"Aerial View of Fort Monroe" by NPS Photo/Buddy Secor , public domain
Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania
National Military Park - Virginia
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park is a unit of the National Park Service in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and elsewhere in Spotsylvania County, commemorating four major battles in the American Civil War.
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Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania - Visitor Map
Official visitor map of Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park (NMP) in Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).
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Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).
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Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).
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https://www.nps.gov/frsp/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fredericksburg_and_Spotsylvania_National_Military_Park Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park is a unit of the National Park Service in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and elsewhere in Spotsylvania County, commemorating four major battles in the American Civil War. Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Wilderness, and Spotsylvania, this is America's battleground, where the Civil War roared to its bloody climax. No place more vividly reflects the War's tragic cost in all its forms. A town bombarded and looted. Farms large and small ruined. Refugees by the thousands forced into the countryside. More than 85,000 men wounded; 15,000 killed--most in graves unknown. Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park manages 4 battlefields and multiple historical sites across multiple counties. The park is located approximately 50 miles south of Washington DC. Different battlefields and historical sites are accessible via I-95 and VA Route 3. For directions and physical addresses for each of our sites, please visit the Directions & Transportation section of our website. Chancellorsville Battlefield Visitor Center The Chancellorsville Battlefield Visitor Center contains exhibits about the battles at Chancellorsville, Wilderness, and Spotsylvania Court House and a 22-minute film that plays every 30-minutes. Pick up park maps and talk to park staff about the battles and your visit. The current building hours are in effect through March 10. From I-95: Take Exit 130B from I-95, and head west on VA Route 3. Proceed approximately 7 miles, and the visitor center is on the right (north) side of the road. Chatham Manor Atop Stafford Heights, 250 years of history blend with the present at Chatham Manor. Chatham witnessed the horrors of slavery, the establishment of the United States, conflict surrounding the institution of slavery and Civil War, Reconstruction, and Colonial Revivalism. Chatham's grounds are open to the public 9 am-5 pm every day. The current building hours are in effect through March 10. On weekends Chatham is closed 12 noon-1 pm. Fredericksburg Battlefield Visitor Center Inside the Fredericksburg Battlefield Visitor Center are three rooms with exhibits about the Battle of Fredericksburg and its impact on the nation, a 22-minute park film, and an information desk where our staff can provide guidance on getting around as well as insight into the history of the battle. The current building hours are in effect through March 10. From I-95: Take Exit 130A from I-95, and drive east towards downtown Fredericksburg on VA Route 3 for approximately 2 miles. Turn left at the traffic light at the intersection with Lafayette Boulevard. The visitor center is about .5 mile ahead on the left. Fairview in the Winter A line of four cannons placed in front of crescent shaped earthen gun pits. Fairview, in the Chancellorsville Battlefield, was the location of intense fighting during the Civil War. Fredericksburg National Cemetery Monument in national cemetery illuminated by candles Thousands of visitors join us every year for our Memorial Day Illumination of the National Cemetery Innis House along the Sunken Road A gravel path bordered by a stone wall leading to a small, two story white house. The Sunken Road on the Fredericksburg Battlefield is one of the most popular walking spots in the park. Chatham in the Fall Trees with fall colors in front of large brick manor house When visiting Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania, be sure to explore our numerous historic structures, such as Chatham Manor pictured here Saunders Field in Spring A cannon in a misty clearing surrounded by sparse trees. The Overland Campaign began at Saunders Field on the Wilderness Battlefield. Bloody Angle in the Fall A bowl-shaped field surrounded by autumn trees. The Bloody Angle in the Spotsylvania Battlefield is a peaceful place today. Living History on Marye's Heights A living historian dressed as a US Civil War soldier speaks with a family outdoors. During the summer, visitors may encounter park living historians and learn about soldiers' experiences