park to remove all nonnative fish before BCT are introduced. Staff member taking depth measurements of Baker Lake Creating a Refugium of Bonneville Cutthroat Trout In March 2020, a project was initiated to create two new Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii utah, BCT) conservation populations in Baker and Johnson Lakes. Great Basin National Park hopes that these two high elevation lakes will act as a refugia for BCT as our climate continues to change. Fish crew electrofishing to collect fish from a stream Resource Management Videos During the 2020 field season, resource management and interpretation staff made several in-depth videos about various topics. Get your popcorn and enjoy these short videos. Temperature Changes across an Elevational Gradient How have temperatures been changing in Great Basin National Park (GBNP) over the past decade? Vertical schematic representing the ESN sensor location by elevation and ecosystem Lint Camp Recap Here is a recap on the yearly lint camp where volunteers come and help clean Lehman Caves. A volunteer using a black light to find lint on cave formations. Bats in Spring Valley Thousands of Brazilian Free-tailed Bats migrate through Spring Valley each year. They are increasingly vulnerable to wind energy developments. Finding ways to work for the good of the wind developers and the bats is an ever challenging circumstance. A researcher pointing to a flying bat during the fading sunset. Results of 2021 Christmas Bird Count Results of 2021 Christmas Bird Count Song sparrow on a snow-covered branch. Series: The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 22, No.1, Summer 2022 The Midden is the Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park, published each summer and winter. Find out the latest going on at Great Basin National Park, Nevada in resource management and research. The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 22, No.1, Summer 2022 A researcher points to a bat flying while the sunset fades. Mark and Recapture Study for the Model Cave Harvestman, Sclerobunus ungulatus Arachnids, particularly shy cavernicolous ones, keep their secrets close to their scute. In fact, they don’t like to spill the beans at all. In order to engage them in disclosing all their secrets we cannot whisper sweet nothings, instead hard science is called to the field of battle. A harvestman painted with pink for later recapture. Changing Faces: A Recent History of Snow Surveys in GRBA One of the oldest datasets in the Park is the Baker Creek Snow Survey, with three snow courses located in the Baker Creek watershed. Since 1941, the snow has been measured in late February and late March every year (and in some years also late January and late April). Two researchers weighing a tube filled with snow to figure out the amount of moisture in the snow. Mountain Lions are Keystone Species Mountain lions are keystone species. Through interactions with their prey, mountain lions create “top down” effects that regulate prey abundance and behavior, reduce herbivory, invasive species, and disease transmission, while increasing soil fertility and biodiversity (Beschta and Ripple, 2009). These predator induced trophic cascades can restore and maintain healthy ecosystems (Fraser et al., 2015). A trail camera captured a mountain lion in a tall grass area. Detecting and Forecasting Change in High Elevation Species In collaboration with the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and botanist Jan Nachlinger, the Park initiated a project to assess current and future distributions of endemic alpine plants. Alpine surveys focused on finding four high elevation, endemic forbs found in eastern Nevada: Holmgren’s buckwheat, Pennell beardtongue, Nevada primrose, and Nachlinger catchfly. The target four endemic plant species. Treatment of Baker Lake to Restore Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Non-native brook trout in Baker Lake takes the food and environment that the native Bonneville Cutthroat Trout need to survive. NPS staff removed the non-native fish to allow the native fish to thrive. Staff performed bathymetry surveys to make calculations for the rotenone treatment. Researcher Awards Zoe Havlena and Louise Hose received research awards. New Technologies to Help Win the War against Cheatgrass The sagebrush ecosystem is considered one of the most imperiled habitats in the United States. At one time, it covered over 150 million acres, but since European settlement, it has shrunk to only 56% of its historic range due to impacts from altered fire regimes, invasive species, conversion to conifer woodlands, and various human disturbances. Students from Brigham Young University conducting research at Great Basin National Park. Highlights of the Hemiptera BioBlitz The 2020 BioBlitz focused on True Bugs (Hemiptera). Two experts from Utah State University, Amy Springer and Cody Holthouse, made 12 videos to help people learn more about this often-overlooked order of insects. Ants are “farming” aphids on this cottonwood stem Reflections on 20 Years of The Midden It’s hard to believe, but you are reading the 40th issue of The Midden, the Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park. The publication started in 2001, published biannually. As the name hints, The Midden, just like packrat middens, has become a treasure trove of information for those who want to learn about the past. A Bristlecone Pine tree in the foreground with the milkyway in the background New Virtual Tour of Lehman Caves In February 2020, LiDAR scanning and photogrammetry were conducted in Lehman Caves over the course of two weeks, led by Blase Lasala and assisted by participants from Great Basin NP, Zion NP, El Malpais NM, and the Geologic Resources Division. Two contractors using LiDAR to take images to create a virtual tour of Lehman Caves Where Did Lehman Caves Dirt Come From? We recently have determined that Lehman Caves passages and rooms formed through hypogenic (rising groundwater) processes and there is no evidence that surface streams ever flowed through the cave. Obviously, some surface drainage has entered through the natural entrance, but no streams flowed through the cave. Exposed shale found in the Gypsum annex Evidence of a