"Cannon Firing" by NPS Photo , public domain

Castillo de San Marcos

National Monument - Florida

The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States and is Located on the western shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of St. Augustine, Florida. Construction began in 1672, 107 years after the city's founding by Spanish Admiral and conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, when Florida was part of the Spanish Empire. The fort's construction was ordered by Governor Francisco de la Guerra y de la Vega after the destructive raid by the English privateer Robert Searles in 1668. The construction of the core of the current fortress was completed in 1695. Under United States control the fort was used as a military prison to incarcerate members of Native American tribes starting with the Seminole—including the famous war chief, Osceola, in the Second Seminole War—and members of western tribes, including Geronimo's band of Chiricahua Apache.

location

maps

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Highway Map North of Florida. Published by the Florida Department of Transportation.Florida State - Highway Map North 2023

Official Highway Map North of Florida. Published by the Florida Department of Transportation.

brochures

Official brochure of Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Castillo de San Marcos - Brochure

Official brochure of Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Self-Guided Walking Tour at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Castillo de San Marcos - Self-Guided Tour

Self-Guided Walking Tour at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

The Change of Flags at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Castillo de San Marcos - The Change of Flags

The Change of Flags at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Siege of 1702 at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Castillo de San Marcos - Siege of 1702

Siege of 1702 at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Second Seminole War, 1835-1842 brochure for Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Castillo de San Marcos - Second Seminole War, 1835-1842

Second Seminole War, 1835-1842 brochure for Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

World War 2 brochure for Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Castillo de San Marcos - World War 2

World War 2 brochure for Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Junior Rangers at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Castillo de San Marcos - Junior Ranger

