"Cemetery" by NPS / Nathan King , public domain

Fort Larned

National Historic Site - Kansas

Fort Larned National Historic Site preserves Fort Larned which operated from 1859 to 1878. It is approximately 5.5 miles (8.9 km) west of Larned, Kansas, United States.

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maps

Map of the Westward Expansion of the Santa Fe Trail for Fort Larned National Historic Site (NHS) in Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Santa Fe - Santa Fe Trail Westward Expansion

Map of the Westward Expansion of the Santa Fe Trail for Fort Larned National Historic Site (NHS) in Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NHT) in Colorado, Kansas, Misouri, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Santa Fe - National Historic Trail

Official Visitor Map of Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NHT) in Colorado, Kansas, Misouri, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

brochures

Official Brochure of Fort Larned National Monument (NM) in Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Fort Larned - Brochure

Official Brochure of Fort Larned National Monument (NM) in Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Junior Ranger brochure for Fort Larned National Monument (NM) in Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Fort Larned - Junior Ranger

Junior Ranger brochure for Fort Larned National Monument (NM) in Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/fols/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Larned_National_Historic_Site Fort Larned National Historic Site preserves Fort Larned which operated from 1859 to 1878. It is approximately 5.5 miles (8.9 km) west of Larned, Kansas, United States. Discover a complete and authentic army post from the 1860s -1870s! This well-preserved fort on the Santa Fe Trail shares a tumultuous history of the Indian Wars era. The sandstone constructed buildings sheltered troops who were known as the Guardians of the Santa Fe Trail. Fort Larned National Historic Site is located on KS Hwy 156, six miles west of Larned, Kansas. Fort Larned Visitor Center Located in one of the two historic barracks buildings, the park's Visitor Center features a bookstore with a wide variety of books on Army life, the Plains Indians and the Santa Fe Trail. Exhibits in the museum tell the stories of the westward expansion of the United States government, international commerce, and conflicts affecting the American Indians, traders, soldiers, and Indian agents in and around Fort Larned. Fort Larned is located six miles west of the town of Larned, KS. See our website for more detailed directions on how to get to the park. To get to the visitor center, cross the bridge from the parking lot and follow the dirt path to the front of Officers’ Row. Then follow the board walk in front of Officers’ Row to the stone barracks building. Enter through the wooden double doors. Artillery Demonstration Men in 19th century U.S. Army uniforms fire a reproduction period cannon. Volunteers demonstrating the use of a mountain howitzer during one of Fort Larned's living history weekends. Aerial Photo of Fort Larned Sandstone army buildings arranged in a square around parade ground. The historic sandstone buildings at Fort Larned date to 1868 Blacksmith Demonstrations at Fort Larned Man in leather apron hammering hot steel in blacksmith shop. The blacksmith demonstration is one of the most popular living history demonstrations. Flag Retreat Men in 19th century U.S. Army uniforms lower an American flag. Volunteers help recreate the U.S. Army flag lowering ceremony known as Retreat. Visitors in the Barracks Man in 19th century U.S. Army uniform interacts with visitors in period barracks. A volunteer shows visitors how soldiers lived during the 1860s at Fort Larned. Visiting Santa Three young children having their picture taken with Santa Claus in a period room. Young visitors get their picture taken with Santa during the fort's Christmas Past event. Buffalo Soldiers African American men in 19th century cavalry uniforms on horseback. Buffalo Soldier re-enactors help bring Fort Larned's history to life. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kansas Fort Larned was a military outpost located near the midway point of the Santa Fe Trail in central Kansas. The fort is located on the floodplain of the Pawnee River adjacent to a large oxbow, giving the fort natural protection on three sides. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. buffalo soldiers on horseback in reenactment Air Quality Monitoring in the Southern Plains and Chihuahuan Desert Networks Both the Clean Air Act and the National Park Service Organic Act protect air resources in national parks. Park resources affected by air quality include scenery and vistas, vegetation, water, and wildlife. Over the past three decades, the National Park Service has developed several internal and cooperative programs for monitoring various measures of air quality. Cactus and clear skies at Tonto National Monument The War and Westward Expansion With Federal resources focused on waging the war farther east, both native tribes and the Confederacy attempted to claim or reclaim lands west of the Mississippi. The Federal government responded with measures (Homestead Act, transcontinental railroad) and military campaigns designed to encourage settlement, solidify Union control of the trans-Mississippi West, and further marginalize the physical and cultural presence of tribes native to the West. Painting Westward the Course of Empire Takes its Way showing settlers moving into the American west Forts and Park Units along the Trail The U.S. opened military forts along the route of the Santa Fe Trail to protect trail travel and trade. The first military fort, Fort Leavenworth, was established in 1827 in eastern Kansas and is not a national park site. Fort Union and Fort Larned followed. Bent’s Fort, not a military fort but a trading post, was built in 1833. The trail also passed along the ancient pueblo of Pecos, now a part of Pecos National Historical Park. Fort ruins in the snow at Fort Union National Monument Fort Larned Breeding Bird Inventory In May-June, 2001, the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory conducted surveys for birds during the breeding season at Fort Larned National Historic Site. House wren Service First Agreement Provides Operational and Ecological Benefits NPS and USFWS have operated under a “Service First” agreement for fire management in several NPS units in the Midwest since 2008. The Service First statute authorizes agencies within the US Department of Interior and US Department of Agriculture to conduct shared management activities to achieve mutually beneficial land and resource management goals. The Mid-Plains Interagency Fire Management Zone recently received the NPS Midwest Regional Office Fire Management Award. Exotic Plants Monitoring in the Southern Plains and Chihuahuan Desert National parks, like other publicly managed lands, are deluged by new exotic species arriving through predictable (e.g., road, trail, and riparian corridors), sudden (e.g., long distance dispersal through cargo containers and air freight), and unexpected anthropogenic pathways (e.g., weed seeds mixed in with restoration planting mixes). Landscape with a uniform, green foreground consisting of invasive kochia Traveling the Santa Fe Trail The main job for soldiers stationed at Fort Larned's was protecting mail and and travelers on the Santa Fe Trail. Before railroads, traveling by wagon train on the trail was the only way to get across the plains. This area was home home to several Plains Indian tribes who resented these travelers going through their hunting grounds. Half a wagon wheel close up and silhouetted against the sky. People of the Plains The Plains Indians around the area of Fort Larned were nomads who lived by hunting for their meat and gathering plants from the prairie. The most important animal for them was the American bison. Learn how they used the bison in their everyday lives. Image of two tipis in an oval frame. 10th Cavalry at Fort Larned Co. A of the 10th U.S. Cavalry was stationed at Fort Larned from April 1867 to January 1869. Although they served with dedication, their time at the fort was troubled by racial prejudice. Men on horseback in 19th century U.S. Army uniforms. A Fort Larned Adventure The life of a soldier in the frontier army was not an easy one. Being stationed at a post like Fort Larned could be lonely, but they still kept themselves busy. Follow one soldier on his adventures at Fort Larned. Image of sandstone blockhouse at Fort Larned. Climate Change in the Southern Plains Network Climate change may have direct and/or indirect effects on many elements of Southern Plains network ecosystems, from streams and grasslands to fires and birds. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is an invasive plant that has invaded the Southern Plains Trail Beginnings & Geographic Setting Covering approximately 800 miles, the Santa Fe Trail extends from Independence, Missouri to present day Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Trail originally began in Franklin, Missouri, but the trail head was moved to Fort Osage and, by 1827, to Independence. Map of the Santa Fe Trail and National Park Units along its route. Notable People of the Trail Prior to use of the Trail by white traders and settlers, it was a part of the Native American trade network. It was also used by Spaniards of New Mexico for exploration and trade with the Plains Indians. Soldiers also used the Trail throughout its 60-year history. Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, including a reconstructed tipi Management & Preservation of the Santa Fe Trail The Santa Fe Trail became a part of the National Trails System in 1987. The National Park Service works in cooperation with the Santa Fe Trail Association, a nonprofit organization, to coordinate the preservation and use of the Trail. Inner courtyard of the reconstructed fort at Bent’s Old Fort NHS More Trail Facts & the Decline of the Santa Fe Trail More than 60 years of life on the Santa Fe Trail ended when the first steam engine reached Santa Fe in February of 1880. Goods such as weapons and cooking supplies at the reconstructed fort at Bent’s Old Fort NHS Santa Fe Trail Links & Literature More information about the Santa Fe Trail is available on the web, and via a list of literature cited throughout the chapters above. Santa Fe Trail reenactment with oxen and horses drawing a cart and a wagon Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Southwestern Plains The Plains of the Southwest include the southern Great Plains, the High Plains, Llano Estacado (Staked Plains), and Edwards Plateau. Sunset lights up the grass at Capulin Volcano National Monument The Post Blacksmith The post blacksmith was one of the more important civilians employed by the Quartermaster Department on frontier posts like Fort Larned. Man in 19th century civilian clothes with leather apron demonstrates blacksmithing. Saddler, Carpenter & Wheelwright Equipment breaks down and somebody has to repair it. That's what these three civilian quartermaster employees were at Fort Larned to do. Workshop with tools and work benches. Fort Larned Bakery Keeping soldiers fed at frontier posts was the job of the Commissary, or Subsistence, Department. Onsite bakeries such as the one at Fort Larned provided soldiers with their daily ration of bread. Room with unpainted wood flooring, wooden table in foreground. The Santa Fe Trail For 60 years the Santa Fe Trail was one of the most important commercial and communications routes through the Southwestern United States. View of grooves in the ground where wagons passed. The 1841 Mountain Howitzer The Model 1841 Mountain Howitzer was the most versatile piece of weaponry of its kind during the 19th century. The Army used it for 50 years, mostly on the western plains. Lightweight and rugged, its size made all the difference in any engagement this little workhorse participated in. Hancock's War Major General Winfield S. Hancock came out to the Southern Plains in the Spring of 1867 to quell a suspected Indian uprising. He was a distinguished U.S. Army officer with an impressive record, especially for service during the Civil War. However, dealing with an enemy so culturally dissimilar to him proved a difficult challenge. Instead of pacifying the Indians, his burning of a local Indian village incited a summer of violence known to history as "Hancock's War." Black and white head photo of Winfield Scott Hancock The Commanding Officers of Fort Larned Meet the men who had the difficult job of commanding a remote Army post on the frontier during the height of the Indian Wars in Kansas. Black and white image of Maj. Meredith Kidd from the shoulders up. The Plains Indians The Plains Indian tribes living in the area around Fort Larned were part of a group of people with a rich and varied culture. Plains Indian village with one tipi in foreground and several more in the background. Army Units at Fort Larned Over the course of its time as an active army post Fort Larned had many different army units stationed here. Historic black and white photo of army unit standing in front of sandstone barracks at Fort Larned. Fort Larned Post Hospital The Army provided some of the best medical care of the day. Every frontier post had a hospital staffed by a highly qualified doctor and other medical staff. Room with yellow wood floor, operating table near front, desk in the background. Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: The Santa Fe Trail In its day, the Trail served primarily as a commercial highway. The military used the trail to haul freight to supply the southwestern forts. The Trail was also used by stagecoach lines, those seeking gold in California and Colorado, fur trappers, and emigrants. The Trail in effect brought together Spanish and American cultures and. Many interactions, both amicable and contentious, between settlers and soldiers and the Plains Indians also occurred along the Trail. A small amount of snow fills the ruts that mark where the Santa Fe Trail passed through Pecos NHP Series: Southern Plains Bird Inventories Birds are a highly visible component of many ecosystems and because they respond quickly to changes in resource conditions, birds are good indicators of environmental change. Bird inventories allow us to understand the current condition, or status, of bird populations and communities in parks. These data are important for managing birds and other resources and provide baseline information for monitoring changes over time. Violet-green swallow The Fort Larned Post Cemetery Most soldiers who died at remote frontier posts couldn't be shipped back home for burial so every post had a cemetery. Close up view of cemetery monument with sandstone buildings in background. Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Things to Do in Kansas Find things to do in Kansas. Single story square building in the distance partially obstructed by a field of golden grass. Series: Things to Do in the Midwest There is something for everyone in the Midwest. See what makes the Great Plains great. Dip your toes in the continent's inland seas. Learn about Native American heritage and history. Paddle miles of scenic rivers and waterways. Explore the homes of former presidents. From the Civil War to Civil Rights, discover the stories that shape our journey as a nation. Steep bluff with pink sky above and yellow leaves below. New Mexican Traders on the Santa Fe Trail Anglo-Europeans weren't the only traders on the Santa Fe Trail. Hispanic traders from New Mexico also used this great commercial route through the Southwest to connect with an international trade network. Image of the Santa Fe Trail. The Army Laundress Before the invention of the washing machine, laundry was a time-consuming, labor intensive job. From 1802 to 1876 the US Army paid women to wash soldiers' clothing. These women lived on Army posts and endured the same living conditions and hardships as the soldiers themselves. A woman in a long dress stands in front of an area shaded by canvas held up on poles. Making an Impact: Long-Term Monitoring of Natural Resources at Intermountain Region National Parks, 2021 Across the Intermountain Region, Inventory & Monitoring Division ecologists are helping to track the effects of climate change, provide baseline information for resource management, evaluate new technologies, and inspire the next generation of park stewards. This article highlights accomplishments achieved during fiscal year 2021. A man looks through binoculars at sunrise. George H. Steuart Meet Fort Larned's first commanding officer. A Changing Bimodal Climate Zone Means Changing Vegetation in Western National Parks When the climate changes enough, the vegetation communities growing in any given place will also change. Under an expanded bimodal climate zone, some plant communities in western national parks are more likely to change than others. National Park Service ecologists and partners investigated the future conditions that may force some of this change. Having this information can help park managers decide whether to resist, direct, or accept the change. Dark storm clouds and rainbow over mountains and saguaros. Climate and Weather Monitoring at Fort Larned National Historic Site: Water Year 2022 At Fort Larned National Historic Site, Southern Plains Network scientists take measurements of key resources including climate. We analyze temperature, precipitation, and drought indices to determine if climate is changing and to better understand its affect on natural resources at the park. This report summarizes Water Year 2022 climate and weather data at the park. An expansive grassland with a misty haze sitting on top of the field. From Buffalo Soldier to Bath Attendant: The Story of Hugh Hayes and Hot Springs National Park Learn about the life of Hugh Hayes, an African American man from Tennessee, and how his life as a Buffalo Soldier and bath attendant at Hot Springs National Park connected him to significant moments in American history. African American man wearing a white shirt and tie sits in a wooden chair