Sulfuric Acid Origin for Lehman Caves These caves are hypogenic, which means that they were formed by aggressive (acidic) water rising from deep-seated sources. They also found evidence of a significant chemical reaction mostly in the form of massive deposits of gypsum, a mineral that forms as a byproduct of the dissolution of limestone by sulfuric acid. Map of Lehman caves pointing out the acid pool in the Gypsum annex National Invasive Species Awareness Week 2020 National Invasive Species Awareness Week, begins on May 16, 2020. The goal of this public awareness campaign is to support education, legislation, and practical efforts to stop the spread of invasive plant and animal species on the nation’s lands and waterways to preserve natural ecosystems for the benefit of everyone. Hoary Cress, an invasive plant species that park staff work to remove Lehman Caves Cave Shield Study For years it has been estimated that nearly 300 cave shields exist within Lehman Caves, with a few other occurrences in nearby caves. However, there has not been an extensive investigation into the quantity or location of the shields within Lehman Caves. During the winter of 2020 (Jan-April), GRBA partnered with Americorps’ Geoscientist-in the-Park (GIP) program to complete an inventory of the many shields located in Lehman Caves. A 10 foot cave shield being lit up from the side by a cave researcher USA Cave Animal of the Year When you think of caves, do you think about what lives in them? A worldwide program, Cave Animal of the Year, seeks to help bring appreciation to subterranean creatures. Great Basin Caves Pseudoscorpion A Brief History of Great Basin National Park’s Green Team Over the past ten years, Great Basin National Park (GRBA) has developed various plans regarding sustainable actions. A Green Team was formed in 2009 to help implement and promote sustainability initiatives developed by the NPS – the Climate Friendly Action Plan and Green Parks Plan. After a lull of a few years and inconsistent participation, the Green Team has been restored! Great Basin National Park Action Plan cover sheet Making the Cave Less Green While we’re striving to make the park a greener park (more energy efficient and conservation-minded), we are also trying to make the cave less green, literally. You can see green in the cave next to the artificial cave lights, and that green is made up of algae, moss, and bacteria, sometimes referred to as lampenflora. The lampenflora provides an unnatural food source to the cave’s wildlife. It also can become part of the speleothems and damage their growth and beauty. A light in Lehman Caves with an algae mat in front Bat Blitzes Show Many Species in Park Humans remain largely unaware of the vast numbers of bats flying above us each night. Bats are the only mammals capable of true flight and use high frequency echolocation calls to detect and capture insect prey. Although most echolocation calls are above the range of human hearing, insects are able to detect, avoid, and interfere with bat calls in the night skies. Two bats being held by researchers during the bat blitz Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Reintroduced to Snake Creek In July of 2018, Great Basin National Park conducted a second rotenone treatment in the upper portion of the Snake Creek watershed to remove any non-native brook trout that had survived the 2016 treatment. A staff member holding a colorful Bonneville Cutthroat Trout above a bucket New Nevada Book Nevada is one of the most mountainous states in the US. Yet mapping out exactly where one range begins and another ends has never been done—until now. In this volume, David Charlet provides maps and descriptions for all 319 mountain ranges in the state. Cover of the new Nevada Mountains book Strawberry Fire Burned Area Rehabilitation Plan Complete The Strawberry Fire burned 2,790 acres of park lands in August 2016. Sagebrush steppe, pinyon-juniper, aspen, mountain mahogany, and riparian plant communities were impacted by the lightning-ignited fire. After the fire, the park prepared a three-year Burned Area Rehabilitation (BAR) plan. Arrowleaf balsamroot flourishes post-fire in the Strawberry Creek area. Cave Management Plans Finalized Great Basin National Park now has an approved Lehman Caves Management Plan and a Wild Caves and Karst Management Plan. These are the first cave management plans for the park, and they will help direct future management actions for the park’s 40 known caves and over 20,000 acres of karst (bedrock that may include caves). Caver preparing to enter a crawl inside of a cave. Lehman Caves Geology Reveals New Discoveries To this day, park literature and interpretive material consistently claim that the cave and the hillside containing it is a simple block of steeply dipping beds of Pole Canyon Limestone (NPS, 2015). So, one of the most surprising revelations when I started studying the geology of Lehman Caves was the realization that the cave formed entirely in high-grade marble, not limestone. Staff member looking at exposed marble in the Gypsum Annex Christmas Bird Count 2019 Come join us on Wednesday, December 18, 2019 for the 23rd annual Snake Valley Christmas Bird Count! A pinyon jay on top of a conifer. Lichen Diversity in Great Basin National Park When a lichen that had been known only from Antarctica and the High Arctic, Lecidea andersonii, turned up in collections made in Great Basin National Park during a BioBlitz in 2017, it became clear how little is known about lichen diversity and distributions in the Great Basin. Xanthomendoza montana a species of lichen SNPLMA-Funded Strawberry Creek Restoration Project Complete The Southern Nevada Public Lands Management Act (SNPLMA)-funded Strawberry Creek Fuels Reduction and Sagebrush Steppe/Aspen Restoration project has come to a close. Initiated in 2015, this fuels reduction and habitat restoration project included 206 acres of Strawberry Creek. NPS staff spraying weeds. Lehman Caves Geology Part III The following article is excerpted from a paper I prepared for the Great Basin National Park staff on the Geologic Story of Lehman Caves. In the last two issues, I wrote about Stage 1, the Sulfide-rich, Hypogenic Speleogenesis time and Stage 2, Secondary Deposits and