Golden Gate - Sweeney Ridge

National Recreation Area - California

Sweeney Ridge is a hilly hiking area of ridges and ravines between San Bruno and Pacifica, about a 25-minute drive south from San Francisco. The ridge's 1,200-foot-high summit, covered with coastal scrub and grassland, slopes down to the bay on one side and to the Pacific on the other.

location

maps

Official Visitor Map of Sweeney Ridge in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Sweeney Ridge

Official Visitor Map of Sweeney Ridge in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Milagra Ridge in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Milagra Ridge

Official Visitor Map of Milagra Ridge in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Mori Point in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Mori Point

Official Visitor Map of Mori Point in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of the Southern area of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - South

Official Visitor Map of the Southern area of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Overview

Official Visitor Map of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Vintage 1957 USGS 1:250000 Map of San Francisco in California. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Vintage USGS - San Francisco - 1957

Vintage 1957 USGS 1:250000 Map of San Francisco in California. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

Vintage 1958 USGS 1:250000 Map of Santa Rosa in California. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Vintage USGS - Santa Rosa - 1958

Vintage 1958 USGS 1:250000 Map of Santa Rosa in California. Published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

brochures

Brochure of Sweeney Ridge at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Sweeney Ridge - Brochure

Brochure of Sweeney Ridge at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Brochure

Brochure of Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Stinson Beach at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Stinson Beach

Brochure of Stinson Beach at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure of Cliff House and Sutro Baths at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Cliff House & Sutro Baths

Brochure of Cliff House and Sutro Baths at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1915 at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1915

Brochure Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1915 at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Fort Barry History Tour - An Army Post Standing Guard Over the Marin Headlands - at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Fort Barry History Tour

Brochure Fort Barry History Tour - An Army Post Standing Guard Over the Marin Headlands - at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Fort Cronkhite History Walk - A World War II Army Post That Helped Defend San Francisco - at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Fort Cronkhite History Walk

Brochure Fort Cronkhite History Walk - A World War II Army Post That Helped Defend San Francisco - at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Wildflowers of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Wildflowers of Golden Gate

Brochure Wildflowers of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Brochure Protecting the Snowy Plover at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Golden Gate - Protecting the Snowy Plover

