"Riverbend Scenery" by Christopher Spielmann , public domain

Chesapeake Bay

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The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia. The Bay is located in the Mid-Atlantic region and is primarily separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Delmarva Peninsula with its mouth located between Cape Henry and Cape Charles. More than 150 major rivers and streams flow into the Bay's 64,299-square-mile (166,534 km2) drainage basin. The Bay is approximately 200 miles (320 km) long from its northern headwaters in the Susquehanna River to its outlet in the Atlantic Ocean. It is 2.8 miles (4.5 km) wide at its narrowest (between Kent County's Plum Point near Newtown and the Harford County shore near Romney Creek) and 30 miles (48 km) at its widest (just south of the mouth of the Potomac River). Total shoreline including tributaries is 11,684 miles (18,804 km), circumnavigating a surface area of 4,479 square miles (11,601 km2). Average depth is 21 feet (6.4 m), reaching a maximum of 174 feet (53 m).

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Map of the Underground Railroad routes that freedom seekers would take to reach freedom. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Underground Railroad - Routes to Freedom

Map of the Underground Railroad routes that freedom seekers would take to reach freedom. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Bicycle Map of Virginia. Published by the Virginia Department of Transportation.Virginia State - Virginia State Bicycle Map

Bicycle Map of Virginia. Published by the Virginia Department of Transportation.

https://www.nps.gov/chba/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chesapeake_Bay The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U.S. states of Maryland and Virginia. The Bay is located in the Mid-Atlantic region and is primarily separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Delmarva Peninsula with its mouth located between Cape Henry and Cape Charles. More than 150 major rivers and streams flow into the Bay's 64,299-square-mile (166,534 km2) drainage basin. The Bay is approximately 200 miles (320 km) long from its northern headwaters in the Susquehanna River to its outlet in the Atlantic Ocean. It is 2.8 miles (4.5 km) wide at its narrowest (between Kent County's Plum Point near Newtown and the Harford County shore near Romney Creek) and 30 miles (48 km) at its widest (just south of the mouth of the Potomac River). Total shoreline including tributaries is 11,684 miles (18,804 km), circumnavigating a surface area of 4,479 square miles (11,601 km2). Average depth is 21 feet (6.4 m), reaching a maximum of 174 feet (53 m). Over 41 million acres are connected through the waters that flow to and through Chesapeake Bay. The National Park Service strives to connect people to the opportunities and adventures throughout the watershed. Inspiring stewardship across this vast region supports recreation, business, tourism, learning, and a thriving natural resource for all to enjoy. The Chesapeake Bay office is located off of Aris T. Allen Blvd in Annapolis, Maryland. Traveling east on Route 50, take the exit towards Riva road and 665, Aris T. Allen Blvd. Continue on 665 to Forest drive. Our office is on the left through the first light, across from the Safeway. Chesapeake Gateways The Chesapeake Bay Office administers the Chesapeake Gateways Program. Cape Charles A view of docks and boats in the waterside town of Cape Charles VA Cape Charles on Virginia's lower Eastern Shore is a bayside gem with many opportunities for visitors to enjoy the water. Calvert Cliffs A family walks along the beach searching for fossils at Calvert Cliffs. Calvert Cliffs is a well known destination for fossil hunting. Great Falls A series of waterfalls and rocky conditions show the fall line on the Potomac River Great Falls marks the fall line of the Potomac River. Tangier Island At sunset, a boater returns to the docks used by working watermen at Tangier Island. At sunset, a boater returns to the docks used by working watermen at Tangier Island. Kayak Kids Four youngsters paddle kayaks on calm waters of the Susquehanna River Four youngsters paddle kayaks on calm waters of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania. Paddle the Susquehanna The Susquehanna River is the main water source into the 18 trillion gallon Chesapeake Bay, supplying 19 million gallons of fresh water every minute. This beautiful river spans across three states – New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland - and more than 45,000 total miles of waterways. There’s no shortage of places to explore on the Susquehanna, but how do you know where to start? New Paddling Resource