Finding Stability in a New Environment. In this issue, I talk about Stages 3, Calcite Speleothems and the Pleistocene, and 4, Condensation-Corrosion Speleogenesis. Internal layers exposed by condensation corrosion in a Lehman “turnip” stalactite. Nineteen Species of Terrestrial Mollusks Found in Park Land snails and slugs existing in the Great Basin desert may seem like a paradox with valleys of salt flats, rivers that sink into the ground, and long miles between high mountain ranges. However, in Great Basin National Park there exists today, although small and inconspicuous, 18 species of land snails and one species of slug. The Great Basin Mountain Snail, Oreohelix strigosa depressa Citizen Science in Action Would you like to learn more about the nature around you? Or record what you see in Great Basin? Or perhaps help your teenager connect technology with nature? Screenshot of iNaturalist webpage Night Sky Assessment Shows More Light from Ely On September 10, 2018 the Natural Sounds and Night Skies coordinator for the Pacific West Region, Ashley Pipkin, took a night sky assessment at Great Basin NP. Sunset on Mt. Washington, where the night sky assessment was performed. Three New Records of Stone Centipedes in Nevada Worldwide, there are roughly 3,000 described species of centipedes; about 20% of these are recorded in the United States (Mercurio 2010). However, the majority of centipedes are often overlooked, partly due to their small size and uncharismatic appearance. A female Bothropolys permundus centipede Introduction to Fungi in Great Basin National Park The next time you go for a hike, take a closer look at the trees. You may notice that from almost any vantage point, you can find all stages of growth and decay. You may not see any mushrooms unless there has been a recent rainy period, but the growing fungi that produce them are all around you. Without them, the forest would look quite different. Don’t Move Firewood Why is moving firewood something we should think about? The answer is pretty straightforward: Movement of logs and firewood can transport tree-killing insects and diseases. Insects and disease agents are small, unable to move long distances on their own, and oftentimes go unnoticed because of where they live - underneath bark and within trunks or branches. A dying singleleaf pinyon pine due to disease or bugs 2019 Snow Survey Results After a few dry years, we were excited to see the mountains looking very white this winter. Just how much snow was up there? Park staff and volunteers skied up Baker Creek to measure the snow at three snow courses, at elevations of 8,200, 9,200, and 9,550 feet. Three staff members cross-country skiing through a forested area What Happens to Small Mammals with More Trees? Meg Horner (NPS Biologist) and I recently published a peer-reviewed paper in Rangeland Ecology and Management. Treatment of Snake Creek to Restore Bonneville Cutthroat In August of 2016, Great Basin National Park collaborated with the Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW) and staff from other National Park Service (NPS) units to conduct a rotenone treatment in Snake Creek. The goal of the treatment was to eradicate all nonnative fish from the section of Snake Creek located within the park boundary. GLORIA 2019 Update GLORIA (Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments) is a collaborative network with a shared methodology for surveying alpine summits across the globe. The main objective of GLORIA is to assess global distributional shifts of alpine species in response to climate changes. It is a tremendous effort with over 100 alpine areas in the global network. Holmgren wild buckwheat (Eriogonum holmgrenii) Lehman Caves: Little Understood but World Class, Part 2 The following article is excerpted from a paper I prepared for the Great Basin National Park staff on the Geologic Story of Lehman Caves. Last issue, I wrote about Stage 1, the Sulfde-rich, Hypogenic Speleogenesis time. This note reveals the second of four stages of speleogenesis I have documented in the cave. The Talus Room with a group of staff members in the distance Air Temperatures in Lehman Caves We recorded and analyzed air temperature year-round in Lehman Caves to explore the impacts of tourism and the external climate on the cave microclimate. Stark conducted an early study (1969) on effects of cave tourism on climate in the cave. After almost 50 years it was time for a new look. Staff member downloading data loggers in Lehman Caves Townsend’s Big-Eared Bat Research Over the course of this summer, the Great Basin bat crew has been working in collaboration with Christopher Newport University (CNU) researchers and the Nevada Department of Wildlife to collect data on Townsend’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii) in the area. Researcher holding a Townsend Big Eared Bat just before it was released. Utah Master Naturalists Help with Restoration At the end of August, Mark Larese-Casanova brought about ten people to the park as part of the Utah Master Naturalist program from Utah State University. This is a continuing education program open to all ages. During their three-day stay in the park, they hiked to the bristlecones, assisted with bat trapping and data collection at Rose Guano Cave, took a cave tour, and enjoyed the sound of Baker Creek while camping at Grey Cliffs. They also offered to do a service project. Utah Master Naturalists removing invading pinyon pines and junipers. Post-fire Bird Recovery in Strawberry Creek What happens to bird populations after a major wildfire? We are starting to see answers in Strawberry Creek watershed, which burned in 2016. A cassins finch sitting on a tree branch 2018 Beetle BioBlitz Results Over 40 participants gathered over three days for Great Basin National Park’s tenth annual BioBlitz. Nevada State Entomologist Jeff Knight led the effort, focused on beetles. Two bioblitz participants looking in a microscope Lehman Caves: Little Understood but World-Class Cave While preparing to develop new interpretive displays at Great Basin National Park, the Park staff came to realize that the most recent, professional geologists’ reports on the cave were from the early 1960s…..several years before most geologists had even