Brochure Protecting the Snowy Plover at Golden Gate National Recreation Area (NRA) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Golden Gate NRA - Sweeney Ridge https://www.nps.gov/goga/sweeney.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweeney_Ridge Sweeney Ridge is a hilly hiking area of ridges and ravines between San Bruno and Pacifica, about a 25-minute drive south from San Francisco. The ridge's 1,200-foot-high summit, covered with coastal scrub and grassland, slopes down to the bay on one side and to the Pacific on the other.
Golden Gate National Recreation Area Dennis Ziemienski, 2019 Sweeney Ridge National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Ohlone and Portolá Expedition members view San Francisco Bay from Sweeney Ridge on November 4, 1769. In Their Footsteps Sweeney Ridge has felt the footsteps of mountain lions and Ohlone people for thousands of years, and more recently, explorers, soldiers and citizen activists. Each has left their mark upon this spacious landscape. As you follow their footsteps, we hope you discover what drew people to this magnificent place and why this land was important to them. Petlenuc Re-interpreting the Bay “Discovery Site” In 1769 Spain sent explorer Juan Gaspar de Portolá overland to find and settle Monterey Bay. Native peoples along the way befriended the expedition. When the hungry and sick party failed to recognize Monterey Bay and continued on to the Bay Area, the local Ohlone shared their food and accompanied the explorers to the top of Sweeney Ridge, where they were the first Europeans to view San Francisco Bay on November 4, 1769. What is the legacy of colonization? Over the centuries, the lens of history has sharpened. The notion that America was vast and empty, waiting to be discovered and settled by Europeans was based on the pretense that no one of significance was here before. The truth is that indigenous people with thriving and highly developed cultures lived across the continent for thousands of years before colonization started. The Spanish “discovery” of San Francisco Bay would soon mean the loss of Ohlone lives, San Francisco homelands and traditional ways. Yet, a new Sitlintac chapter would begin as four of theChutchui expedition’s men would marry native California women Yelamu and raise families that contributed to the Amuctac coming Californiano culture. Ompuromo Yelamu Siplichiquin Urebure San Bruno Aramai Timigtac Local Tribal Boundaries Altagmu Ohlone Village 1769 Portola Expedition Route GGNRA Park Lands SFO Discovery Site Pacifica Ssalson Pruristac Uturpe Chiguan Chagunte 0 2 mi Half Moon Bay Lamchin Ssatumnumo Tribal territories and villages of the Ramaytush Ohlone on the San Francisco Peninsula and the route of 1769 Portolá Expedition. Fear Factor All of us have felt fear at some time. During the 1950s, Cold War-era fears of Soviet long-range “Bear” bombers caused the U.S. Army to develop a weapon to destroy those planes. Nike anti-aircraft missiles were deployed across the country, including 11 sites protecting the Bay Area. Nike Site SF51 included a control station atop Sweeney Nike missiles stand ready Ridge and a missile launching site at nearby Milagra Ridge. By the 1960s, nuclear capable Nike Hercules missiles stood guard on this ridgetop. Obsolete by 1974, SF-51 was abandoned under the provisions of an arms-reduction treaty. College IF T 0 20 ler a Pat h d d ar An E ev ul n N Bo Sa Z O 0 R 50 0 0 l ai Tr 12 PENINSULA WATERSHED San Andreas Reservoir San Francisco Public Utilities Comission 00 DG PRIVATE E 625' Ri 00 0 No Trailhead Parking 0.5 Kilometers 0 dg 10 40 SamTrans #14 Limited Turnaround e 0.5 Miles 0 Tra i l Bou levard 1195' 1132' 00 k ee Cr 400 North Portola Gate Private Stables 11 levard Bou ar M o dr Pe LINDA MAR Bou leva rd Bo ule va rd a ov da Lin San 1 N Od dst ad Terra spi Cre to 280 as re Trail o RI PACIFICA 0 S uian Av en ue 50 EA 0 80 Portolá Discovery Site 1220' EY Baq EN 80 975' 40 R ne yli Sk D Ca AN SWE Cattle Hill er ssl Fa Path N e Lan 400 SWEENEY RIDGE PRIVATE SamTrans #14, 110, 112 & 295 SA th Snea d Nike Missile Control Site 800' PACIFICA STATE BEACH Bruno Avenue San Pave 400 0 ROCKAWAY Bike e Lan 200 0 40 ROCKAWAY STATE BEACH Shelldance 250' Nursery VALLEMAR 10 T 960' 800 Reina del Mar A ven ue 1 th Snea e Bik l Trai 35 Sneath Lane Trailhead Sweeney Paved Pacifica Chamber of Commerce and GGNRA Visitor Center Ridge th Snea l Parking ri 0 380 280 i ra Wheelchair access 790' 40 Mo Sewage Treatment Facility Creek 930' Pedestrian Underpass FAIRWAY PARK SamTrans #140 Ridge Fishing Coast Guard Site City of San Francisco MORI POINT Picnic area ee Sw Service Road (Restricted) 0 SamTrans #110, 112 SHARP PARK e Lan San Francisco County Jail ne y 40 y Wa dy Lun Public Golf Course Mori Point GGNRA parking at southeast corner of Parking Lot #2 arp Sh d ar ev ul Bo Trail (hiking and bicycling) Bay Area Ridge Trail 675' Par k Laguna Salada Trail (hiking only) Ro ad PRIVATE SAN BRUNO d ar ev ul Bo Other parks and public lands Avenue M or el an SKYLINE COLLEGE SamTrans #140, 121, 123 e Fir Clarendon 10 ne ide yli ers Sk Riv rive D d Dr S H0A R P P A R K GGNRA lands and boundary Drive lege Col ive Dr La ne MILAGRA RIDGE rancisco etto h Blvd SHARP PARK STATE BEACH 40 0 Protecting Their Priorities In the 1970s and 80s, local c
Golden Gate Golden Gate National Recreation Area California National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior If we in the Congress do not act, the majestic area where sea and bay and land meet in a glorious symphony of nature will be doomed. —US Rep. Phillip Burton,1972 Muir Beach; below left: osprey with prey Alcatraz Native plant nursery NPS / MARIN CATHOLIC HS NPS / ALISON TAGGART-BARONE Tennessee Valley; above: view from Marin Headlands toward city BOTH PHOTOS NPS / KIRKE WRENCH HORSE AND VOLUNTEER­—NPS / ALISON TAGGARTBARONE; HEADLANDS—NPS / KIRKE WRENCH Petaluma Tomales 37 101 1 For city dwellers, it’s not always easy to experience national parks without traveling long distances. A new idea emerged in the early 1970s: Why not bring parks to the people? In 1972 Congress added two urban expanses to the National Park System: Golden Gate National Recreation Area in the San Francisco Bay area and its eastern counterpart Gateway National Recreation Area in New York and New Jersey. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary 140 miles of trails 80 Richmond Rosie the Riveter / WWII Home Front National Historical Park 580 Muir Woods Stinson Beach Mount Tamalpais State Park Muir Beach Angel Island State Park 101 80 Fort Point Presidio Cliff House SAN FRANCISCO Ocean Beach Farallon National Wildlife Refuge Berkeley Alcatraz Marin Headlands FIC 78 shipwrecks species See below for detail Bolinas Lagoon 758 historic structures San Rafael Marin Municipal Water District 1 10,000 years of history S AN PAB L O B AY Samuel P. Taylor State Park Olema Valley 36,000 park volunteers 35 threatened or endangered Novato Point Reyes National Seashore 81,000 acres of parklands 29,000 yearly raptor sightings Vallejo Tomales Bay CI Fort Funston San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park 101 S AN F R ANC IS C O B AY Milagra Ridge 280 12 sand beaches OC 3 lighthouses EA 1 Golden Gate N Come here for the natural cathedral of coast redwoods at Muir Woods or to experience for yourself the harsh conditions on Alcatraz Island. But don’t overlook the out-ofthe-way places to savor the scents of bay laurel and sage, cool morning fog, waves crashing on the headlands, or a tapestry of native spring wildflowers. Golden Gate National Recreation Area invites you to enjoy, explore, and find your own way to experience the parks at the Golden Gate. GOLDEN GATE BY THE NUMBERS PA At nearly 81,000 acres, Golden Gate National Recreation Area is the nation’s largest national park unit in an urban setting. It extends well north and south of San Francisco (see map at right). Along with other public lands and waters in the region, it is recognized by the United Nations as Golden Gate Biosphere Reserve. Offshore, Gulf of the Farallones and Monterey Bay national marine sanctuaries protect ocean habitat and many threatened and endangered species, while allowing for compatible human uses. The national recreation area’s role as the Bay Area’s backyard continues to evolve in ways its early proponents never imagined. Renewable energy powers public buildings and transportation. People of all abilities use accessible trails and other facilities, engaging in activities that promote health and wellness. Volunteers do everything from conducting tours to helping restore native habitat. Golden Gate NRA legislative boundary Countless things to discover Golden Gate NRA water legislative boundary Other public land 0 Mori Point Pacifica 1 Rancho Corral de Tierra Sweeney Ridge San Francisco Peninsula San Watershed Mateo 101 Half Moon Bay North 0 See other side for detail 10 Kilometers Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary 35 Phleger Estate 1 10 Miles 1 280 Experience Your Parks Park volunteers contribute to just about every aspect of your experience at Golden Gate National Recreation Area. GOLDEN GATE NATIONAL PARKS CONSERVANCY / EDDIE ARAUJO WHERE TO BEGIN Golden Gate National Recreation Area includes Alcatraz, Fort Point National Historic Site, Muir Woods National Monument, and dozens more natural and historic places (see maps on both sides of this brochure). There are visitor informa­ tion centers at Alcatraz, Fort Point National Historic Site, Golden Gate Bridge Pavilion, Land’s End, Marin Head­lands, Muir Woods Na­­ tional Monument, Pacifica, and Presidio. Information and schedules are available on site or at www.nps.gov/goga. For a calendar of events and interactive trip planning map, go to www.parks conservancy.org. Alcatraz  Reservations highly recommended: 415981-ROCK (415-981-7625) or www.alcatrazcruises.com. Ferries leave from Pier 33 (see map at right). Be advised that America the Beautiful Pass does not cover ferry ride. Muir Woods National Monument Reservations required! Visit early in the day for a more relaxed and crowd-free time in the redwoods. Make parking or shuttle reservations at: GoMuirWoods.com or call 1-800-410-2419. (www.bart.gov), Marin Coun
Stinson Beach National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Golden Gate National Recreation Area History Shell mounds found near the beach suggest that Coast Miwoks were one of the first human residents of the area. They thrived on local salmon, trout, mussels, and clams, building homes and boats of willows and tule reeds. By 1822, California was claimed by Mexico. The beach and lagoon areas, named "Rancho Baulinas" for the local baleen whales, was given as a land grant to Rafael Garcia by 1836. Over the years, cattle ranching and an apple farm brought economic prosperity to the quiet region. However, with no roads leading Transition & Tradition The town began to evolve in the 1890's, when Nathan and Rose Stinson began to set up tents among the beach-side willow trees. They were calling their new tourist destination "Willow Camp." In 1896, the Mill Valley and Mt. Tamalpais Scenic Railroad brought rail service to nearby West Point Inn. Visitors could now ride a ferry and train from San Francisco and then catch a stagecoach down to Willow Camp, all within one day. The community blossomed following the 1906 earthquake, when displaced families from San Francisco built some of the town's earliest businesses. Automobiles which made travelling to remote locals more accessible started appearing in the town renamed Stinson Beach in 1916. With the completion of the Panoramic Highway in 1928 and the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937, Stinson Beach became a popular weekend destination for weary San Franciscans. During World War II, the threat of attack changed the quiet community. The surrounding hills bristled with gun emplacements and military personnel became a common sight. Following the war, the guns were removed, but many soldiers who served in the area stayed to make Stinson Beach their home. During the late 1800s, Stinson was part of a popular resort area, and continued to attract tourists. In 1839, the County of Marin purchased it for camping and picnicking, and the US Coast Guard used part of it during WWII. The beach was turned over to the State of California in 1950 to help preserve the quiet charm of Stinson Beach. By the latter half of the 20th century, modern transportation made the area easily accessible, and the pastoral setting was in danger. Soon after the establishment of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in 1972, the beach, as well as much of