during the war. Orientation at the Chancellorsville Battlefield Visitor Center A middle aged couple stand at a visitor center desk and speak with a park service volunteer. Make one of our visitor centers your first stop for orientation, maps, and exhibits about the battles we protect. Bat Population Monitoring in Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park protects four major civil war battlefields. The park also conserves natural resources in a increasingly urbanized area. Recent research detected 11 species of bats in the park, including two species protected by the Endangered Species Act. A tri-colored bat being held by a biologist. Women Amidst War The extreme demands of wartime industry and the loss of traditional family breadwinners to military service caused hardship, but also presented opportunities to women for employment, volunteerism, and activism that previously had been unavailable to them. While many of these gains would be temporary, the Civil War nonetheless represents an important step forward in American society's view of the role of women. Women were increasingly seen (and saw themselves) as the foundat Photo of women at a house on the Cedar Mountain battlefield Designing the Parks: Learning in Action The Designing the Parks program is not your typical internship. Each year since 2013, this program at the Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation has introduced a cohort of college students and recent graduates to NPS design and planning professions through projects related to cultural landscape stewardship. In the internships, made possible by partner organizations, participants focus on an in-depth project that directly engages with a national park unit. A group of young people stand on forest trail and listen to two maintenance employees National Parks and National Cemeteries Currently, the National Park Service manages 14 national cemeteries. These cemeteries represent a continuum of use dating to a period before the establishment of the historical parks of which they are an integral part and are administered to preserve the historic character, uniqueness, and solemn nature of both the cemeteries and the historical parks of which they are a part. Setting sun lights up graves and decorations Death and Dying The somber aftermath of Civil War battles introduced Americans--North and South--to death on an unprecedented scale and of an unnatural kind, often ending in an unmarked grave far from home. Neither individuals, nor institutions, nor governments were prepared to deal with death on such a massive scale, for never before or since have we killed so many of our own. The Civil War revolutionized the American military's approach to caring for the dead, leading to our modern cult Photo of freshly buried marked and unmarked graves near Petersburg, Va. Emancipation and the Quest for Freedom Although the abolition of slavery emerged as a dominant objective of the Union war effort, most Northerners embraced abolition as a practical measure rather than a moral cause. The war resolved legally and constitutionally the single most important moral question that afflicted the nascent republic, an issue that prevented the country from coalescing around a shared vision of freedom, equality, morality, and nationhood. Slave family seated in front of their house Captain Nathan Appleton In 1863, Nathan Appleton joined the Army of the Potomac as an officer in the Fifth Massachusetts Battery. After the war, he became active in two fraternal organizations founded by veterans after the war to commemorate their shared experience. Man in Civil War uniform standing in profile holding hat in hands behind back Irish Soldiers in the Union Army Although many Irishmen were found throughout the Union, and to a lesser degree, Confederate forces, numerous specifically "Irish" regiments and companies enabled new immigrants to join comrades with a similar background. Most famous was the Irish Brigade of the Army of the Potomac, particularly distinguished for hard fighting at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg. Recruiting Poster for the 69th New York, comprised entirely of Irish Americans The Military Experience The course of the war was the cumulative result of political, economic, and social policies that affected (and were affected by) military operations and battles waged across a front spanning 2,000 miles. The battles and campaigns of 1861-65 ultimately demonstrated that the simple application of massive military force, even with innovations in technologies and tactics, was insufficient to resolve a conflict between two sections mobilized against one another politically, socia Engraving of soldier warming himself by a fire Photo of U.S. Sanitary Commission office. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Virginia Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. [Site Under Development] row of four cannons Industry and Economy during the Civil War Both North and South mobilized industry to an unprecedented degree. But the North, which already had a head start in nearly every realm of industrial and agricultural development, far outpaced the South during the war. Unhampered by the southern opposition in such areas as providing free land to farmers and subsidizing a transcontinental railroad before the war, Congress passed sweeping legislation to expand the economy. As the war dragged on, in part because many of the ba Lithograph showing industrial and technological advancements of the Civil War The Civilian Experience in the Civil War After being mere spectators at the war's early battles, civilians both near and far from the battlefields became unwilling participants and victims of the war as its toll of blood and treasure grew year after year. In response to the hardships imposed upon their fellow citizens by the war, civilians on both sides mobilized to provide comfort, encouragement, and material, and began to expect that their government should do the same. Painting of civilians under fire during the Siege of Vicksburg Chatham Manor Cultural Landscape Chatham Manor represents the core of what was once a vast estate amassed by the Fitzhugh family beginning in the early eighteenth century. The Georgian style brick manor house was constructed circa 1768–71 by William Fitzhugh within a large plantation supported by enslaved labor. In the 150 years since the end of the Civil War, the property saw a succession of owners who initiated repair of extensive damage to the buildings and grounds that occurred during the war. Flowers bloom in a garden in front of a two-story brick manor house. 2020 Weather In Review: Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park In 2020, Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park had the 2nd warmest year and 5th wettest year ever recorded (since 1895). Sunset over fields with a canon in the foreground Abraham Lincoln: The War Years 1861-1865 No president up to that point in American history was called on to be commander-in-chief like Abraham Lincoln. From monitoring the War Department telegraph office to selecting of commanding generals and developing military strategy, Lincoln guided the nation through its darkest hour. Abraham Lincoln and General George McClellan following the Battle of Antietam The Changing War Begun as a purely military effort with the limited political objectives of reunification (North) or independence (South), the Civil War transformed into a social, economic and political revolution with unforeseen consequences. As the war progressed, the Union war effort steadily transformed from a limited to a hard war; it targeted not just Southern armies, but the heart of the Confederacy's economy, morale, and social order-the institution of slavery. Woodcut of spectators watching a train station set fire by Sherman's troops Walt Whitman at Chatham Walt Whitman, one of America's greatest poets of the 19th century, came to Fredericksburg's Chatham Manor to search for his wounded brother in the aftermath of the Battle of Fredericksburg. The wounded men he encountered changed him profoundly and led him to serve as a nurse for the remainder of the war. Photo of Walt Whitman John Chase's Medal of Honor At 19, John Chase volunteered to fight for the United States. At the Battle of Chancellorsville, as his unit suffered enormous casualties, Chase remained focused on his duty. A detail of a medal of honor. Francis Barlow: Rising Through the Ranks Francis Barlow enlisted in the United States Army as a private in the 12th New York State Militia early in the war. He served in many campaigns and rose through the ranks throughout the war. By the end of the war Barlow was a Major General. After the war Barlow held various political and legal offices including New York Secretary of State and New York Attorney General. Black and white historical photo of a man in his 20s in a military uniform. Archeology ABCs Coloring Book Archeology paints a colorful picture of the past! Download and print this full coloring book packed with archeological objects from A to Z! Title page for coloring book entitled Archeology ABCs Coloring Book In the Aftermath of Antietam: How does Burnside get Command? Despite victory at the Battle of Antietam, President Lincoln found himself frustrated. He wanted decisive victory. General George B. McClellan, popular and a potential political rival, needed to be replaced. McClellan's successor: a reluctant Ambrose Burnside. Black and white historical photograph of Ambrose Burnside in United States military uniform. Six Unusual Abraham Lincoln Facts and Rumors, Part II Facts 4-6 of Unusual and Unknown Lincoln Facts. President Abraham Lincoln Making a Plan: Why Fredericksburg? As General George B. McClellan transfers command of the Army of the Potomac to General Ambrose Burnside he leaves Burnside with a plan. Burnside would look towards Fredericksburg for victory. A pencil sketch of a man on horseback riding through a group of soldiers. A Fateful Delay: Crossing the Rappahannock On November 17, 1862, the vanguard of the Army of the Potomac arrived in Falmouth, just up the river from Fredericksburg. Over the past two days, the United States soldiers had marched nearly forty miles. As the soldiers halted across from Fredericksburg, the question remained: now what? Rough pencil drawing of small town next to a river. Hancock's War Major General Winfield S. Hancock came out to the Southern Plains in the Spring of 1867 to quell a suspected Indian uprising. He was a distinguished U.S. Army officer with an impressive record, especially for service during the Civil War. However, dealing with an enemy so culturally dissimilar to him proved a difficult challenge. Instead of pacifying the Indians, his burning of a local Indian village incited a summer of violence known to history as "Hancock's War." Black and white head photo of Winfield Scott Hancock Trouble at Skinkers Neck Two weeks after the Army of the Potomac arrived in Falmouth Commander Ambrose Burnside needed to figure out how, and where, to cross the Rappahannock River. If the river was too swollen with seasonal rains above Fredericksburg, and too defended at the city itself, what about crossing below the city? The army looked downstream, to Skinkers Neck, and planned a crossing. Colored lithograph print of a United States naval steamship during the Civil War. Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: African American History at Gettysburg Abraham Brian, Basil Biggs, James Warfield, and Mag Palm are just a few of the many individuals that were affected by the Civil War and the Battle of Gettysburg, and each has their own story to tell. We have collected their stories in one place so that you can learn more about their various trials during this tumultuous time in American history. A black and white photograph of a black family posing with a white man and his horse in a dirt road. Breeding bird monitoring at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park: 2019 status and trends To help inform natural resource management at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, National Park Service scientists collect data about breeding bird populations. See what they learned from this data in 2019. A bright yellow bird perched in green vegetation. An introduction to the benthic macroinvertebrate community at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park Benthic macroinvertebrates are an important part of stream ecosystems in Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park. NPS scientists are studying these organisms in order to better understand and protect park natural resources. NPS staff examining a net for macroinvertebrates Clara Barton, a Tireless Effort in the Face of Disaster Clara Barton's dedication to healthcare and aiding those in need. This is a quick glimpse at her hard work. Black and white photo of Clara Barton sitting at a desk Assault on Marye's Heights In the second part of a two-part guide through the streets of Fredericksburg at war, follow the United States soldiers in their assaults against the Confederate forces on Marye's Heights. Fire in the Streets Follow the footsteps of the United States soldiers who entered the City of Fredericksburg in December of 1862 in this first part of a two-part guide through the streets of Fredericksburg at war. Kenmore in the Battle of Fredericksburg This guide follows on a walking route around Kenmore Plantation and Washington Avenue, and takes you on a journey to learn about the Civil War history at a place most known for its connection with George Washington. Causes of Deafness During the Civil War Civil War soldiers faced death on a daily basis. However, they also faced going home with various disabilities. One such disability was partial or complete deafness. Many soldiers were accustomed to temporary deafness from the constant artillery fire in the field. However, illness, the environment, and even the medicine the doctors used on patients could cause a much more permanent hearing loss. 102 Cases of Deafness.Prepared 4 Consideration of senate & house of reps. by Wallace E. Foster. Fat Book Week You've heard of #FatBearWeek...now get ready for #FatBookWeek! In honor of the 10,000+ books in the Longfellow family collection, we called on other literary-minded sites to submit the fattest book in their museum collections for a tournament-style bracket of 10 heavyweight tomes. Check out the bracket, then visit @LONGNPS on Instagram each morning from October 6-12 to vote for your favorite bulky book! Graphic of a bear with a paw on a stack of books. Text reads "Fat Book Week October 6-12, 2021" Invasion of the Biome Bashers Invasive plants are a concerning and growing issue for eastern national parks. Learn what is spreading, and how some parks are seeing success in managing them. Glossy buckthron St. Patrick's Day with the Irish Brigade In 1863, the Irish Brigade invited the US Army of the Potomac to join in a St. Patrick's Day celebration. The legendary steeple chase and other festivities provided a much needed boost to morale in an army that was still reeling from defeat at Fredericksburg three months earlier. For the Irish Brigade, sharing their holiday with the army was a way to stake their place in the army and in the United States that the army sought to restore. Pencil sketch of a wooden grand stand and dozens of people watching a horse race. 2021 Weather In