Junior Rangers at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Castillo de San Marcos NM https://www.nps.gov/casa/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castillo_de_San_Marcos The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States and is Located on the western shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of St. Augustine, Florida. Construction began in 1672, 107 years after the city's founding by Spanish Admiral and conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, when Florida was part of the Spanish Empire. The fort's construction was ordered by Governor Francisco de la Guerra y de la Vega after the destructive raid by the English privateer Robert Searles in 1668. The construction of the core of the current fortress was completed in 1695. Under United States control the fort was used as a military prison to incarcerate members of Native American tribes starting with the Seminole—including the famous war chief, Osceola, in the Second Seminole War—and members of western tribes, including Geronimo's band of Chiricahua Apache. Built by the Spanish in St. Augustine to defend Florida and the Atlantic trade route, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument preserves the oldest masonry fortification in the continental United States and interprets more than 450 years of cultural intersections. On State Route A1A overlooking Matanzas Bay in the heart of the historic district of Saint Augustine, the Castillo is approximately a five mile drive from Interstate 95. Castillo Drawbridge Drawbridge entrance to the Castillo de San Marcos Crossing a dry moat, this drawbridge was the only way into the Castillo. Castillo de San Marcos Hot Shot Furnace Furnace for heating cannon balls This furnace, in the water battery on the east side of the Castillo, heated cannonballs red hot to be fired at wooden vessels. Castillo de San Marcos Cannon Four black iron cannon mounted on carriages line the walls of the Castillo. The Castillo features both iron and bronze cannon and mortar from the period. Castillo de San Marcos Cannon Firing Re-enactors of the first Spanish period cover their ears while firing a cannon. Cannon firing demonstrations are scheduled five times a day every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. Castillo de San Marcos Aerial View Aerial view of the Castillo and the city of St. Augustine the Castillo commands the northern edge of the heart of downtown St. Augsutine. Archaeology Activity "One man's trash is another man's treasure." What?! Complete an archaeology activity to discover how "trash" can teach us a lot about people from the past. Shell Midden Mound, a hill with shells and grass. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, Florida Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. [Site Under Development] fortress walls Build Your Own Cannon Experience a cannon firing, examine 3D models of artillery, and build your own paper cannon. Cannon with two Spanish soldiers and flag on gun deck of Castillo. Castillo Virtual Ranger Become a Virtual Ranger at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument! Image of Virtual Ranger arrowhead, images of a computer screen, and fort outline. Colonial Games Learn about colonial games and make your own toy. Two children are playing checkers in the grass. Build Your Own Fort Do you have what it takes to defend your town? Construct your own fort out of materials you have at home! Image of sand castle on beach. Civil Rights in Colonial St. Augustine In 1606, one year before the founding of Jamestown, Virginia, the first documented slave birth was recorded in St. Augustine, FL. Cannon Experiment Did you know cannons harnessed the power of a chemical reaction to function? Discover more by conducting an experiment using the scientific method to produce a chemical reaction with an Alka-Seltzer cannon. Apply what you learn about chemical reactions to the loading and firing of cannon to understand the reality faced by the gun crews at the Castillo and Fort Matanzas. Cannon Diagram Climate Change Have you ever felt stronger as part of a group? The history of the Castillo de San Marcos shows us that there's strength in numbers -- a lesson to remember as we face the challenge posed by climate change. Illustration of the northeast bastion with water and palm trees in background. National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map Coloring Pages - Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas Looking for a home or classroom activity for the kids? Enjoy these coloring pages that were created by rangers and volunteers! Young boy with coloring page of a cartoon fort soldier Castillo de San Marcos Bark Ranger Do you like exploring downtown St. Augustine and the park grounds outside Castillo de San Marcos with your canine friend? Learn about the B.A.R.K. Ranger program! Image of a dog with a ranger outside Castillo de San Marcos Sustainability Explore opportunities to protect resources in the park and at home. Photograph of a water refill station at Castillo. Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas National Monuments Cultural Landscapes Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas, both in present-day northeastern Florida, represent the best-preserved evidence of the Spanish Empire’s 287-year presence in southeastern North America. The oldest masonry fortification remaining in the continental United States, Castillo de San Marcos formed the core of a system of defenses. The fort landscapes reflect conventions of military engineering and the later changes and preservation efforts by the U.S. War Department. A furnace in an area of turf between the masonry wall of a fort and a seawall alongside water. 50 Nifty Finds #5: Keeping Their Cool The park ranger uniform is known the world over. Perhaps the most iconic part of the uniform is the broad-brimmed flat hat. Over the last century, however, many different kinds of hats have been worn by rangers depending on their gender, where they work, the season of the year, and the jobs they do. While a pith helmet may bring up images of Colonial Britain, World War II soldiers, explorers, or people on safaris, for a while it was also be worn by some park rangers. Tan pith helmet with a silver Sequoia cone on the front 2022 Freeman Tilden Award Recipients View regional recipients of the National Park Service Freeman Tilden Award, which recognizes outstanding contributions to the practice of interpretation and education by a NPS employee. Two women work with a tree while a young man records audio. 