the land east and north of town, came under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. Emma Reiman was an early winner in the Women’s Dipsea “Hike,” run from 1918-1922. Preservation to the village until 1870, visitors were few and far between. Over the last century one tradition has endured — the annual Dipsea Race. Begun in 1905 and run each June, it attracts runners from all over the world. The rigorous and historic Dipsea Trail is over 7 miles long, from Mill Valley to Stinson Beach, passing through forests and meadows, hills and valleys. The race is the second oldest footrace in the United States. Today, visitors continue to experience the pleasures of this quiet beach community. Whether hiking, enjoying a picnic, exploring the town, or relaxing on the beach, people continue to find Stinson Beach a great place to escape from the frantic pace of everyday life, just as it has been for over a century. In Case of Emergency: • Emergency 911 OR cell 472-0911 • Park Dispatch 561-5510 For Further Information: (all 415 area code) • Information and Weather 868-1922 • Lifeguard Tower 868-0942 • Muir Woods 388-2596 • Pantoll Ranger Station (Mt. Tamalpais State Park) 388-2070 • Golden Gate Transit 455-2000 • Special Park Uses Office (Permits) 561-4300 • Parking lot cars left in the parking lot after closing will be ticketed. If you are unable to remove your vehicle please contact a ranger or leave a note on the windshield and notify park dispatch. Recreational Activities Park Hours Safety Stinson Beach is open year round every day. The entrance gates open at 9:00 a.m. Closing times vary depending on season. Check the posted sign when you enter the parking lot. Swimming is only recommended from late May to mid-September when lifeguards are on duty. Watch your children and keep them in reach at all times. Never turn your back on the ocean. Unexpected large waves, called "sneaker waves,” can wash farther up the shore than expected. People entering shallow water can be caught in rip currents and quickly pulled out into deep water. Rip currents are strong, swift-moving channels of water rushing from the shore out to sea. If you are caught in a one: stay calm and swim parallel to the beach until you are out of the current, then swim toward the shore with incoming waves. If you need assistance, wave your arms and yell for help. Facilities Stinson Beach facilities include rest rooms, showers, picnic areas, and BBQ grills. A snack bar is open during summer months at the base of the main lifeguard tower. Rest rooms are located along the beach a
Cliff House & Sutro Baths National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Golden Gate National Recreation Area The Cliff House Since 1863, visitors have been attracted to the western shore of San Francisco to refresh themselves at the Cliff House. There have been three different Cliff Houses, each with a story of its own. Original Cliff House (1863–1894) The first Cliff House was a modest structure built in 1863, and enlarged in 1868. The guest register bore the names of three U.S. presidents as well as prominent San Francisco families such as the Hearsts, Stanfords and Crockers. Patrons would drive carriages across the dunes to Ocean Beach for horse racing and recreation. In 1881, the Cliff House was bought by Adolph Sutro, a self-made millionaire, philanthropist, and later mayor of San Francisco. A few years later, Sutro and his cousin began construction on a railroad that would later bring the public to this seaside attraction. On Christmas Day, 1894, the first Cliff House was destroyed by fire. Victorian Cliff House (1896–1907) Sutro spent $75,000 to rebuild and furnish the Cliff House in grandiose style. Opened in 1896, the Victorian Cliff House stood eight stories tall, with spires and an observation tower 200 feet above the sea. It was an elegant site for dining, dancing and entertainment. At ground level, there was a large dining room, parlor, bar, numerous private dining rooms and kitchens. Upper floors offered private lunchrooms, a large art gallery, a gem exhibit, a photo gallery, a reception room, parlors and panoramic views from large windows and an open-air veranda. This was the most resplendent of all the Cliff House buildings, but it was to be short lived. Surviving the 1906 earthquake, the grand structure succumbed to a raging fire the following year. Today’s Cliff House (1909–Present) Above: Today’s Cliff House, circa 1940 San Francisco Historical Center, San Francisco Public Library Cover: Victorian Cliff House, 1896-1907 GGNRA, Park Interp, 80-63 (rev. 12/07) Sutro’s daughter Emma built a third Cliff House, which opened in 1909 and is largely the building that exists today. It was neoclassical in design and carried on the tradition of sumptuous dining. World War I and the Great Depression took their toll on the area, however, and the Sutro family sold the Cliff House in 1937 to other operators. The Cliff House was remodeled several more times before the National Park Service acquired it in 1977 to become part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Start in 2002, the Cliff House underwent a two year rehabilitation to return it to its neoclassical design. An adjacent Sutro Wing was added at that time to improve access to ocean views, allowing diners and visitors alike to continue the long tradition of enjoying the magnificent Pacific from the Cliff House high above Seal Rocks. Point of Contention Above: Sutro Baths Main Entrance, circa 1900 Marilyn Blaisdell Collection Right: Sutro Baths Interior, looking south, circa 1900 California Historic Society, FN24140 The concrete ruins just north of the Cliff House are the remains of the grand Sutro Baths. In 1881, Adolph Sutro bought most of the western headlands of San Francisco and made his home there. Fifteen years later, Sutro Baths opened to a dazzled public at an estimated cost of over $1-million. Spread over three acres, the Baths boasted impressive engineering and artistic detail. A classic Greek portal opened to a massive glass enclosure containing seven swimming pools at various temperatures. There were slides, trapezes, springboards and a high dive. Together the pools held 1.7 million gallons of water and could be filled in one hour by high tides. There were 20,000 bathing suits and 40,000 towels for rent. Balmy temperatures