Review: Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park In 2021, Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park experienced a very warm (i.e. 6th warmest on record) and moderately dry year. A stone wall and gravel road. The Mud March In January 1863, one month after the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg, US Army of the Potomac Commander Ambrose Burnside attempted another offensive against Confederate forces. The hope of success was soon washed away by torrential rains, and the Union forces were dragged through the mud in what became one of the most infamous marches of the Civil War. Black and white line etching of Civil War soldiers trying to march through the mud. Hooker Takes Command In January 1863, after the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg and failed Mud March, US Army of the Potomac Commander Ambrose Burnside was replaces by the ambitious and confident Major General Joseph Hooker. US General Joseph Hooker on horseback in front of an army camp. George Murray George Murray enlisted in the United States Army when he was 18 in August 1862. He fought in the Battle of Fredericksburg at the Slaughter Pen Farm and was wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville. As a part of the 114th Pennsylvania, Murray wore a colorful Zouave uniform, currently on display at the Fredericksburg Battlefield Visitor Center. Edith Rose Tench Edith Rose Tench served as a Yeoman, 3rd Class, in the United States Naval Reserve Force (USNRF). As a Yeomen (F), Tench performed a variety of duties to her country during World War I. Tench is one of a handful of women, and one of only two female veterans, buried in the Fredericksburg National Cemetery. A women in 1920s clothing Peter Wilson Born enslaved, Peter Wilson joined the United States army during the Civil War, serving in the 36th USCT. Wilson was killed by Confederate soldiers during a raid into Virginia. The raid in which Wilson lost his life resulted in the acquisition of livestock and supplies for nearby Contraband camps and the rescue of an estimated 600 people from slavery. Wilson is buried in the Fredericksburg National Cemetery. A grave on a sloped terrace in a cemetery with name Peter Wilson, USCT Jerome Peirce Sergeant Jerome Peirce was killed on May 12, 1864, at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House. Letters from Pierce to his wife Allie offer a glimpse at the lives of soldiers during the Civil War. Allie began a tradition of decorating his grave at the Fredericksburg National Cemetery, which descendants of the former Cemetery Superintendent continue to this day. Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Deer Impacts A healthy forest needs to have enough tree seedlings and saplings to regenerate the forest canopy after a disturbance. Analysis of NPS I&M and other long-term datasets makes it clear that many eastern national parks lack adequate tree regeneration due to decades of over browsing by white-tailed deer. Deer impacts I&M Networks Support Resilient Forest Management NPS Inventory and Monitoring Networks have been tracking forest health in eastern national parks since 2006. This monitoring information can guide resilient forest management and support parks in adapting to changing conditions through the actions described below. Forest health monitoring Managing Resilient Forests. A Regional Initiative Forests cover tens of thousands of acres in eastern national parks and these critical resources face a range of interacting stressors: over-abundant white-tailed deer populations, invasive plant dominance, novel pests and pathogens, among other threats. The Resilient Forests Initiative will help parks address these issue collectively. Forest health monitoring Series: Managing Resilient Forests Initiative for Eastern National Parks Forests in the northeastern U.S. are in peril. Over-abundant deer, invasive plants, and insect pests are impacting park forests, threatening to degrade the scenic vistas and forested landscapes that parks are renowned for. With regional collaboration, parks can manage these impacts and help forests be resilient. This article series explores tools available to park managers to achieve their goals. Healthy forests have many native seedlings and saplings. Coyotes at Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania NMP Coyotes are found throughout the United States, in rural and urban environments, including right here. Learn about coexisting with coyotes at Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park. A coyote walks along a roadside. Captain Edward Hill and the 16th Michigan Volunteers Captain Edward Hill kept a diary that conveys the pleasures, hardships, and heroism of a Union soldier with the 16th Michigan through the Overland Campaign. This article explores Hill's experiences through the words he left behind. Hill received the Medal of Honor for his actions at Cold Harbor and is buried is the Fredericksburg National Cemetery. Grave marker, flush with ground Resilient Forests Initiative - Managing Invasive Plants & Pests Park forests are threatened by invasive plants and pests. Strategically tackling invasive plants to protect park’s highest priority natural resources and planning around forest pests and pathogens are important actions in managing resilient forests. Forest Regeneration Grant at the Wilderness Grant hoped to march through a thickly wooded area known as the Wilderness so he could effectively use his cannon to fight on open ground near Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia. The outnumbered Confederates knew this and surprised Grant’s troops in the Wilderness thickets. Preserved dirt road cutting through the dense trees and brush. Series: The Odyssey of Ulysses An unknown 2nd Lieutenant in the U.S.