heard of Plate Tectonics! Staff member standing in the Gypsum Annex in a passage that is covered in gypsum. First Season of Great Basin Wildrye Implementation The Forgotten Grasslands: Restoration of Basin Wildrye Ecosystems project was surveyed for archeological clearance during the 2017 fiscal year. Beginning in spring of 2018, we started implementing the restoration. Areas of cheatgrass and crested wheat grass were sprayed, pre-treatment monitoring plots were installed, and restoration by thinning began. Photo of reduced number of trees after the thinning had occurred Walk on the Wilder Side Looking for your next new adventure!? You will find it at Great Basin National Park. Specifically at Lehman Caves. Just imagine a cave adventure in a place that is dark, cool and quiet, very mysterious, and sparklingly beautiful! It is an adventure that is packed with discoveries. An adventure that you can share with friends and family. Two volunteers cleaning lint off the walls in part of Lehman Caves known as the Giant's Ear Lehman Caves’ Shields Lehman Caves is an extraordinary cave with a complex history. One of its more obvious distinctions is hundreds of cave shields. An unusual cave decoration, Lehman may contain more than any other cave in the world. But, why? Two of the cave shields, a type of cave formation, found in Lehman Caves Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Basin National Park An evolutionarily distinct lineage of red fox native to the Western United States occurred historically in isolated populations scattered among high-elevation sky islands of the Great Basin and surrounding mountain ranges. These Pleistocene relictual populations are disappearing as their subalpine habitats are lost to climate change and other anthropogenic causes. A graphic comparing red fox populations in the great basin and surrounding area Lichen BioBlitz Adds New Insights into Distribution The Lichen BioBlitz held July 17-19, 2017 at Great Basin National Park (GBNP) attracted roughly 50 participants. In addition to a handful of professional biologists who specialize in lichens, the participants came from a wide range of backgrounds and included some youth and a few local residents. Most of the participants had little or no prior knowledge of lichens but all brought an enthusiasm for natural history and an interest in learning. Wolf lichen (Letharia vulpina) a species of lichen Saving Bonneville Cutthroat Trout after the Strawberry Fire In August 2016, a wildfire burned the Strawberry Creek drainage, destroying much of the riparian corridor and degrading prime Bonneville cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki utah, BCT) habitat. Initial investigations concluded that a large portion of the BCT population was lost, most likely succumbing to increased water temperatures as the fire passed over the stream. However, survivors were found in less-intensely burned areas. A staff member holding a Bonneville Cutthroat Trout in both hands New Wildlife Species Added to Cave List Park staff have placed wildlife cameras at the entrances to several caves to see what animals use this habitat. The cameras take a photo when they sense movement. Each photo has a date, time, and temperature stamp. During the summer of 2013, 17 taxa were recorded. Since then, wildlife cameras have continued photographing cave entrances, and additional taxa have been added to the cave list. A stellar's jay standing on rocks in a cave entrance. Save the Date! Beetle BioBlitz in 2018 Join us for our tenth annual BioBlitz! We started with beetles in our first BioBlitz, and we’re going to return to them during a different part of the year to see what else lives in the park. Nevada State Entomologist Jeff Knight, along with other experts, will help guide citizen scientists during this fun, science-filled three-day event. A long-horned beetle on someone's finger Forgotten Grasslands: Basin Wildrye Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus) is an easy-to-recognize grass. It stands up to six feet tall, and early pioneers that arrived in Snake Valley commented on how it rose up to their horses’ bellies. It was an abundant grass, but that is no longer the case. Basin Wildrye Series: The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 17, No. 2, Winter 2017 The Midden is the Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park, published each summer and winter. Find out the latest going on at Great Basin National Park, Nevada in resource management and research. The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 17, No. 2, Winter 2017. Wolf lichen (Letharia vulpina) on a rock Bats in the Basin and Beyond Great Basin National Park’s Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act funded project, “Can land managers prevent the ‘inevitable collapse’ of bats in the western US?” has just finished its first of five field seasons. The overarching goals of the project are to locate and protect important bat roosts, derive demographic information about local bat populations, and educate and engage the public in bat conservation. Data gathered will help managers both locally and regionally. A staff member releasing a recently banded Mexican free-tailed bat. Monitoring & Treatment of Invasive Plants at Water Systems At Great Basin National Park, four meadow complexes provide drinking water to visitors, park residences, and campgrounds. Wet meadows make up only 0.1% of the park, varying in elevations from 7,200 to 10,300 feet. These mesic habitat types seem more susceptible to invasion by non-native plant species due to available water and soil conditions. Invasive plants can alter fire regimes and outcompete native plant populations that are already adapted to the soil. A staff member removing a bull thistle Rattlesnakes Emerging Earlier Due to Warmer Temperatures We conducted a 17-year study of Great Basin rattlesnakes (Crotalus lutosus) at four communal hibernacula in eastern Nevada and western Utah. Surveys were conducted during spring emergence (March, April, and May) from 2000 to 2017. Hibernacula were visited approximately 10 times each year. We defined peak emergence as the date on which the greatest number of snakes were observed at a hibernaculum (sensu Brown 2008). A Great