and abundant plants enhanced “California’s Tropical Winter Garden.” The Baths could accommodate 10,000 people at one time. Entertainment Sutro’s dream was realized as San Franciscans streamed to the Baths on one of three railroads connected to the city. An amphitheater, seating up to 3,700 people, provided a variety of stage shows. Three restaurants could accommodate 1,000 people at a sitting. There were natural history exhibits, galleries of sculptures, paintings, tapestries and artifacts from Mexico, China, Asia, and the Middle East and the Middle East, including the popular Egyptian mummies. Enjoy a Safe Visit For all their glamour and excitement, the Baths were not commercially successful. Sutro’s grandson converted part of the Baths into an ice-skating rink in 1937, a task expanded on in the early 1950’s by new owner George Whitney. Sutro Baths never regained its popularity and the ice-skating revenue was not enough to maintain the enormous building. In 1964, developers bought the site with plans to replace the Baths with high-rise apartments. A fi e in 1966 quickly fi ished the demolition work, but the apartment scheme was never realized. The Baths became part of the Golden G
Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 1915 The World Meets in San Francisco Begin the walk under the rotunda of the Palace of Fine Arts. Stop 1: Come to the Fair In 1915, San Francisco welcomed nearly 19 million people from all over the world for a grand experience, the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. The dramatic and ornate “Jewel City” stretched for three miles along San Francisco’s northern coastline. Each day, throngs of people visited the exposition, strolling along wide boulevards and elegant gardens, visiting massive palaces and pavilions that displayed the world’s cultures, art, objects and advances in technologies. For 288 days, the International Exposition exhibited human ingenuity, determination and a more connected world. The cultural and technological influences of the Exposition would spread from a local to a worldwide stage. 1 Panama-Pacific International Exposition: The World Meets in San Francisco The Panama-Pacific Exposition Company, led by ambitious San Francisco businessmen and politicians, created the fair in part to celebrate the 1914 United States completion of the Panama Canal, an engineering wonder that shortened travel between the east and west coasts of North America by 8,000 miles. In planning this event, the company faced almost insurmountable trials: the destructive San Francisco earthquake, huge fundraising challenges, the massive infrastructure required to create a world’s fair and the violent beginning of the Great War in Europe. In 1904, Reuben Hale and his group of San Francisco Merchant Associates were so confident of the city’s economic role in the United States that they proposed to host an exposition. Like the very popular Chicago and St. Louis World’s Fairs, this exposition would draw visitors to their beautiful city, create significant revenue National Park Service 2 and highlight the city’s income potential. However, in April 1906, a violent earthquake hit San Francisco. The earthquake and subsequent fire, declared one of America’s worst natural disasters, destroyed five hundred city blocks and displaced over half of the city’s population. Despite the loss of their businesses, the San Francisco merchants held fast to their grand idea and continued to encourage political support for the fair, even as they rebuilt their shattered city. San Francisco citizens threw themselves into the city’s campaign to be the official Panama Exposition location. Their tremendous congressional lobbying and aggressive fundraising efforts paid off. In 1911, President Howard Taft declared San Francisco the official winning site, beating out New Orleans, San Diego, Boston and Washington, D.C. With just over four years to opening, the exposition managers launched into frenzied planning to design and construct the most impressive fair city ever experienced by the world. Fair planners, committees and artistic directors designed and constructed buildings, sculptures, gardens and every imaginable amenity for expected visitors. Walk north towards the San Francisco Bay. Carefully cross Marina Boulevard/ Mason Street, turn left and walk west staying on the paved trail that runs along Mason Street towards the Golden Gate Bridge. Stop after crossing the exit for East Beach and when the row of white buildings to your left ends. Turn to your left and face south, towards the Presidio. Stop 2: Inviting the World Directly in front of you were located the Canadian, Chinese and Argentinian pavilions, along the Avenue of Nations that ran diagonally from here to Lombard Street. In 1911, President Taft issued an invitation to the world, encouraging nations to participate in the fair and display their resources, their industries and their progress. Exhibition event planners suggested grand international events such as an Around the World Flight and a parade of world 3 Panama-Pacific International Exposition: The World Meets in San Francisco The pavilion of Siam (today’s Thailand) portrayed a royal Buddhist temple (left). The Canadian Pavilion (right) was a massive structure. Though the exposition buildings appeared to be huge and imposing, they were constructed with their temporary lifespan in mind.Most had wood or steel framing, but were covered with wire and plaster for speed of construction and ease of removal at the end of the fair. Images courtesy of the California State Library. naval fleets; however, they had to abandon these plans with the onset of the war in Europe. Exposition President Charles Moore made a quick response to the press reports of war and questions about its impact on the fair… “Tragic as the situation was it opened new possibilities and set a new purpose for the Exposition: to help keep the torch of civilization burning and the feeling of international amity alive, and to go forward might become an instrument in the restoration of peace. The world needed the Exposition and its opening would not be postponed.” National Park Service 3 4 Though the war affe
