"Capulin Volcano National Monument, New Mexico" by National Park Service , public domain
National Monument - New Mexico
Capulin Volcano National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located in northeastern New Mexico which protects and interprets an extinct cinder cone volcano that is part of the Raton-Clayton Volcanic Field.
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https://www.nps.gov/cavo/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capulin_Volcano_National_Monument Capulin Volcano National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located in northeastern New Mexico which protects and interprets an extinct cinder cone volcano that is part of the Raton-Clayton Volcanic Field. Part of the 8,000 square mile Raton-Clayton Volcanic Field, Capulin Volcano showcases the volcanic geology of northeastern New Mexico. The views are spectacular day or night, with views of 4 different states from the volcanic rim and one of the darkest night skies in the country. Whether it's a quick stop or a day's trip, enjoy exploring the landscape of this unique volcano! Capulin Volcano National Monument is located in northeast New Mexico. The monument is located 33 miles east of Raton, NM, and 57 miles west of Clayton, NM on NM325 3 miles north of US64. No public transportation systems serve the park. Capulin Volcano Visitor Center The Visitor Center is at the base of Capulin Volcano and includes a fee and information station, exhibits, theater for the park film, restrooms, and a park bookstore. Hours are from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m most of the year, except in the summer months (Memorial Day to Labor Day) when it is open from 8:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. Capulin Volcano National Monument is located in northeast New Mexico. The monument is located 33 miles east of Raton, NM, and 57 miles west of Clayton, NM. No public transportation systems serve the park. From US-64, turn on to NM-325 and head north for approximately 3 miles. The park entrance will be on the right. Follow the entrance road until you see the visitor center on the right. Capulin Volcano A cloud shrouded volcano rises behind a field of yellow flowers. Capulin Volcano in summer. Aerial View of Capulin Volcano View of cinder cone volcano and the road leading to the top of the volcano as seen from the air. Capulin Volcano is a classic example of a cinder cone. The crater is approximately 130 m (420 ft) deep and 440 m (1,450 ft) across. The base of the mountain is 6 km (4 mi) in circumference. Volcano Road spirals up the volcano, providing panoramic views. Nature Trail at Capulin Volcano A shaded bench on the side of a paved nature trail wending through juniper trees and grasses. A paved nature trail at Capulin Volcano NM. Volcano Road Layers of rock are visible in the steep hillside along a road. Layers of volcanic material can be seen in the Volcano Road that takes visitors to the top of Capulin Volcano. Capulin Volcano-Best Example of a Cinder Cone in North America View of a cinder cone volcano covered with grasses, small trees, and other plants. Although Capulin Mountain is considered no longer active, because its excellent condition, the cinder cone is considered one of the best and most accessible examples of a cinder cone in North America. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Capulin Volcano National Monument, New Mexico Capulin Volcano, which erupted 54,200 years ago within the easternmost young volcanic field in North America, is one of the most scenic and most accessible cinder cones on the continent. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. capulin volcano Air Quality Monitoring in the Southern Plains and Chihuahuan Desert Networks Both the Clean Air Act and the National Park Service Organic Act protect air resources in national parks. Park resources affected by air quality include scenery and vistas, vegetation, water, and wildlife. Over the past three decades, the National Park Service has developed several internal and cooperative programs for monitoring various measures of air quality. Cactus and clear skies at Tonto National Monument Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. Capulin Volcano Breeding Bird Inventory The first thorough survey for breeding birds at Capulin Volcano National Monument was conducted in 2002, by the New Mexico Natural Heritage Program. Mountain Chickadee Exotic Plants Monitoring in the Southern Plains and Chihuahuan Desert National parks, like other publicly managed lands, are deluged by new exotic species arriving through predictable (e.g., road, trail, and riparian corridors), sudden (e.g., long distance dispersal through cargo containers and air freight), and unexpected anthropogenic pathways (e.g., weed seeds mixed in with restoration planting mixes). Landscape with a uniform, green foreground consisting