Basin Rattlesnake in some ground cover Strawberry Fire Burned Area Rehabilitation and Restoration Wildlife, BLM, and Great Basin National Park staff. Seed was flown onto 811 acres of park lands and 1,157 acres on the BLM by Reeder Flying Service. Sourcing locally adapted seed was a priority for both the BLM and the park. Helicopter carrying a hopper Measuring Fuels in Bristlecone Pine Communities Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaeva) are among the oldest organisms on earth, an icon of western forests. Bristlecone pines grow at the highest elevations in mountain ranges of the Great Basin in the western United States, and many park visitors have seen the ancient groves. A staff member measuring the litter depth under a Bristlecone Pine Stalagmites Show Drying of the Great Basin 8,200 Years Ago The Great Basin has experienced dramatic hydroclimate changes over the past 30,000 years and beyond. Today’s dry Great Basin is very different from the much wetter conditions that prevailed over most of the last 30,000 years. Stalagmites from caves are rich archives of past climate information. Geochemical analyses of stalagmite calcite can provide information about past conditions in and around a cave. A broken stalagmite that was used to do research. Upper Lehman Wetlands Restoration The Upper Lehman Campground was developed in the 1960s by the U.S. Forest Service. The area of the northern campground access road was originally a wetland complex consisting of springs, seeps, wet meadows, and a braided riparian stream system. A road was graded in, covered with several feet of road base, and then paved. To redirect water from both the road and nearby campsites, ditches were constructed to drain wet areas and channel water through five culverts. Return of hydrologic function Results of the 2016 Centennial Bird BioBlitz To celebrate the 2016 Centennial of the National Park Service, Great Basin National Park held a Bird BioBlitz on May 20-22, 2016. During the 2.5 day event, over 1,500 volunteer hours were spent looking for birds. We recorded 1,843 birds representing 73 species. The most common were Mountain Chickadees, Clark’s Nutcrackers, and Pine Siskins (Figure 1). Six species of birds that were seen during the bird bioblitz Series: The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 17, No. 1, Summer 2017 The Midden is the Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park, published each summer and winter. Find out the latest going on at Great Basin National Park, Nevada in resource management and research. The Midden - Great Basin National Park: Vol. 17, No. 1, Summer 2017. A red, orange, and light blue ringneck snake on a rock. Steps to BCT Recovery on Snake Creek In August of 2016 Great Basin National Park, in collaboration with Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW) and staff from other NPS units, conducted a rotenone treatment on Snake Creek. The goal of the treatment was to eradicate all non-native fish in the section of Snake Creek that is located within the park boundary. Four staff members electrofishing in a stream. Rare Species Find Reaffirms Importance of Long-Term Research A seemingly small but important victory for long-term ecological research was accomplished when the presence of a ringneck snake (Diadophis punctatus) was documented for the first time within a 100-mile stretch of this region. It is a vital piece of the natural history of these highly cryptic snakes that would likely have stayed missing longer if not for someone visiting the same spot in the desert every year, 10 times a year, for 18 years. Ringneck snake on a rock 2017 Lichen BioBlitz This year, Great Basin National Park will hold its ninth BioBlitz. Each year, the park focuses on a different topic, from beetles to birds and now to lichens. Results help the park learn more about what lives in the park and where it is found. Xanthoria elegans a species of lichen. Northern Goshawk Occupancy and Breeding Surveys Northern goshawks are large diurnal raptors that can be found year-round at Great Basin National Park. Although this bird of prey is a Nevada resident, it has been listed as a sensitive species by Great Basin National Park, the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and the Nevada National Heritage Program. In order to better understand their ecology, habitat use, and nest and fledgling success, we conducted northern goshawk surveys in July and August. A goshawk in a conifer tree. Winchester Model 1873 Rifle Found and Preserved In November 2014, park archaeologists found a Winchester Model 1873 repeating rifle while conducting a routine archaeological survey for a habitat restoration project. The artifact was collected for research and preservation. Our goals were to keep the rifle in the condition we found it, essentially in a state of ‘arrested decay.’ Staff member removing debris from the Winchester Model 1873 Rifle that was found. Bristlecone Cave Climate Studies In August 2016, three dataloggers were downloaded in the difficult-to-access Bristlecone Cave, located above 10,000 feet. These dataloggers had been programmed in 2011 to record temperatures every two hours and were placed in various locations: the top, about 10 feet below the entrance; Pendulum Pit, about 90 feet down; and the Side Passage, about 80 feet down. A graph of the temperatures in Bristlecone Cave. Bat Research in Great Basin National Park: A Year in Review Several threats to the populations of North American bats have been identified in the recent decade, mainly White Nose Syndrome, wind turbines, and habitat loss. Bats in the Great Basin region are insectivores, many of which can eat up to their own body weight in insects in a single night. This provides the valuable ecosystem service of suppressing agricultural pests, estimated to be billions of dollars a year in value. A blue gloved hand holding a Silver-Haired Bat. Precipitation Record at Great Basin National Park Continuous precipitation data for Great Basin National Park, recorded at the Lehman Caves Visitor Center (LCVC), extend back to 1937. 