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Barry History Tour Fort Barry - Marin Headlands Golden Gate National Parks An Army Post Standing Guard Over the Marin Headlands Fort Barry soldiers with dairy cows. In the early years, the military and the dairy community lived peacefully side-by-side. However, cows did not always respect military boundaries and occasionally Fort Barry soldiers had to round up wayward dairy cows. (Photo circa 1920) EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICATM Printed on recycled paper with soy-based inks (rev. 1/2011) Marin Headlands Visitor Center FORT BARRY Bunker Road Rode o on Lago Battery Smith-Guthrie Battery Alexander 1 Fie l d Battery Mendell ds 6 Historic Rife Range 2 (one way) Length: 5 miles Time required: From 1–2 hours, depending on your means of travel. Accessibility: The route around the post is paved but watch for steps and cracked pavement. The batteries are not wheelchair accessible. Restrooms: Public bathrooms are located at the west end of the Marin Headlands Visitor Center parking lot. For your safety: If you are driving, please pull over to take photographs. Take extra caution when walking around the batteries as they have deteriorated in some places. Many of the buildings referenced on the tour are occupied by “park partner” non-proft groups conducting business; please be respectful during your visit. Bonita Cove 3 1 Tour Stop Accessible Parking North Restrooms Point Bonita 1 This tour leads you through diferent parts of historic Fort Barry, covering 5 hilly miles through the Marin Headlands. Stop #1 and Stop # 2 are a comfortable, 1-mile walk where you can spend a pleasant hour wandering through the historic buildings. Stops # 3 to # 7 are farther apart and cover approximately 4 miles so they are better accessed by car. This tour also intersects with the Lagoon Trail and the Coastal Trail. Number of stops: 7 Battery Rathbone/McIndoe Battery Wallace 4 Simmon 5 Hostel Co nz elm an Road Nike Site YMCA 7 Stables Headlands Center for the Arts The Route Fort Barry History Tour: An Army Post Standing Guard Over the Marin Headlands Welcome to Fort Barry, a 1908 army post that protected San Francisco with a line of gun batteries perched at the edge of the Pacifc Ocean. Fort Barry is one of three historic military posts located in the Marin Headlands. Fort Barry, Fort Baker and Fort Cronkhite were all constructed at different times and the army managed each post separately. However, during wartime, all three posts fell under the jurisdiction of the Harbor Defenses of San Francisco. National Park Service Cover: Fort Barry soldiers on their day off visit Battery Mendell with their lady friends. (Photo circa 1908) All images from Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Park Archives and Record Center, unless otherwise noted. 2 1 The U.S. Army in Marin County From the Marin Headlands Visitor Center parking lot, please take a moment to look at the landscape around you at Fort Barry to the east and Rodeo Lagoon and the Pacifc Ocean to the west. Keep in mind that San Francisco and the Golden Gate straits are close by, just over the hills to the south. In response, Secretary of War William C. Endicott made sweeping recommendations for all major seaports, and proposals to modernize and re-arm all the seacoast forts. The “Endicott Program,” as it was informally known, became an expression of America’s new awareness of herself as a growing imperial power, the rise in the country’s industrial strength, and the new developments in military technology. Before Europeans arrived here, the Coast Miwok lived on these lands for centuries. During the 18th and 19th century the Span- After the Spanish-American War (1898) ish and then later the Mexicans settled here. was over, the army turned its attention During the 19th century, prior to the U.S. towards the Marin Headlands, focusing military moving into the area, Marin County on the seacoast fortifcations at the outer was best known for its very successful dairy line of defenses north of the Golden Gate. ranching community. The open land to the Between 1901 and 1905, the army connorth was once dotted with small, indistructed fve powerful batteries at Fort vidual ranches that produced quality milk Barry that represented the new Endicottproducts for San Francisco. San Francisco period upgrades: Battery Mendell, Battery Bay, just over the ridge to the south, with Alexander, Battery Smith-Guthrie, Batits sheltered harbor, rich natural resources, tery Samuel Rathbone and Battery Patrick and mile-wide entrance, has long been O’Rorke. recognized as an ideal location for defense of the naval and port facilities by seacoast fortifcations at the harbor entrance. By the From the Marin Headlands Visitor Center, 1850s, the U.S. Army realized that Marin’s carefully walk from the parking lot, crossproximity to the ocean made for excellent ing Field Road onto Bodsworth Street, and defense sites an
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Fort Cronkhite History Walk Fort Cronkhite - Marin Headlands Golden Gate National Parks A World War II Army Post That Helped Defend San Francisco Fort Cronkhite soldiers stand at ease. (Photo circa 1941) EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA™ (Rev.Francisco 11/2010) Fort Cronkhite History Walk: A World War II Army Post That Helped Defend San 1 National Park Service 2 FORT CRONKHITE SAUSALITO, CA 2 RODEO BEACH 1 WALK STOP North ACCESSIBLE PARKING TELEPHONE M IT C HELL ROAD 1057 1050 1060 4 1058 5 ET 1061 1059 1049 6 RE 3 7 1071 ST 1056 1062 1070 1033 ET EET 1034 1044 GG 1055 1063 8 1069 1045 1046 e TO BA TT (COAS ERY TOWN TAL TR SLEY AIL) N STR T idg 1054 1064 E D IS O STREE 1068 1077 t Br 1065 Restroom 1067 1042 AT R IC K Foo 1 K IR K P HA 1066 RODEO LAGOO N The Route Length: Number of Stops: Time required: Access: About a ½ mile 8 About 45 to 60 minutes The walking route follows paved roads but watch for uneven surfaces. There is a short hill up Hagget Street to Kirkpatrick Street. Welcome to Fort Cronkhite! This former military post, which was established during WWII and used through the Cold War, stands at the edge of the Pacific Ocean and was part of San Francisco’s first line of defense against enemy attack. In the early 1940s, the U.S. Army constructed hundreds of similar wood-frame, military posts across the country. Now, nearly 70 years later, very few unaltered examples of this type of military architecture still exist. This selfguiding brochure