of invasive kochia Capulin Goldenrod Capulin Volcano National Monument is located within a vegetative transitional zone between the Rocky Mountains and shortgrass prairie, resulting in a relatively high diversity of habitats for wildlife and plants not found elsewhere in the surrounding grasslands. Capulin goldenrod (<em>Solidago capulinensis</em>) is a rare plant found at the monument, and was first described and collected in 1936 by Cockerell and Andrews. Capulin goldenrod Capulin Alberta Arctic Butterfly The Capulin Alberta arctic butterfly was first found at Capulin Volcano National Monument’s crater rim in 1969 and was soon determined to be a new subspecies known only to the monument and some nearby areas. Capulin Alberta arctic butterfly specimen Pollinators - Hummingbirds Hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) are amazingly adapted pollinators, and they play an important role in pollination. A flying hummingbird hovers next to a red flower Pinyon-Juniper Habitat at Capulin Volcano National Monument Pinyon-juniper is one of the major habitat types found within Capulin Volcano National Monument and comprises approximately 59% of the monument’s total area. Pinyon-juniper and grasslands at Capulin Volcano National Monument Climate Change in the Southern Plains Network Climate change may have direct and/or indirect effects on many elements of Southern Plains network ecosystems, from streams and grasslands to fires and birds. Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) is an invasive plant that has invaded the Southern Plains Climate Monitoring in the Southern Plains, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan Desert Climate is one of many ecological indicators monitored by the National Park Service (NPS) Division of Inventory & Monitoring (I&M). Climate data help scientists to understand ecosystem processes and help to explain many of the patterns and trends observed in other natural-resource monitoring. In NPS units of the American Southwest, three I&M networks monitor climate using the scientific protocol described here. Kayaking across a fl ooded parking lot, Chickasaw NRA, July 2007. Southwestern Plains The Plains of the Southwest include the southern Great Plains, the High Plains, Llano Estacado (Staked Plains), and Edwards Plateau. Sunset lights up the grass at Capulin Volcano National Monument Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: National Park Service Geodiversity Atlas The servicewide Geodiversity Atlas provides information on <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geoheritage-conservation.htm">geoheritage</a> and <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/geodiversity.htm">geodiversity</a> resources and values all across the National Park System to support science-based management and education. The <a href="https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1088/index.htm">NPS Geologic Resources Division</a> and many parks work with National and International <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/geology/park-geology.htm">geoconservation</a> communities to ensure that NPS abiotic resources are managed using the highest standards and best practices available. park scene mountains Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: Southern Plains Bird Inventories Birds are a highly visible component of many ecosystems and because they respond quickly to changes in resource conditions, birds are good indicators of environmental change. Bird inventories allow us to understand the current condition, or status, of bird populations and communities in parks. These data are important for managing birds and other resources and provide baseline information for monitoring changes over time. Violet-green swallow Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Women Who Were There No comprehensive data has been compiled about women government employees working in national parks before the NPS was founded on August 25, 1916. Their numbers are undoubtedly few but perhaps not as small as we might imagine. The four early NPS women featured here were exceptional in their own ways, but they are also proxies for the names we no longer remember and the stories we can no longer tell. Una Lee Roberts, 1933.