2016 Nevada Bat Blitz The Diversity Division of the Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW), along with other partners (including National Park Service (NPS), Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Friends of the High Rock-Black Rock, University of Nevada, Reno, and Humboldt State University), held the annual Nevada Bat Blitz in northwestern Washoe County, in and around the High Rock Wilderness area on August 8-12, 2016. Four staff members standing around one bat that they are processing during a bat night. Overview of Resource Management’s SNPLMA Projects The White Pine County Conservation, Recreation and Development Act of 2006 allowed the Resource Management (RM) Division at Great Basin National Park (GRBA) to compete for Southern Nevada Public Lands Management Act (SNPLMA) funds made available from the sales of public lands located in the Las Vegas Valley. Two workers restoring an Aspen landscape. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Mention your work involves the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and likely the first response from the other person is “yuck” or “I feel sorry for you.” But it really is not that bad. Many people do not understand what the acronym NEPA refers to or just assume because your work involves NEPA your job is to create a barrier to their project’s success. However, that is far from being true. Snow covered mountain top. Introducing Sister Park: Toubkal National Park in Morocco Great Basin National Park was contacted this January by the Department of Interior International Technical Assistance Program (ITAP), to partner with Toubkal National Park in Morocco as a Sister Park. Mouflon, a subspecies of wild sheep 2015 Stream Insects BioBlitz Results Great Basin National Park held its seventh annual BioBlitz on May 15-17, 2015. The focus for the BioBlitz was Stream Insects, including the orders that indicate good water quality: Ephemeroptera (Mayflies), Plecoptera (Stoneflies), and Trichoptera (Caddisflies). An adult stonefly Quantifying Wildlife at Cave Entrances What animals use cave entrances in Great Basin National Park? Remote cameras were deployed to answer that question during the summer of 2013. The cameras took photos when movement triggered them and were active 24 hours a day. Data from eight caves was analyzed. Cameras were deployed for a total of 372 trap days, with an average of 46.5 days per cave (range 28-62). Cover of the journal of cave and karst studies cover with a ringtail on it. Figuring out How the Southern Snake Range Formed New geologic research shows that the mountains of Great Basin National Park took millions of years to form. The southern Snake Range, the mountain range at the core of the park, was formed over the past 50 million years due to periods of intense stretching or extension of the Earth’s crust. The extension of the crust created many faults, or breaks along which rocks move up and down within the Earth. Researcher Sarah Evans doing fieldwork in the Highland Ridge Wilderness. Tagging Bats in Great Basin National Park Bats are incredibly valuable to humans in terms of ecosystem services. As suppressors of agricultural pests they provide an estimated $40 to $53 billion worth of pest control services per year in the US alone. Yet bats are threatened by a variety of anthropogenic factors. The most pressing issue facing bats in North American is disease. White-nose Syndrome has killed millions of bats in the northeastern US in the last decade. A leather gloved hand holding a Townsend Big-eared Bat Great Basin Rattlesnake Study In order to effectively protect and conserve biodiversity, wildlife managers and decision makers require detailed information on species population biology and demography. Although experiencing declines worldwide, snakes receive far less attention for conservation than more charismatic species such as large mammals. Five Great Basin Rattlesnakes showing the variation of color and pattern Land Mollusks of Great Basin National Park Land snails and slugs are important invertebrate inhabitants of woodland litter and soils, boulder and talus slides, riparian meadows, and vegetation around springs throughout the Great Basin. These land-inhabiting invertebrates play critical roles in these mountain habitats such as decomposing dead plant material for use by bacteria and fungi, recycling important biological nutrients, passively transporting fungal spores through litter, and providing nutrients to predators. Mollusk shells spread artistically across a beige background Natural Resource Condition Assessments The Natural Resource Condition Assessment (NRCA) Program is a nation-wide NPS effort to document important natural resource conditions through a spatially explicit, multi-disciplinary synthesis of existing scientific data and knowledge. In 2012 Great Basin National Park staff sat down with NatureServe scientists, led by Pat Comer and Marion Reid, to determine which natural resource conditions would be evaluated. Chart showing the natural resource conditions in Great Basin National Park. Stories of Early Lehman Cave Visitors Nearly 2200 signatures and initials in Lehman Cave have been photographed and recorded to date. Many of the signatures are duplicates, marking repeated visits by the individual(s) or various locations visited during the same trip. For instance, William R. Bassett’s name or initials have been recorded 14 times. His first visit to the cave appears to be on September 12, 1885, within five months of the exploration of the cave. Researcher laying on their back taking pictures of the historic signatures on the ceiling. Searching for Beetles in Great Basin National Park Carabidae is family of beetles that have a cosmopolitan distribution and are often very common in the United States. Surprisingly, the number of published records of carabid species from Nevada is staggeringly low. In fact, of all the US states, Nevada, with only 242 species, has the second smallest list of recorded species (Bousquet 2013). It seems clear that there is a deficiency in our knowledge of Nevada carabids. Two researchers setting up their makeshift lab on a picnic table. Alpine Lichens and Climate Change on Wheeler Peak In 1955 a lichenologist named Henry Imshaug climbed to the top of Wheeler Peak to inventory the alpine lichens. His study was part of a larger research project involving 92 alpine areas across western North