50 Nifty Finds #39: An NPS Art Factory Between 1938 and 1941 the National Park Service (NPS) Western Museum Laboratories (WML) created many iconic posters. Often described as “the WPA park posters,” they should be called “the WML posters.” Research reveals more designs than previously thought (including several previously unknown ones), reevaluates what is known about the artists, and argues that modern reproductions have made the designs more significant to NPS graphic identity today than they were in the past. Poster with a purple El Capitan at Yosemite 50 Nifty Finds #45: Holding the Line The National Park Service (NPS) was only 26 years old when the United States entered World War II. The young bureau faced very real threats to its mission, with increasing pressure to contribute its natural and cultural resources to the war effort even as its budget and staff were slashed. Under the leadership of Director Newton B. Drury, the NPS was able to do its part for the war while maintaining its public trust responsibilities to the American people. Worth Fighting For fire prevention poster
B National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior eginning in the 1500s, many European powers, including Spain, France, and Great Britain, were fighting for control in the New World. With wealthy trade and territory at stake, how could they defend their colonial outposts from enemy attack? In 1565, Spain established St. Augustine to protect its Gulf Stream shipping route and anchor its claim to La Florida (roughly today’s Florida and parts of surrounding states). By the early 1600s, British colonies encroaching from the north threatened the city. The Spanish built nine wooden forts before constructing the stone fort that stands today, preserved as part of Castillo de San Marcos National Monument. From its first stones to its later massive walls, Castillo de San Marcos was constructed between 1672 and 1695. Once completed, this structure never fell in battle. Outdoor Exhibits Look for these informational signs around the park and inside the Castillo. Accessibility We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For information ask a ranger, call, visit our website, or download the park app. More Information Castillo de San Marcos National Monument is one of over 400 parks in the Na­tional Park System. To learn more about national parks, visit www.nps.gov. Covered Way Between the glacis and the moat is the covered (covert) way, where defending soldiers could move safely around the exterior. Spain’s Coat of Arms This coat of arms represents Spain’s united kingdoms: Castile (castle) and León (lion). The original coat of arms was placed on the fort in 1756. Glacis The sloping embankment around the fort protected the lower walls from enemy fire. Covered way Sentry Box This small tower sheltered guards during their watch. Castillo de San Marcos National Monument Florida Tour the Castillo The fort is open daily, year-round, except Thanksgiving and December 25. There is an entrance fee. Bell tower Moat Mailing address: Castillo de San Marcos National Monument 1 S. Castillo Dr. St. Augustine, FL 32084 904-829-6506 www.nps.gov/casa IGPO:2021—416-165/82665 New in 2021 Printed on recycled paper. ALL IMAGES—NPS EXCEPT CANNON FIRING— © DAWNA MOORE; SALLY PORT— © TORE BERG Moat Mostly dry, the moat had no resident alligators, but domestic animals were kept here in time of siege. City gate St. Augustine Founded in 1565, this Spanish city was a rich melting pot of cultures. Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans lived and worked here, bringing their customs and traditions to the city. Cubo Line After the English overran and burned St. Augustine in 1702, the Spanish built a wall around the city. Originally, the Cubo Line was an earthen bank, fronted by sharp yucca plants, that stretched from the fort a half mile west to the San Sebastian River. In 1808, the walls were upgraded to include palm logs and a 40-foot-wide moat on the north side. West of the city gate, three artillery redoubts (a type of fortification) provided additional protection. City Gate Beginning in 1739, people entered St. Augustine through a wooden gate. These stone pillars were constructed in 1808 as part of a major upgrade of the town’s walled defenses. Theater room 5   4 Courtyard 3 Stairs Hot shot furnace 2 Water Battery In 1842, US Army engineers filled the east side of the moat with earth to create a battery of cannons along the water. Terreplein 1 Moat Matanzas Bay Drawbridge Bastion Drawbridge Glacis Crosswalk An accessible route leads into the fort from the parking area. Ravelin Never fully completed, the ravelin shielded the entrance from attack. Covered way Explore the Castillo Buy tickets at the entrance station, then head into the Castillo through the sally port. Your tour is self-guiding, so go at your own pace. We recommend at least two hours. Programs are scheduled throughout the day. Glacis Some rooms are historically furnished to recreate their original purpose. Others now house museum exhibits or serve as administrative offices or facilities like restrooms. Download the park app for more options to explore the Castillo and grounds. Castillo de San Marcos Entrance Station Accessible route The Castillo is little changed from the time it was built. Surfaces are uneven and can be slippery. Do not sit, stand, or climb on walls or cannons. Federal law protects all features. For complete safety information and regulations, including firearms information, visit the park website. Parking Paid parking is available in the lot in front of the Castillo and the public parking garage located one block northwest of the fort at 1 Cordova Street. Features Inside Castillo de San Marcos Enjoy reenactments like this cannon-firing demonstration. 1 Sally Port The drawbridge leads to the sally port, the fort’s only entrance and exit. The 14foot-thick walls give a sense of the fort’s strength. 2 Guard Rooms Spanish soldiers lived in town with their families unless on guard duty.