Fort Larned Fort Larned National Historic Site Kansas National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Visited and inspected the new buildings finished and in process at the Post. They are all of stone, and are really fine structures. Albert Barnitz, Capt. 7th US Cavalry, 1868 Supplies and Trade Items The commissary stocked goods from throughout the US. At Fort Larned, which lies just steps from the Santa The post evolved from a rough, temporary camp set The fort also hosted Indian agents for the Cheyenne, Fe Trail, cultures mixed every day. Soldiers met up in 1859 to guard the construction of an adobe Arapaho, Plains Apache, Kiowa, and Comanche Plains Indians, European American and Hispanic mail station. It was a bustling soldier town by 1867 tribes. In 1867, peace commissioners appointed by teamsters, homesteaders, hide hunters, scouts, and but became a near ghost town by 1878. The soldiers’ Congress met at Fort Larned to plan the Medicine railroad workers. US Army regulars served with primary purpose was to escort mail coaches and Lodge treaties. paroled Confederates. The fort housed African military supply wagons on the trail. Their broader Americans later known as Buffalo Soldiers, who mission was to keep the peace on the plains—and A huge American flag flew atop a 100-foot pole at the formed Company A of the 10th Cavalry. take action when required. parade ground center. Many travelers saw the flag as a beacon of strength and security, but for the Plains Indians it symbolized lost freedom. Touring the Fort  Although Fort Larned is one of the From 1865 to 1868 over 200 civilians labored to complete ten sandstone buildings, boosting the local economy. Nine of these buildings still stand. Construction and the freighting of supplies among the western forts were welcome sources for civilian contracts. best-preserved western forts, its appearance today belies that of the late 1860s (depicted below). The many wood and adobe buildings outside the central parade ground (hospital, laundry, stables, mail station, bowling alley, teamsters’ quarters, and others labeled in italic) quickly deteriorated and do not survive. Santa Fe Trail  Spanning 900 miles of the Great Plains, the trail offered riches and adventure for some—at the risk of hardship and peril. Many westbound wagons carried military supplies, metal tools, cloth, and alcohol. Other goods included hardware like fish hooks, trade items like cut glass beads, home goods like cookware, S an Trai ta Fe and staples like brown Havana sugar and coffee. Some Plains Indians viewed travelers on the trail as trespassers. As clashes grew more frequent, the US government ex­ panded the string of forts along the trail to protect American interests and promote peace. l / Stag First Mail Station  US Postmas­ Pawnee Fo e R oute 60 to 292 men, but throughout Fort Larned’s lifetime its numbers rose and fell. Factors included the US Army’s need for troops to fight back east in the Civil War, the inter­ mittent nature of Indian hostilities, and evolving US government policy toward the tribes. ter General Joseph Holt asked the War Department to protect the Pawnee Fork mail station from Indian raids in 1859. The US Army soon arrived and by 1860 began constructing a permanent fort. In 1861 the garrison expanded from Quartermaster stables rk 1859 mail station Hospital Quartermaster wagon yard Laundry Barracks Visitor Center Shops Cemetery Barracks New commissary Blockhouse Adjutant’s office Company officers quarters Old commissary Commanding officer’s quarters Dugout Cavalry stables Quartermaster storehouse Company officers quarters Sa nt e aF il Tra Icehouse Teamsters quarters Sutler’s store Billiard room Sutler’s mess house Indian agency Indian Agency  By 1866 two Indian agents had set up offices at Fort Larned—Edward W. Wynkoop for the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes and Jesse Leavenworth for the Kiowa, Plains Apache, and Comanche. In 1868, two days after Lt. Col. George Custer led an attack on a peaceful Cheyenne camp on the Washita River, Wynkoop resigned. Tribes  Tribes visited the Indian agency (see illustration, right) to collect annuities—including guns, blankets, tools, clothing, coffee, and flour— promised them in the Little Arkansas and Medicine Lodge treaties of 1865 and 1867 in exchange for their lands (see other side). Congress intended the annuities to placate the tribes, help them adopt European American ways, and help them adapt to life on the reservations. Second sutler’s store and bowling alley Buffalo Soldiers  One of the first African American cavalry units of the post-Civil War US Army, Company A, 10th Cavalry, arrived at Fort Larned in April 1867. In late December 1868 after a fight over a billiards game, the cavalry stables burned. Arson was suspected but no witnesses came forward. On the night of the fire, commanding officer Major John Yard had ordered Company A to guard a distant wood