for the Susquehanna River The Susquehanna River is the main water source into the 18 trillion gallon Chesapeake Bay, supplying 19 million gallons of fresh water every minute. This beautiful river spans across three states – New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland - and more than 45,000 total miles of waterways. There’s no shortage of places to explore on the Susquehanna, but how do you know where to start? Lower Susquehanna River that shows blue water and lush, green fields in the background. Nearly 400 students and teachers experience a floating classroom on the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail The trail’s visitor contact station at the Zimmerman Center for Heritage and Columbia Crossing hosted 382 student participants from two school districts in two days of fun and learning on the Susquehanna River. Fifth-grade students from Title I schools learned about trail themes including Susquehannock Indians, water quality, and healthy habitats. Students paddling a canoe on the river. National Park Service & Historic Annapolis form Partnership The National Park Service Chesapeake Bay Office and Historic Annapolis announced today a new partnership to better share the story of Annapolis’ Chesapeake Bay heritage with the public. Aerial view of downtown Annapolis American Eels in the Potomac Watershed American eels are found everywhere along the Atlantic Coast, but many aspects of these fish remain poorly understood. They are perhaps one of the most mysterious fish in the Potomac watershed. Hands hold a 2 to 3 foot long eel over a red container. Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail e-Newsletter Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail, WARO quarterly e-newsletter Chesapeake Roving Ranger is Ready to Roll The National Park Service Chesapeake Bay and its principal partner, the Chesapeake Conservancy, have launched the Roving Ranger. This is a new mobile visitor center for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail (Chesapeake Trail). NPS and Conservancy staff will take the Roving Ranger to sites that partner with Chesapeake Trail and communities throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Male ranger poses with kids in "Selfie" frame in front of park van. Crystal Clear: Chesapeake Bay Sentinel Site Cooperation The Chesapeake Bay region is currently experiencing some of the highest relative sea level rise rates reported within the United States. The Sentinel Site Cooperatives were initiated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to leverage existing information and data collection projects to address impacts of climate change of local, regional, and national significance. Arial view of green peninsula jutting into ocean bay Find Your Chesapeake…Virtually! National Park Service Chesapeake Bay office and Chesapeake Conservancy have created a new Virtual Visits section filled with trips, tours, and other online experiences for those who are self-isolating in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. On the water view of the Key Bridge in Washington DC. National Park Service Chesapeake & Corazón Latino Launch New Partnership The National Park Service Chesapeake Bay Office (NPS) and Corazón Latino today announce a new partnership to engage the Chesapeake watershed’s Latinx and Hispanic communities with the region’s special places. Groundbreaking Partnership to Document African American Historic Sites in Chesapeake Bay Watershed The National Park Service’s Chesapeake Bay Gateways Network has provided the initial funding for the project, a $200,000 award to the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Additional support, bringing the total project value to $400,000... New Support for Building Conservation Finance Capacity This week, the National Park Service Chesapeake Office and the Conservation Finance Network (CFN), in collaboration with the Land Trust Alliance and the Chesapeake Conservation Partnership, announced new support for building conservation finance capacity in the Chesapeake watershed. Series: Crystal Clear: A Call to Action In 2016, the nation celebrates the centennial of the National Park Service (NPS) as the steward of special places that represent our natural and cultural heritage. Many national parks were founded on the beauty and value of water. Since the preservation of the Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park in 1872, the National Park System has grown to include significant examples within majestic rivers, the Great Lakes, oceans and coasts, and other spectacular water resources. bright blue lake green islands in between Indigenous Artistry: Debra Martin Debra Martin is a citizen of the Pamunkey Indian Tribe, whose reservation is