America. This past autumn, we began revisiting Imshaug’s sites to evaluate whether alpine lichens have responded to climate change during the past 60 years, and if so, investigate methods for using lichens as biomonitors of climate change in alpine areas. Alpine Sunburst Lichens on rocks. Two SNPLMA Projects Finished Great Basin National Park successfully closed out two Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act (SNPLMA)-funded projects this spring. SNPLMA became law in October 1998 and allows the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to sell public land within a specific boundary around Las Vegas, Nevada. The revenue derived from land sales is split between the State of Nevada General Education Fund (5%), the Southern Nevada Water Authority (10%), and a special account available for projects. A creek lined with deciduous trees. Park Partners with NDOW to Restore Native Fish Bonneville cutthroat trout (BCT) are relicts from ancient Lake Bonneville. When the lake was at its fullest, about 15,000 years ago, its shores were only a few miles from the eastern slopes of the Snake Range. As Lake Bonneville receded, the BCT had no choice but to take refuge in the perennial streams that flowed into the diminishing lake. A Bonneville Cutthroat Trout being held over a stream. Park Prepares for 2015 Bat Surveys White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a serious disease affecting North American bats. It is caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans and has resulted in the death of millions of bats in the United States and Canada. Bats are crucial to ecosystem function and provide billions of dollars per year to agriculture in insect suppression services alone. Despite efforts to contain it, WNS continues to spread. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and full spectrum call pattern. Wild Turkeys Present Study in Wildlife Management National Parks have a clear and explicit mission to preserve resources unimpaired for future generations. However executing that mission can be more ambiguous. As a case in point, consider the wild turkey, a non-native game bird now well established in the park. Three turkeys foraging in tall grasses.
Park News Great Basin National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior The Midden The Resource Management Newsletter of Great Basin National Park Strawberry Fire Burned Area Rehabilitation and Restoration The lightning-ignited Strawberry Fire was reported on August 8, 2016 in upper Strawberry Creek in Great Basin National Park. Aided by strong winds, the fire quickly grew, burning a large portion of the canyon and pushing the fire down-canyon onto BLM and private lands. The fire was declared controlled on August 23, 2016 after 4,656 acres burned, with 2,790 acres on NPS and 1,769 acres on Bureau of Land Management lands. The fire consumed a mix of habitat types. The dominant plant communities impacted in the park were montane sagebrush steppe (1,148 acres), pinyon-juniper (667 acres), aspen (597 acres), mountain mahogany (209 acres) and montane riparian (42 acres). After the fire, resource management staff prepared a Burned Area Rehabilitation (BAR) plan to address and mitigate natural resource issues created or exacerbated by the fire. Plan objectives were 1) prevent the establishment of non-native invasive plants to enable the restoration and establishment of a healthy, stable ecosystem 2) revegetate lands unlikely to recover naturally post-fire and 3) replace minor infrastructure destroyed by the fire. The park selected several strategies to meet BAR plan objectives for native vegetation recovery including aerial seeding and invasive plant management. Preventing the Summer 2017 Photo by Brian Flynn By Meg Horner, Biologist Native lupine growing after the Strawberry Fire. establishment of invasive forbs and annual grasses, mainly cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), following fire is critical to protect and maintain healthy, resilient plant communities. Cheatgrass invades recently burned sites, particularly pinyon-juniper woodlands and sagebrush-steppe, and can maintain dominance for decades. Not only does this compromise native plant recovery, but it also adversely affects soil stabilization and fire return intervals. Non-native invasive forbs such as bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare), spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe), and whitetop (Cardaria draba) exploit soil and vegetation disturbances following wildfires and fire suppression activities. They can then outcompete native vegetation for limited resources, negatively affect soils and discourage use by wildlife. A total of 894 acres in the park were determined to be at-risk of invasion and recommended for aerial seeding. Aerial seeding was completed on February 12 -13, 2017 with support from the Nevada Department of Continued on Page 2 In This Issue Strawberry Fire Rehabilitation.....1 Steps to BCT Recovery................3 Stalagmites Show Drying Trend..4 Fuel Loads near Bristlecones.....5 Results of Bird BioBlitz..............6 New Publications......................7 Long Term Ecological Research..8 2017 Lichen BioBlitz.................10 Volume 17 Issue 1 Bags of seed for restoration in the Ely Seed Warehouse. diverse, native plant community will benefit park- and BLM-managed lands along with private landowners by stabilizing soils, slowing runoff after precipitation events, preventing the establishment of invasive plants, and providing forage and habitat for wildlife. Establishing native species is a more cost effective strategy than trying to restore native plant communities from annual grass monocultures or sites dominated by invasive forbs. NPS Photo by Margaret Horner Restoration and monitoring will continue for the next several years. Additional seeding efforts may be Aerial seeding objectives supported needed depending on establishment those outlined in the BAR plan success and persistence of native focusing on the restoration of native plants seeded this winter. In arid plant communities and minimizing regions, precipitation is highly the establishment of invasive forbs variable, causing uncertainty and and annual grasses. Restoring a high failure rates in germination and seedling establishment. Recent reviews of the factors limiting seeding success have recommended a “bet hedging” strategy (Madsen et al. 2016). Rather than applying seed at high rates during a single fall seeding, seed is applied at lower rates, with multiple seedings at varying times of year. With multiple Helicopter returning with empty hopper after seeding. 