-Mexican War later resigns the army. He rejoins and goes on to become lieutenant general of all Union armies. In his first term as President of the United States, he establishes Yellowstone National Park. From his first battle to his family home to his final resting place — the saga of Ulysses S. Grant is preserved in your National Parks. Color lithograph of Grant at the capture of the city of Mexico. Thomas R. R. Cobb Before the Civil War, Thomas R.R. Cobb made a name for himself crafting a legal defense of slavery. He was an ardent secessionist, and ultimately served the Confederacy until his death at the Battle of Fredericksburg. Drawing of Civil War Confederate officer John Pelham John Pelham was a young Confederate artillerist who gained fame as the "gallant Pelham" after the Battle of Fredericksburg. His death at the Battle of Kelly's Ford in the spring of 1863 propelled his celebrity status among white Southerners. A young, white, male Confederate military officer in dress uniform Private Josiah Murphey Private Josiah Murphey was in the 20th Massachusetts and took part in the street fighting on December 11, during the Battle of Fredericksburg. He was wounded and was one of the patients known to have been treated at Chatham Manor. A young Civil War Union soldier sits posed for a picture. Confederate Soldiers Treated at Chatham When nurse Clara Barton listed the patients that she encountered at Chatham, she included three Confederate soldiers. Read what park researchers could learn about these soldiers who were captured and brought to Chatham for treatment during the Battle of Fredericksburg. Harriet Bacon Eaton During the Civil War, Harriet Bacon Eaton served as a nurse and was an agent of the Maine Camp Hospital Association. During the Battle of Fredericksburg in December of 1862, Harriet received wounded soldiers at Chatham Manor, providing aid and comfort. A pencil sketch of a middle-aged woman in 1860s clothing. Jonathan Letterman Jonathan Letterman was Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac. His innovative reforms improved and standardized the care of soldiers on the battlefield. Today, Jonathan Letterman is known as the “Father of Modern Battlefield Medicine.” Portrait of Jonathan Letterman, man in Civil War Union uniform. Doctor Jonah Franklin Dyer During the Battle of Fredericksburg Doctor Jonah Franklin Dyer was surgeon-in-chief of the Second Division, Second Corps, U.S. Army of the Potomac. Dyer treated wounded soldiers at Chatham Manor for over a week after the battle was over. Captain Wesley Brainerd In 1861, Wesley Brainerd joined the 50th New York Engineers as a captain. At the Battle of Fredericksburg, the 50th New York Engineers built the pontoon bridges below Chatham opposite the town, a dangerous task when the town was occupied by Confederate soldiers. Wesley Brainerd spent the night before the battle at Chatham Manor, and after being injured while building the pontoon bridges on December 11, he returned as a patient. Printed portrait of a United States Civil War Army captain. Walt Whitman at Chatham Manor Walt Whitman arrived at Chatham after the Battle of Fredericksburg in search of his wounded brother. He ended up staying and helping wounded soldiers. Whitman's account of Chatham in December of 1862 provides a detailed description of the hospital operation and the level of carnage wrought by the Battle of Fredericksburg. The time that he spent in Fredericksburg impacted his decision to serve as a nurse for the remainder of the war. Photograph of Walt Whitman, seated, with messy beard and straw hat. Doctor Mary Walker at Chatham Manor In December 1862, Doctor Mary Walker went to Chatham Manor after the Battle of Fredericksburg to help treat the wounded. Walker, who graduated from medical school in 1855, was a lifelong supporter of women's rights and the only women to have been awarded the Medal of Honor because of her service during the Civil War. Portrait of Mary Walker. Freedom's Eve: Awaiting the Passage of the Emancipation Proclamation On the evening of December 31, 1862, Black Americans throughout the United States and within the Confederacy eagerly awaited news that President Abraham Lincoln followed through with his promise to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. Historical illustration of a group of Black Americans sitting huddled around a table. 2022 Weather in Review: Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park experienced a very warm 2022 but precipitation was essentially normal. A stone wall with fall foliage