takes you on a walking tour of Fort Cronkhite, providing you with historic information about how the men at this post lived during the war. While a specific walking route is suggested, please feel free to wander, exploring what interests you most. Below: Fort Cronkhite soldiers conduct military training in the area that is now the paved parking lot. (1941) Cover photo: Fort Cronkhite right after completion. (Photo circa 1941 Be Advised If you are in a wheelchair, or need to minimize walking, you can still enjoy the tour by going down Edison Street, where halfway down on the south side between Buildings 1057 and 1058 there is an accessible concrete pad that offers an overlook onto Building 1049 and Rodeo Beach. Non-profit groups, our “park partners,” occupy most of the Fort Cronkhite buildings and visits to the buildings’ interiors are not allowed. Please be respectful during your visit as people are conducting business. Restrooms can be found at the west end of the parking lot, adjacent to Rodeo Beach. It is advisable to dress for wind and fog. Questions? Please stop by the Marin Headlands Visitor Center, in the historic chapel building at the intersection of Bunker and Field roads. The visitor center is open daily from 9:30 AM to 4:30 PM, or phone (415) 331-1540. Please visit Marin Headlands at: www.nps.gov/goga/marin-headlands.htm All images courtesy of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Park Archives and Record Center, unless otherwise noted. 1 Fort Cronkhite History Walk: A World War II Army Post That Helped Defend San Francisco National Park Service 2 Battery Townsley Fort Cronkhite cantonment Fort Cronkhite cantonment nestled into the Marin Headlands and Battery Townsley perched above. If enemy attack came from the Pacifc, troops from Fort Cronkhite would man Battery Townsley and other harbor defense installations dotting the beaches and hills. (Photo circa 1965) Start the tour at the west end of the parking lot, near the information kiosk. Look towards the buildings just across the parking lot. 1 Harbor Defenses of San Francisco Bay San Francisco Bay, with its sheltered harbor, rich natural resources, and single mile wide entrance, has long been recognized as an ideal location for military defense. The Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco in 1776 to protect their interests in the bay. During the 1850s and 1860s, the United States Army identifed harbor defense as one of the principle means for protecting the seacoast, and therefore the country. After the Gold Rush, the United States Army constructed harbor defense forts at Alcatraz, Fort Point, Angel Island and Fort Mason. 3 Beginning in the 1890s, in order to use the most modern military technology, the War Department began upgrading the nation’s seacoast forts by constructing new concrete gun batteries and mounting state-of-theart artillery pieces. This modernization program led to the construction of modern fortifcations in the Marin hills overlooking the Golden Gate. Between 1895 and 1905, ten massive Coast Artillery batteries were constructed and the army designated the lands as Forts Baker and Barry. But by the 1920s, as a result of wartime technological advances, the existing harbor defenses had Fort Cronkhite History Walk: A World War II Army Post That Helped Defend San Francisco become obsolete. Recognizing its inadequacies, the army declared that
Wildflowers of Golden Gate National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Golden Gate National Recreation Area Indian Paintbrush Crimson Columbine California Poppies Franciscan Paintbrush Mission Bells Yellow Bush Lupine Silver Bush Lupine Their names are quaint reminders of the poetic language used by early settlers: Footsteps-of-Spring, Baby Blue Eyes, Mission Bells, Milkmaids. Their colors are vivid, although sometimes you have to crouch low to see them. A walk on the park’s trails during peak wildflower season from late February through June is a chance to appreciate the profusion of wildflowers that once graced all of California. For more information about wildflowers, stop at any of our park Visitor Centers. Red / Pink Flowers Checker-bloom; Wild Hollyhock Sidalcea malvaeflora [March-May, grasslands] Sticky Monkeyflower Yarrow Seaside Daisy Coast Onion Allium dichlamydeum [April-July, rocky and serpentine soils] Seaside Daisy Erigeron glaucus [March-May, grasslands] Shooting Star Dodecatheon hendersonii [January-March, rocky northface slopes] Wild Buckwheat Eriogonum latifolium [June-November, rocky northface slopes] Coast Rock Cress (Threatened) Orange Flowers Arabis blepharophylla Seep Spring Shooting Star [January-March, rocky northface slopes] California Poppy Cobweb Thistle Eschscholzia californica Cirsium occidentale [March-November, grasslands] [March-May, grasslands & scrub] Sticky or Bush Monkeyflower Crimson Columbine Mimulus aurantiacus Aquilegia formosa [June-November, scrub] [March-May, rocky northface slopes] Cow Parsnip California Buttercup Franciscan Paintbrush Brown Flower Castilleja subinclusa ssp. franciscana [March-May, grasslands] Indian Paintbrush Castilleja affinis [March to August/September, sandy coastal flats and dune] Douglas Iris Footsteps-of-Spring Pink Sand Verbena Abronia umbellata [March- November, sandy coastal flats and dune] Presidio Clarkia Ithuriel’s Spear Blue-eyed Grass Mission Bells; Checker Lily Fritillaria affinis [March-May, rocky northface slopes] Yellow Flowers California Buttercup Ranunculus californicus [March-May, grasslands & rocky northface slopes] (Federally Endangered) Footsteps-of-Spring Clarkia franciscana (Presidio Area) Clarkia rubicunda (Marin Area) Sanicula arctopoides [April-July, serpentine outcrops] [January-March, grasslands] Checkerbloom Cobweb Thistle Stonecrop S.F. Wallflower Angelica Blue Dicks Presidio Clarkia Mule-ears Lizard Tail Soap Plant Beach Strawberry Purple Sanicle Coastal Buckwheat Western Hound’s Tongue California Blackberry Sky Lupine To see a World in a Grain of Sand And a Heaven in a Wild Flower, Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand And Eternity in an hour. —William Blake Coast Onion Sun Cup Coast Rock Cress Pink Sand Verbena Tidy Tips Milkmaids Lizard Tail Cow Parsnip Ithuriel’s Spear Eriophyllum staechadifolium Heracleum lanatum Triteleia laxa [June-November, scrub] [March-May, scrub] [March-May, grasslands] Monkeyflower; Seep