(Courtesy of the Oklahoma Hall of Fame, Gaylord-Pickens Museum) Strombolian Eruptions Stombolian eruptions look like volcanic firework displays. Explosions eject glowing volcanic bombs into the air that then fall around the crater. volcanic eruption with glowing lava seen at night Volcanic Craters Craters are present at many volcanic vents. The size and shape of volcanic craters vary a great deal from volcano to volcano, and they even change during the lifespan of an active volcano. Craters can become filled by lava domes or lava flows, and new craters may form during subsequent eruptions. cinder cone crater Maars and Tuff Rings Maars and tuff rings are low-standing pyroclastic cones with large craters that usually form from highly-explosive eruptions caused by the interaction of magma with ground or surface waters. Ubehebe Crater in Death Valley National Park is a maar. lakeshore and tundra Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Jessie Foote Jack Businesswoman and rancher Jessie Foote Jack became custodian of Capulin Volcano National Monument in August 1916, shortly before the National Park Service (NPS) was created. For seven years she was the only woman to manage a national monument. After she resigned in 1923, another woman wasn't appointed to lead an NPS site until July 1940. Jessie Jack in front of a bush wearing a long black skirt, white blouse, and a black hat. Cinder Cones Cinder cones are typically simple volcanoes that consist of accumulations of ash and cinders around a vent. Sunset Crater Volcano and Capulin Volcano are cinder cones. photo of a dry grassy field with a cinder cone in the distance Lava Lakes Lakes of molten or solidified lava are usually only found in pit craters or calderas (both are types of collapse features) on shield volcanoes. Lava lakes may occasionally occur within other vent areas, or sometimes even on pooled lava flows. Long-lasting lava lakes typically only form in places where there is good connectivity with a shallow magma reservoir. photo of a lava lake taken with a thermal camera Series: Volcanic Features Volcanoes vary greatly in size and shape. Volcanoes also may have a variety of other features, which in turn, have a great range in diversity of form, size, shape, and permanence. Many volcanoes have craters at their summits and/or at the location of other vents. Some craters contain water lakes. Lakes of molten or solidified lava may exist on some volcanoes. Fumaroles and other geothermal features are a product of heat from magma reservoirs and volcanic gases. photo of a lava lake in a summit crater Volcanic Inverted Topography Inverted topography arises when lava flows that filled valleys at the time of their eruption later hold up mesas because their resistance to erosion is greater than most other rock types. photo of volcanic rock with petroglyphs and a distant mesa Series: Volcano Types Volcanoes vary in size from small cinder cones that stand only a few hundred feet tall to the most massive mountains on earth. photo of a volcanic mountain with snow and ice Monogenetic Volcanic Fields Monogenetic volcanic fields are areas covered by volcanic rocks where each of the volcanic vents typically only erupt once. Monogenetic volcanic fields typically contain cinder cones, fissure volcanoes, and/or maars and tuff rings. They also usually encompass large areas covered by basaltic lava flows. oblique aerial photo of a lava flow that extended into a body of water Series: Volcanic Eruption Styles Categories in this traditional classification are based on the eruption styles of particular volcanoes. These magmatic eruption styles are listed in the order of increasing explosivity. volcanic eruption with glowing lava Volcanic Ash, Tephra Fall, and Fallout Deposits Volcanic ash, pumice, and tephra ejected in volcanic eruptions ultimately falls back to Earth where it covers the ground. These deposits may be the thin dustings or may be many tens of feet (meters) thick near an eruptive vent. Volcanic ash and tephra can present geohazards that are present great distances from the erupting volcano. photo of a bluff with exposed fine-grained volcanic ash and pumice. Lava Flow Surface Features Surface features on a lava flow may reveal important information of the specific dynamics that occurred during the eruption and emplacement of the flow. photo of lava rock with a rippled surface of ropey lava Series: Geologic Time—Major Divisions and NPS Fossils The National Park System contains a magnificent record of geologic time because rocks from each period of the geologic time scale are preserved in park landscapes. The geologic time scale is divided into four large periods of time—the Cenozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Paleozoic Era, and The Precambrian. photo of desert landscape with a petrified wood log on the surface Outside Science (inside parks): Hummingbirds–Banding Together in Capulin Volcano National Monument The Outside Science crew spends time at Capulin during hummingbird banding time, which is an interactive process involving park visitors, interns, volunteers, and park staff. two children watch as a hummingbird is released from a ranger's hands Outside Science (inside parks): Interns in Capulin Volcano National Monument If you've ever completed an internship, you know that it can bring unanticipated opportunities...like banding hummingbirds at Capulin Volcano National Monument. Watch Cassi Hill explain how her internship kickstarted her career. Cassy Hill and junior rangers