For your safety and for the protection of the Castillo and its historical artifacts, PLEASE do not climb, sit, or stand on the fragile shell stone walls or on the cannons or cannon carriages. National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Self-Guided Walking Tour Castillo de San Marcos National Monument St. Augustine, Florida Room Legend Eastern National Bookstore Get your Passport Stamp here! Orientation Junior Ranger Station Second Spanish Period Religion at the Castillo Construction and Design American Occupation Contest of Nations Artillery Complex First Spanish Period Preservation British Period The Soldiers’ Life THEATER COURTYARD First Aid is available in the Sally Port and at the ticket booth. Welcome! WELL TO THE GUNDECK CANNON FIRINGS Each room marked on the map with a circular icon contains an exhibit panel also marked with the same icon. These panels, as well as the other displays in each room, will help tell you the story of Castillo de San Marcos National Monument. The rooms shaded in grey are currently closed to the public. On the back of this page, you will find more information about the individual rooms and other parts of the fort. You have entered one of the most extraordinary places in the United States, incorporating over 335 years of history and culture. Construction of the Castillo de San Marcos began in 1672, making it one of the oldest standing structures in North America. The fort has undergone many renovations and changes over the years but appears today much as it would have looked at its final completion in 1756. SALLY PORT ENTRANCE The Castillo was initially built by the Spanish to protect their vast empire in the Americas. Engineer Ignacio Daza designed a fortress using a bastion system. The starlike outline of the Castillo is formed by diamond shaped projections, called bastions, on each corner of the fort. This design eliminates blind spots for the guards in the garitas, or sentry boxes, at each bastion point and increases the fort’s firepower boy allowing multiple cannons to fire on the same target, creating a crossfire effect. For an aerial view of the Castillo, please see the full-color park brochure. Self-Guided Walking Tour National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Castillo de San Marcos National Monument St. Augustine, Florida Your tour begins in the Sally Port, the entrance of the fortress. This was the only way in or out of the Castillo. Here you can see the large drawbridge and the portcullis, the heavy sliding door. Between these two wooden barriers, the strength of the Castillo is apparent. The thickness of the outer walls varies from 14 to 19 feet thick at the base and tapers to 9 feet towards the top. Note the blocks of coquina stone that make up these walls and how they were set together. There are over 400,000 blocks of stone in the Castillo, all of it cut and set by hand. There are several rooms that are accessible only through the Sally Port. To the right are the Spanish guard rooms and a locked room that served as the town jail. During Spanish occupation, soldiers did not live inside the Castillo. They walked to work from their homes in town. The soldiers detailed to be on overnight guard duty would have used these rooms to rest, cook food, and spend free time socializing and playing games. The room to the left, currently our bookstore, was once part of the officers’ quarters. These rooms hold several exhibits which introduce you to the fort’s history, design, and construction. The flags in the first room represent the different nations the Castillo has served: Hapsburg and Bourbon Spain, Great Britain, and the United States. Though the fort has changed hands between countries many times, every transfer was negotiated through treaty and agreement, not battle. One of the major contributing factors to the Castillo’s success is coquina, the stone from which the fortress is constructed. Because the stone is porous, it compresses under the impact of cannon fire rather than shattering, making the Castillo practically indestructible. In this room, you will notice some unusual features. The raised platform at the back is believed to be the original mortar mixing pit used during the Castillo’s construction. Looking up towards the window, there is a ledge that marks the original height of the Castillo’s walls: 22 feet at their initial completion in 1695. The Castillo was originally built to act not only as a refuge for the townspeople but also as a military warehouse. The Spanish used the western casemates for food storage, and they would have looked much like the locked supply room. Other casemates were filled with military supplies such as gunpowder, hardware, ship repair materials, and as many as 20,000 cannonballs. All of the stone casemates were constructed between 1738 and 1756, a time of almost constant warfare between Spain and England in the New World. The walls were raised to 35 feet during this remodeling, and t
page 2 National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Volunteers-In-Parks Program Castillo de San Marcos Fort Matanzas National Monuments The Change of Flags For 200 years the Spanish Empire ruled over a third of the world but growing wealth from the newly ‘discovered’ lands of Africa, Asia and the Americas spawned rivals to Spanish Power in Europe and overseas. A series of conflicts erupted throughout the colonial era. In 1763 the Seven Years War, the first great world war came to an end, known in North America as the French and Indian War, it involved all the major powers of Europe: Prussia, Great Britain (with British Colonies in North America), and Hanover were pitted against Austria, France (with New France), Russia, Sweden, and Saxony. Spain and Portugal were later also drawn into the conflict. The most tangible outcome of the war was the end of France’s power in the Americas and the emergence of Great Britain as the most powerful colonial power in the world. More importantly, France's Navy would never again be at near equal terms with the British Navy. During