2 The Midden seedings, native species have more opportunity to utilize soil moisture conditions maximizing the probability of establishment. Both the park and BLM will be monitoring vegetation to document post-fire recovery and the success of revegetation efforts. The BLM has partnered with the USDA Agriculture Resource Service to monitor biological soil crusts and dust flux (particles/ m2/second). Portable weather stations have also been installed on NPS and BLM lands to measure precipitation, temperature, soil moisture, and wind. Invasive plant surveys and treatments are already underway. R
The Bristlecone The official newspaper of Great Basin National Park National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Summer 2016 - Spring 2017 Do not throw this paper in trash! Recycle after use! In Your Park________________2 Park Rules and Safety________3 Centennial Schedule_________4 Explore 5 More____________5 Trail Guide_______________6-7 Local Services_______________8 Campsite Guide____________8 Protect Your Park___________9 What is the Great Basin?___10 Park Partners__________10-11 Map_____________________12 Kids nps.gov/kids Teachers nps.gov/teachers Volunteer nps.gov/getinvolved Discover Nature nature.nps.gov Mailing Address Great Basin National Park 5500 W. Hwy 488 Baker, NV 89311 Websites nps.gov/grba facebook.com/GreatBasinNPS Grey Cliffs Campground & Cave Tour Reservations recreation.gov (877) 444-6777 Locate Night Skies nature.nps.gov/night Park Information and Questions (775) 234-7331 Understand Climate nps.gov/climatechange After Hours Non-Emergency Help (702) 293-8998 Examine Biology nature.nps.gov/biology Notice Natural Sounds nature.nps.gov/sound Investigate Geology nature.nps.gov/geology Emergencies 911 The Great Basin Observatory Great Basin National Park is not only a wonderful place to recreate, it is also an extremely valuable laboratory to conduct scientific research. page 11), has raised funds to build the Great Basin Observatory, the first researchclass astronomical observatory in a national park. The park has some of the darkest night skies in the United States and has drawn thousands of people to the exciting experience of seeing a primeval night sky. It is also an ideal spot to conduct astronomical research. In celebration of the National Park Service Centennial (2016), the Great Basin National Park Foundation, the park’s nonprofit partner (see article on The Great Basin Observatory will feature a 0.7-meter (28 inch) telescope with special cameras to capture images of deep space objects. It will be a fully autonomous and robotic astronomical observatory, meaning scientists and students from all over the world will be able to use its instrumentation to conduct research without having to be located on-site. Potential research topics include galaxy detection, extra-solar planet discovery, asteroid and comet observation, and supernova studies. The observatory will be used by various groups of researchers from university scientists to elementary and high school students of the Great Basin, and beyond. The Great Basin Observatory is a cooperative effort of the Park, the Foundation, and four universities: University of Nevada, Reno; Western Nevada College (Carson City, NV); Southern Utah University (Cedar City, UT); and Concordia University (Irvine, CA). The observatory will be used to educate and inspire scientists and park visitors about the wonders of our National Parks and Universe. As the National Park Service celebrates its 100th anniversary in 2016, there is no better time to expand our definition of parks and ensure their preservation for future generations. Our national parks provide opportunities for recreation, to learn our history, to protect our most vulnerable species, and now to peer into the universe and contemplate our place in it. 2016 Great Basin Astronomy Festival September 29 - October 1 Join park rangers and experience out of this world family fun, excitement, and learn about day and nighttime astronomy. Astronomy Programs On a clear, moonless night in Great Basin National Park, thousands of stars, five of our solar system’s eight planets, star clusters, meteors, manmade satellites, the Andromeda Galaxy, and the Milky Way can be seen with the naked eye. The area boasts some of the darkest night skies left in the United States. Low humidity and minimal light pollution, combined with high elevation, create a unique window into the universe. The Lost and Found Report “Why would you leave your rifle and not come back?” Numerous questions surround the small piece of American heritage found and recovered by Great Basin National Park archaeologists in November, 2014. A 132 year-old rifle, exposed to sun, wind, and snow, found leaning against 2 The Bristlecone a tree in the park, attracted worldwide attention through social media. The cracked wood stock, weathered to grey, and the brown rusted barrel blended into the colors of the old juniper tree in a remote rocky outcrop, keeping the rifle hidden for many years. “Model 1873” distinctively engraved on the mechanism identifies the rifle as the Winchester Model 1873 repeating rifle. The serial number in Winchester company records held at the Buffalo Bill Center of the West museum in Cody, Wyoming indicates the gun was shipped from the factory in 1882, but the detailed history of this rifle is unknown. The mystery fueled imagination and prompted numerous theories of when and why the gun was abandoned. Assisting with conservation, the Buffalo Bill Center identified a cartridge through x-ray imag

also available

National Parks
USFS NW
Alaska
Arizona
California
Colorado
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Minnesota
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
North Carolina
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Washington
Wyoming
Lake Tahoe - COMING SOON! 🎈
Yellowstone
Yosemite