Fort Larned National Historic Site Junior Ranger Program Explore, Learn, Protect Carved in Stone The American people have set aside special places to preserve for future generations. The National Park Service cares for these places. At Fort Larned, we’ve been preserving and protecting the fort’s original sandstone buildings since the park was formed in 1966. As a Junior Ranger you can be part of that preservation effort and help keep them safe for future generations. As you tour the fort you’ll notice many names and dates carved into the walls of the fort’s buildings. These carvings date mainly from the private ownership period between 1884 to 1966. If allowed to continue over time, though, carving on the sandstone walls is just as destructive as the erosion of wind, rain and snow. The best way to help us preserve this national treasure is to not touch the sandstone buildings as much as possible when visiting and NEVER carve anything on the walls for any reason. Preservation in the Park Service is not just the job of the park rangers, it’s for everyone to whom these treasures belong. On the last page of this booklet is space for you to write down some of the more interesting carvings you see on the fort’s walls during your time here. The Park Service Arrowhead - The Arrowhead represents historical and archaeological treasures. - The Tree represents all vegetation. - The Mountains represent land formations, scenery, and recreational opportunities. - The Lake represents clean water and recreational opportunities. - The Bison represents wildlife. Fort Facts The Santa Fe Trail, established in 1821, cut through the heart of Plains Indian territory. Fort Larned was established to help protect the U.S. mail and commercial traders attacked on the trail by the Indians, who resented this invasion of their homeland. Look through the museum exhibits to find the answers to the following questions. 1)What year was Fort Larned established? ______________ 2) How many battles or skirmishes would the average soldier fight in during a five year enlistment?_____________ 3) Find the Mail Station interactive and pick a city. How long would it take for the mail to get there from Fort Larned? ____________________________________________________________ 4) What year did the Buffalo Soldiers arrive at Fort Larned? _____________________________ 5) Which Spanish explorer led the first European expedition across the Great Plains? _____________________________ 6) When was the Santa Fe Trail established? ___________________________________________ 7) Name two Plains Indian tribes that lived in this area. _________________________________ 8) Name two reasons why Plains Indian tribes raided. _________________________________ 1 A Fort LARNED ADVENTURE Use the words in the word bank to fill in the blanks in the story below. dominoes Infantryman sentry Kiowa bunkies Cavalryman Larned Sutler’s Store barracks Creek hospital horses Army Private Johnson is a foot soldier in the U.S. ________________ in 1868. He is an ________________________ and is stationed at Fort _______________. Sometimes he works with soldiers who ride and fight on horseback known as ____________________. He works in the __________________ helping the Army Surgeon care for the sick patients. Some evenings he spends time with the rest of his _____________ in the ________________ playing a game of ________________. Other evenings he is on duty at the _____________ box. One time, Pvt. Johnson was ordered to hunt down some ______________ that had strayed from the fort. This outing made him a bit nervous. Earlier in the day a band of _______________ had visited the _____________ _____________ to buy ammunition. He found his charges, led them safely across Pawnee ____________, and returned them to the fort without incident. 2 What Is It? Find each of the objects below in the fort buildings and take your best guess on what it is. 3 Did you know? The blacksmith, known as the “smithy”, was not actually in the army. He was a civilian who worked for the Quartermaster Department. He had to take care of any metal work the Quartermaster gave him. What does the word civilian mean? ________________________________________________ Soldiers were issued only a certain amount of uniform items per year during their enlistment. The soldiers could pick up their uniform items in the Quartermaster Warehouse Issue Room. List three separate items issued to soldiers. 1. 2. 3. Uniforms were made of ___ ___ ___ ___ . Shoes like these, called brogans, were worn by Fort Larned soldiers. Brogans (also called bootees) wore out quickly because the infantry soldier walked up to 20 miles every day! How many pairs of brogans were issued to one soldier in 5 years? ___________ 4 Be a history detective! Find the items on this list. Tell us where you found them, don’t take them from the park. Taking anything from a National Park or hurting any of the plants or animals is against t

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