the conflict (1754-1763) Britain captured Havana in Spanish Cuba and Manila in the Philippines the two major trans-shipment points for the Spanish Treasure Fleets. Part of the Treaty of Paris ending the war returned these cities to Spanish control in exchange for the territory of Florida th th which became the British Crown colonies of East and West Florida (the 14 & 15 colonies in North America). For the Spanish floridanos it meant abandoning the only home they had ever known, one that many of their great grandfathers had created from the wilderness. For the English it meant a new colony to found and untold opportunities in land and trade and they flocked to St. Augustine changing the face of the city forever. On July 21, 1763 Spanish officials in St. Augustine transferred the territory to British forces under the command of Captain John Hedges of the British Army. The Change of Flags event today recreates the ceremonies that officially transferred Florida from Spanish to British control and celebrates this important moment in history. E X P E R I E N C E Y O U R A M E R I C A™ The National Park Service cares for special places saved by the American people so that all may experience our heritage.
The Siege of 1702 November 9 - 30 December, 1702 The War of Spanish Succession National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, St. Augustine, Florida The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) was a major European conflict that spilled over into the Americas. It arose at the end of the 17th century in anticipation of the death of the last Spanish Habsburg king, Charles II. Mentally and physically infirm from a very young age, it was clear that Charles, though twice married, could not produce an heir. Thus, the issue of the inheritance of the Spanish kingdoms including not only Spain, but also dominions in Italy, the Low Countries, and the Americas became a contentious political problem. When Charles died the empire that was held by Spain would pass through the female side of this family to one of the other royal houses of Europe. At issue was the balance of power in Europe. Divded into a complicated puzzle of states ruled by several dominant dynastic families, all jealous of each other and vying for the wealth of the new worlds of Africa, Asia and the Americas, Europe was almost constantly at or on the verge of war. There was a constant forming and shifting of alliances and treaties aimed at keeping a tenuous equality betweenstates. Should any one nation gain too much power, the other countries would be threatened. The Claimants to the Throne There were three European royals who had substantial claims to the throne of Spain. The Bourbon King Louis XIV of France, the son of the eldest daughter of King Phillip III of Spain, whose wife was the sister of King Charles II of Spain, was considered the front runner. Leopold I, the Austrian Emperor, who was the son of the youngest daughter of King Phillip III of Spain, and the husband of Charles II of Spain’s younger sister was seen a close second. The final claimant to Spain’s throne was Joseph Ferdinand, the Electoral Price of Bavaria, who was the grandson of Leopold I and the great-grandson of Phillip IV of Spain. While there were a number of legal questions surrounding the claims to the throne of Spain, the ultimate concern of every nation in Europe was a shift in power that would occur depending on who succeeded to the throne. With this strategic question in mind, another power viewed this as a time for action. On the other side of the English Channel, William III of England saw the potential joining of France with Spain as a tremendous threat to England’s hopes in the New World as well as to the peace of Europe. William began to make overtures to other powers in Europe to from an alliance against whatever the outcome of the Spanish Succession might be. Ultimately, all the maneuvering by the claimants to the throne was for nothing. After Charles II died, on November 1, 1700, his will set all claims to rest by designating Phillip of Anjou, the grandson of Louis XIV of France, as his chosen heir to the throne of Spain and the empire is its entirety. The war William had feared was inevitable. World War In March of 1702, William III of England died, leaving his dead wife’s sister, Anne, as the Queen of England. In May, 1702, William III’s Grand Alliance, England, Austria, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Netherlands, most of the German states, and Portugal with the leadership of Queen Anne and her ministers, declared war on France and Spain. Their opening movement was an attack on the Spanish Netherlands in what would be a head-long rush toward a war that would encompass the globe. When the sides are considered, it is easy to see that there was no other path to be followed. On first look, the Grand Alliance would seem quite the match for Spain and France, but this was only the case in appearance. The majority of the alliance’s members were small nations with no true power unless they banded together with larger nations. Spain had been a global imperial for two hundred years by the start of the war, while France, under Louis XIV, had been moving toward becoming the dominant power on the European continent. With Spain, France, and England all having colonial holdings overseas, it would only be a matter of time before war broke out among the people in those colonies in the name of their home countries and kings. Carolina Declares War To any intelligent Englishman in North America, it must have seemed obvious where the primary threat to Charles Towne, Carolina was. Only a week’s sail to the south, the strong Spanish fortress, of Castillo de San Marcos, and the garrison at San Agustin were like a loaded gun aimed at the heart of the Carolina Colony. Something needed to be done about San Agustin. In late August of 1702, on hearing of the outbreak of Queen Anne’s War, the Carolina Commons started to entertain the idea of an attack against the Spanish in La Florida. By early September, the Commons approved the plan for an attack, proclaiming “the Encouragement to free Plunder and a share of all Slaves,” and “all persons