located in King William, Virginia. Martin makes pottery, beadwork, and quilting. She is also the Assistant Director of the Pamunkey Indian Museum and a councilperson in the tribe's government. Her pottery draws on traditional techniques and natural motifs. Portrait of Debra Martin in front of a building. Indigenous Artistry: Mario Harley Mario Harley is an artisan from the Piscataway Conoy tribe, located in what is now Maryland. He uses a variety of natural materials, such as feathers, porcupine quills, birch bark, and sweet grass, in his artwork. His designs are made with Native dancers in mind. Portrait of Mario Harley inside a house. Indigenous Artistry: Leonard Harmon Leonard Harmon is a citizen of the Lenape Tribe of New Jersey and the Nanticoke Tribe of Delaware. In his artwork, Harmon blends the traditional with the modern, infusing bright colors into the regalia he designs. He also uses beads made from wampum, the purple and white shell of the quahog or hard clam. The Lenape people were considered the keepers of the white wampum beads. Portrait of Leonard Harmon at the beach. Indigenous Artistry: Ethan Brown Ethan Brown is an artist from the Pamunkey Indian Tribe located in King William, Virginia. His painted gourds reflect scenes from tribal life and culture. In addition, Brown is a film maker, sculptor, painter, and potter. Artist Ethan Brown at work on his gourd paintings. National Park Service Chesapeake Office Statement on the Passing of Former U.S. Senator John Warner Statement attributable to Wendy O’Sullivan, Superintendent of the National Park Service Chesapeake Office on the passing of former U.S. Senator John Warner of Virginia. Senator John Warner Deep History & Archeological Periods Paleoindian peoples first arrived in the Chesapeake Bay watershed over 15,000 years ago. Since, Native peoples have thrived here, benefiting from the plentiful resources of the Bay. Three pipes from an archeological site. From Contact to Present From slavery and displacement to nationhood and revitalization, Native peoples are still here today despite centuries of erasure by European and American governments. A man in a suit and hat stands next to a river with rowboat and fishing net. Life in the Indigenous Chesapeake Prior to English settlement in the Chesapeake, indigenous cultures did more than simply “live off the land.” Native societies were sophisticated, with unique languages, religions, economies, political systems, and traditions. An illustration showing American Indians fishing using various techniques. Sew an American Shad Sew your own American Shad! The American Shad is one of the many fish species that migrates from the Atlantic Ocean up the rivers of the Chesapeake Bay to spawn each year. This silvery, iridescent swimmer has been called the fish that feeds the Atlantic. Indeed, it was historically a meal often enjoyed by American Indians and colonists that is still prized by anglers today. Make a shad of your very own with our first ever sewing pattern! Stuffed animal fish sitting on a beach. Chesapeake Office Wins Regional Education Award The National Park Service recently announced a pilot education program connecting every fourth and fifth grade student in Hampton, Virginia with the area’s natural resources and cultural history as the recipient of the award on behalf of the Northeast region. The program now qualifies for the national award, the highest award presented to a team or individual in the education field, to be announced in August. Three boys sit side by side on a boat, the boy closest to the camera holds a spider crab. Chesapeake Bay Watershed Public Access Plan In 2013, the National Park Service and state partners released the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Public Access Plan. This plan reflects the state of public access to significant streams, rivers, and bays in the entire Chesapeake watershed, including portions of Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Implementing the plan will expand the number of places for people to get to the water by more than 20 percent by 2025. A kayaker within a salt marsh faces away from the camera. Estuary Landforms Estuaries are buffer zones between river (freshwater) and ocean (saltwater) environments that are affected by tidal oscillations. sunset over wetlands Series: Beach and Coastal Landforms Our national parks contain diverse coastal landforms: high-energy rocky shorelines of Acadia National Park, quiet reef-lagoons within War in the Pacific National Historic Park, and the white sandy beaches of Gulf Islands National Seashore. Coastal landforms are, or have been, affected to some degree by the direct or indirect effects of waves, tides, and currents, and may extend inland for many miles. aerial