Spring Franciscan Wallflower Rock Phacelia Mimulus guttatus Erysimum franciscanum Phacelia californica [January-May, rocky northface slopes] [January-May, grasslands & rocky northface slopes] [March-May, rocky northface slopes] Wyethia angustifolia Milkmaids Lupinus albifrons [March-May, grasslands] Cardamine californica Stonecrop [January-March, rocky northface slopes] [March-May, grasslands & rocky northface slopes] Mule-ears Sedum spathulifolium [April-July, rocky northface slopes] Sun Cup Beach Strawberry Sky Lupine Lupinus nanus Fragaria chiloensis [March-May, grasslands] [February to August, sandy coastal flats and dune] Camissonia ovata [January-March, grasslands] Silver Bush Lupine Soap Plant Western Hound’s Tongue Cynoglossum grande [January-March, rocky northface slopes] Tidy Tips Chlorogalum pomeridianum Layia platyglossa [March-May, grasslands & scrub] [March-June, gravelly Ridges, grassy slopes and coastal mesas] Yarrow Trina Kvale - California Poppies, Silver Bush Lupine, Achillea millefolium Sticky Monkeyflower, Seaside Daisy,Douglas Iris, Coastal Yellow Bush Lupine [June-November, scrub] Lupinus arboreus [March-September, sandy coastal flats and dune] White Flowers Blue / Violet Flowers Blue Dicks NPS Photos: Buckwheat, Pink Sand Verbena, California Blackberry. Will Elder - Yarrow, Seep Spring, Ithuriel’s Spear, Checkerbloom, San Francisco Wallflower, Blue Dicks, Presidio Clarkia, Mule-ears, Lizard Trail, Soap Plant, Coast Onion, Coast Rock Cress, Tidy Tips Parks Conservancy Photos: Dichelostemma capitatum Michael Chasse - Indian Paintbrush, Mission Bells, [March-May, grasslands] Jessy Bergeman - Yellow Bush Lupine, Crimson Angelica hendersonii Blue-Eyed Grass Columbine, Cow Parsnip, California Buttercup, Blue-eyed Grass, Cobweb Thistle, Stonecrop, Sun Cup, Sky Lupine [January-November, rocky northface slopes] Sisyrinchium bellum Lynn
Protecting the Snowy Plover A Bird in Danger Western Snowy Plover resting on Ocean Beach. YOU play an important role in the recovery of the Western Snowy Plover! National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Golden Gate National Recreation Area In March 1993, the Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) was listed as a threatened species, protected under the Endangered Species Act. Up to 100 of the estimated 2,300 birds remaining on the Pacific Coast can be found in Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA). The Snowy Plover is a small shorebird that stands about 6 inches high, with dark markings across the forehead, behind the eyes, and a partial breast band. Snowy Plovers use sandy beaches, mudflats and salt ponds in San Francisco Bay and along the outer coast for breeding, resting and foraging. The Western Snowy Plover and its beach habitat are threatened by urban development, the spread of European dune grass, increased predation, intense recreational use, and human-caused disturbance. Western Snowy Plovers at GGNRA Although Western Snowy Plovers do not nest at GGNRA, they do spend up to ten months of the year on portions of Ocean Beach and Crissy Field. During their time here (approximately July until May), Snowy Plovers spend their days resting in shallow depressions in the sand (such as footprints), where they are camouflaged and out of the wind. They also build up their fat reserves for breeding by eating small invertebrates in debris left by the tides. In spring they move up and down the coast and to inland salt flats to nest. The National Park Service, established in part to protect America’s vanishing wildlife, faces an important challenge in protecting the Western Snowy Plover. A Snowy Plover’s natural response is to run or fly from danger. Continuous or repeated disturbance uses up their stored energy reserves and may jeopardize future breeding success. To protect the Western Snowy Plover, GGNRA has created two seasonal (July until May) protection areas—see maps on reverse: • Ocean Beach Snowy Plover Protection Area (Stairwell #21, just south of the Beach Chalet, to Sloat Blvd.—including all tidelands.) • Crissy Field Wildlife Protection Area (west end of Crissy Field Beach) When you are in the Snowy Plover protection areas, you should: • Keep your dog on leash. Snowy Plovers perceive dogs as predators; dogs often chase them and other shorebirds. • Walk, jog, or ride your horse on the wet sand away from the upper parts of the beach where Snowy Plovers are most likely to be found. • Fly your kites, play frisbee and throw balls in the areas close to the water, away from where Snowy Plovers rest. • Dispose of garbage properly to avoid attracting predators. • Leave kelp and driftwood on the beach— these provide resting and feeding areas for the Snowy Plover. • Call Park Dispatch at (415) 561-5505 if you notice any disturbance or threat to the Western Snowy Plover. The following are prohibited in these protection areas: • Dogs off leash (36 CFR 1.5(a)(2)) • Disturbing wildlife (36 CFR 2.2) • Disturbing threatened species (16 USC 1538) Well hidden within the beach sand, these tiny birds blend into their environment. Please use the beach close to the water. The Community of Shorebirds Snowy Plovers are often seen with other wintering and migratory shorebirds such as Marbled Godwits, Willets, Heerman’s Gulls, Caspian Terns, and Sanderlings, many of whom travel hundreds of miles during migration. These birds are also susceptible to the effects of constant disturbance. Because half of the shorebirds in North America are in decline, effective protection strategies must consider all shorebirds and not just a single species. YOUR actions make a difference! Please help protect the Western Snowy Plover and other shorebirds from human-caused disturbance. To volunteer to monitor the Western Snowy Plover or improve habitats in the park call (415) 561-4755. Together we can help the Western Snowy Plover survive and thrive. Top: Western Snowy Plover feeding at the high tide line. Bottom: Shorebirds feeding at the water’s edge. Western Snowy Plover Protection Areas Top: Map of Crissy Field Wildlife Protection Area. Bottom: Map of Ocean Beach Snowy Plover Protection Area. (rev. 10/06) Printed on recycled paper. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA www.nps.gov/goga

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