view of island and reef Multi-State: Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network The Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network is a system of over 170 sites located within the Chesapeake Bay region. The Network tells the story of the connections between people and nature in the Chesapeake region through its historic sites and communities, trails, parks, wildlife refuges, maritime museums, and more. The Network’s goal is to help connect people to the natural and cultural heritage of the Chesapeake region. Satellite image of Chesapeake Bay Green Muslims ODIG! for Adults: Our Deen is Green! Meaningful Watershed Education Experience (MWEE) for Grownups $35,000 grant to Green Muslims - Washington D.C. - Building upon the Our Deen (Faith) is Green! youth outdoor education program, this project will take adults into nature. Bi-Lingual Ranger Community Engagement Pilot Project $150,000 grant to Baltimore County - Maryland - This project will support a new Spanish-speaking Park Ranger at Marshy Point Nature Center and Loch Raven Fishing Center during the peak season of May – August. Kingman Rangers Interpretive Program $50,000 grant to The Living Classrooms of the National Capital Region - Washington D.C. - This project will increase engagement and equitable access to this area for audiences of all ages—especially Black communities east of the Anacostia—through education, recreation, outreach, and special community programming and events. Discovering Diversity to Advance Inclusion, Accessibility, and Equity in Charlottesville $49,976 grant to the City of Charlottesville - Virginia - This project will provide a creative, collaborative process that encourages input from many community partners connected to marginalized populations to develop accurate data for Charlottesville. Living on the Edge: Uncovering and Sharing the Stories of Bull Run Mountain’s Diversely Peopled Past $77,000 grant to Virginia Outdoors Foundation - Virginia - This project will allow staff and researchers to uncover more information about the Bull Run families; to engage with a more diverse public via guided hikes, social media and blog posts about the Black and African American history of the Preserve; and cement this research in a publicly accessible format. National Park Trust and Bowie State College Ambassadors Explore the Chesapeake Gateway Region $35,000 grant to The National Park Trust - Maryland - This project provides an innovative, interdisciplinary learning experience for Bowie State students who will visit more than a dozen natural and historic sites throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed during a 10-day, 700+-mile trip as part of a field course centered around African American and Black History in the Chesapeake Region. Mariners' Lake Access Initiative $147,884 grant to The Mariners’ Museum - Virginia - This project will support the re-opening of the lake for education, enrichment, and recreation - restoring and expanding access to on-the-water educational and recreational activities. Diversifying Volunteer Programs in the Anacostia Watershed $147,565 grant to The Friends of the National Arboretum - Washington D.C. - This project will connect with diverse local communities and support several activities, including the following: hiring a volunteer/community outreach manager; meetings with community organizations to identify best practices in community engagement, recruiting, and training volunteers; family fishing evenings with Anacostia Riverkeeper; and a best practices volunteer on-boarding The Wonder Wagon: A Mobile Nature Center for Fairfax County $45,798 grant to Fairfax County Park Foundation - Virginia - This project will enhance current programming and allow the Wonder Wagon team to acquire a vehicle, equipment, and supplies, to meet Fairfax County community members where they are - community centers, events, unstaffed parks, and title one schools. Three Cultures Center at Handsell Historic Site $150,000 grant to Nanticoke Historic Preservation Alliance - Maryland - This project will utilize existing historic structures and support the development of a new Three Cultures Center, in the style of a 19th century barn, with facilities for programming and events, ADA accessible restrooms, and storage. Enlace: Engaging and Empowering Latino Youth through Environmental Experiences and Education $125,517 grant to EcoLatinos, Inc. - Maryland - This project enlaces Latino youth in Prince George's and Montgomery Counties to their communities, to the greater environmental movement, and to future educational and career opportunities through a year-round, summer and after school program. Baltimore Tree Trust and Baltimore Peace Movement’s Memorial Tree Plantings $49,852 grant to Baltimore Tree Trust, Inc. - Maryland - This project will interview the 28 families, and stories will be available via a QR code on each tree as well as reflected through local artwork. Weeds to Woods Naturally Urban Workforce Development Program $150,000 grant to Backyard Basecamp, Inc. - Maryland - Through this program, 16 Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) youth will gain experience for access to green careers, learn about Maryland’s ecological history, develop facilitation and life skills, and earn certifications in Wilderness First Aid and CPR. Susquehanna Discovery Center & Heritage Park - Master Plan & Interpretive Framework $150,000 grant to Susquehanna National Heritage Area - Pennsylvania - This project unites land conservation, historic preservation, inclusive storytelling, heritage tourism, and economic development on one landscape in the Susquehanna/Chesapeake watershed. Connecting the Public to Rappahannock Tribal History and Stewardship of Natural Resources $147,807 grant to the Rappahannock Tribe - Virginia - Through this project the tribe will restore the lodge building (Lodge) at the Cat Point Creek unit of the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge and create an Indigenous Environmental Education Center, bringing together Rappahannock Tribal citizens and non-native people for environmental education and outdoor recreation opportunities. Development of a Comprehensive Parks Master Plan for Moulton Park $109,621 grant to Jefferson County Parks & Recreation Commission - West Virginia - This project supports development of a comprehensive master plan for the park and its recent 82-acre expansion. Seeing is Believing - Linking 5th Grade Hampton City Students with Local Culture and Nature through Outdoor Environmental Education $149,520 grant to the James River Association - Virginia - This project advances a curriculum which connects 5th grade students and teachers in 21 elementary schools with nature and culture, through a professional development session, in-class lessons and hands-on field experiences, and community environmental days. Four Mile Run All-Ability Water Access Point $106,885 grant to Four Mile Run Conservatory Foundation - Virginia - Located in an under-utilized portion of Four Mile Run Park, this project will help meet the growing need for healthy recreation opportunities in Alexandria. Springfield Woods Local Leader Legacies $150,000 grant to Baltimore Green Space - Maryland - This project will honor community member Butch Berry’s vision, which included telling stories of the people whose lives were enriched by the forest and the rich Black history of the neighborhood. Expanding Access to Black and Indigenous Narratives of the Potomac $47,731 grant to the Accokeek Foundation Inc. - Maryland - Building on previous work to recognize and interpret the significance of the Piscataway Park landscape to the Piscataway people, the Accokeek Foundation Inc. will curate a collection of oral histories focusing on BIPOC fishing industry workers to create effective interpretive materials. Using eDNA and Storytelling to Understand the Social and Ecological Histories of African Americans in the Chesapeake Bay $142,500 grant to Black in Marine Science - Maryland - This project will work with Blacks of the Chesapeake Foundation (BOCF) to use environmental DNA (eDNA) to bridge social and environmental knowledge throughout the Chesapeake Bay. Access to Action: Engaging the Latino Community of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed $149,975 grant to Defensores de la Cuenca - Maryland & Washington D.C. - This project will create opportunities for Spanish dominant people to have positive experiences in new spaces and places throughout the greater Baltimore City and Washington, D.C. areas. Series: 2023 Chesapeake Gateways Grant Recipients The National Park Service Chesapeake Gateways Program (NPS Chesapeake Gateways) offers competitive grant opportunities to advance the Chesapeake Bay Initiative Act of 1998 within the full 41-million-acre Chesapeake Bay watershed! In September 2023, NPS Chesapeake Gateways awarded 22 grants totally nearly $2.3 million. NPS Chesapeake Gateway's Partner logo on blue background. A Late Fall Tour through Three Chesapeake Gateways November and December are exciting months to visit three Chesapeake Gateways, all essential stops on the Harriet Tubman Byway. The weather is crisp and bird migrations are in full flight! Sailwinds Park East, MD, the Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical and State Park, MD and the Blackwater Wildlife Refuge, MD are enchanting and educational Chesapeake Gateways. Visitor center building with large white canvas over top to look like ship sails.
Chesapeake Bay Office National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior A BOATER’S GUIDE TO THE CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH CHESAPEAKE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL BY JOHN PAGE WILLIAMS IN PARTNERSHIP WITH THE CHESAPEAKE CONSERVANCY and the CHESAPEAKE BAY FOUNDATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PROJECT PARTNERS NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CHESAPEAKE BAY OFFICE National Park Service Chesapeake Bay Office (CHBA) leads National Park Service efforts to connect people to the natural and cultural heritage of the Chesapeake region. CHBA administers the Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network, the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail, and the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail. CHBA is a federal partner in the multistate and federal Chesapeake Bay Program and has a leadership role in the federal coordinated Strategy for Protecting and Restoring the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, in response to Executive Order 13508, issued in 2009. To learn more about National Park Service initiatives for the Chesapeake Bay and the best places to experience the authentic Chesapeake, start with online visits to the following websites: Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network www.baygateways.net Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail www.smithtrail.net Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail www.nps.gov/stsp CHESAPEAKE CONSERVANCY The Chesapeake Conservancy is dedicated to ensuring conservation, stewardship and access for the Chesapeake Bay, its lands and rivers. The Conservancy was created out of a merger between the Friends of the John Smith Chesapeake Trail and Friends of Chesapeake Gateways. The Chesapeake Conservancy works toward three strategic goals: • To realize the full potential of the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail and the Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network, and coordinate with other Chesapeake Bay trails to promote recreation and tourism along with education about the Bay and its waterways • To generate and direct public and private financial and technical resources to conserve the Bay’s significant landscapes and expand public access • To advance the establishment of new conservation, recreation and public access corridor designations on the Chesapeake. To learn more about the Chesapeake Conservancy’s programs, visit www.chesapeakeconservancy.org, contact info@chesapeakeconservancy.org, or call 443-321-3610. CHESAPEAKE BAY FOUNDATION The Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) was one of the founding supporters for the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail. CBF is the largest privately funded, nonprofit organization dedicated solely to protecting and restoring the Chesapeake Bay. The Foundation offers a wide range of educational, advocacy, and stewardship programs. The Chesapeake Bay Foundation has adopted Captain John Smith’s descriptions of the Chesapeake in the early 1600s as a baseline for measuring a rich and balanced Bay. CBF provides an annual State of the Bay report comparing the current health of the Bay to that baseline. Contact the Chesapeake Bay Foundation at webadmin@cbf.org or 410-268-8816. Visit the foundation online at www.cbf.org. i About the Guide A Boater’s Guide to the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail is a joint project of the National Park Service Chesapeake Bay Office, the Chesapeake Conservancy, and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation. As the first guide to America’s first national water trail, this publication introduces paddlers and boaters to the best places to access the trail. Author John Page Williams expertly weaves practical information for today’s boaters with the historical context of the Chesapeake’s waters explored by Captain John Smith four centuries ago. The Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail was designated as part of the National Trails System in 2006. The National Park Service completed a comprehensive management plan in 2011 for the development of the trail. While this Boater’s Guide describes many places where boaters can access and explore the trail now, many more access areas and facilities will be added as trail development continues. For this reason, the Boater’s Guide is an online publication, designed to be updated as new information becomes available. The National Park Service acknowledges with appreciation the contributions of the Chesapeake Conservancy and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation as partners in creating this first Boater’s Guide to the Smith trail. We appreciate also the reviewers who gave feedback to improve the Guide. While we have endeavored to provide accurate current information at the time of publication, trailhead details, in particular, are subject to change. We encourage users of this Guide to verify contact information as they prepare for their travels along the trail. We also invite users of the Guide to notify the author of changes and new information to be considered for future editions. He can be reached by e-mail at jpwilliams@cbf.org.

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