Territorial Florida National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Second Seminole War, 1835-1842 Castillo de San Marcos National Monument St. Augustine, Florida ( Southern Migration Seminole Indians, c. 1870 The original native inhabitants of Florida had all but disappeared by 1700. European diseases and the losses from nearly constant colonial warfare had reduced the population to a mere handful. Bands from various tribes in the southeastern United States pressured by colonial expansion began moving into the unoccupied lands in Florida. These primarily Creek tribes were called Cimarrones by the Spanish “strays” or “wanderers.” This is the probable origin of the name Seminole. Runaway slaves or “Maroons” also began making their way into Florida where they were regularly granted freedom by the Spanish. Many joined the Indian villages and integrated into the tribes. Early Conflict During the American Revolution the British, who controlled Florida from 1763 to 1784, recruited the Seminoles to raid rebel frontier settlements in Georgia. Both sides engaged in a pattern of border raiding and incursion which continued sporadically even after Florida returned to Spanish control after the war. Despite the formal treaties ending the war the Seminoles remained enemies of the new United States. Growing America At the beginning of the 19th century the rapidly growing American population was pushing onto the frontiers in search of new land. Many eyes turned southward to the Spanish borderlands of Florida and Texas. Several attempts at “filibustering,” private or semi-official efforts to forcibly take territory, occurred along the frontiers. The Patriot War of 1812 was one such failed American effort aimed at taking East Florida. Hostilities continued during the War of 1812 as the British encouraged the Creek tribes to attack Americans. Andrew Jackson became a national hero in these years, defeating the Indians in the Creek War of 1813-1814, then the British at New Orleans in 1815 and finally leading an invasion in 1818 into the West Florida territory to destroy the Seminole strongholds along the Suwannee River. This became known as the First Seminole War. Despite the international repercussions arising from Jackson’s actions, the United States eventually was able to purchase Florida from Spain in 1821 for five million dollars. Andrew Jackson was appointed governor of the new territory. Trails of Tears Land pressure and Indian trouble continued. Though an 1823 treaty with the Seminoles reducing them to a reservation in Central Florida was negotiated, the provisions of the treaty were only slowly implemented, and the Seminoles were reluctant to move into the reservation area. As plantation agriculture grew in North Florida the runaway slave problem continued to aggravate negotiations. In 1828 Andrew Jackson was elected President of the United States. As a security measure and a way of easing land hunger the United States adopted a national policy of Indian removal, essentially trading lands in the west acquired by the Louisiana Purchase for those held in the east by the tribes. Originally a policy of encouragement and negotiation, with the passing of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 it became a policy of reluctant and often forcible emigration for tens of thousands of American Indians to the West. A new treaty was negotiated with some of the Seminole chiefs to remove them to the Creek reservations in Oklahoma. This split the tribes with some agreeing to go west and others refusing to abide by any treaty agreements. Internal tribal conflict, clashes with white settlers, and clandestine aid from Spain quickly sparked armed conflict. The Second Seminole War By December 1835 open warfare erupted. Osceola, a respected Seminole warrior along with some of his followers killed Indian Agent Wiley Thompson at Fort King (near present day Ocala) 50 miles away in the area of present day Bushnell, a column of 108 soldiers led by Brevet Major Francis Dade was ambushed and wiped out almost to a man. A single surviving solder made it back to Fort Brooke, present day Tampa, to tell of the battle. The Second Seminole War had begun. The War lasted from 1835 until 1842. The Seminoles inaugurated a guerilla war raiding plantations along the rivers and coasts, displaced much of the civilian population, and damaged the economy. The United States countered with a massive military buildup of 10,000 regulars backed by 30,000 militia. Establishing a chain of forts across the state to protect supply lines the Army sent expeditions against the Seminole villages, burning houses, running off cattle and destroying crops. Threatened with starvation, the majority of Seminoles finally gave in and fighting faded out by August of 1842. . Approximately 200 to 300 Seminoles were left hiding in the Everglades - a nearly impenetrable swampy wasteland. Aftermath Prior to the Vietnam War, the Second Seminole War was the longest conflict that the US Mi
Florida in World War II National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, St. Augustine, Florida Soldiers go through morning calisthenics while wearing gas masks; Miami Beach, 1943 The Coming of War With the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December of 1941 America entered into the conflict of World War II. As the massive effort of converting the country to a wartime footing began, Florida became a vital resource to the nation. The results of Florida’s involvement would change the state forever. Over the course of four years Florida grew from a small, mostly rural and agricultural state into a massive industrial and training area preparing men and materiel for the war. Instead of tourists Florida was soon filled with recruits. Many of these servicemen and women would remember their time in the Sunshine State and would return after the war was over, contributing to the State’s continuous growth. Military Installations in Florida Florida's weather conditions, flat land and miles of accessible coastline made it ideal for the building of military training bases, especially for aviation and amphibious landing operations.. By 1942 Florida had over 172 military installations, ranging from relatively small specialty camps to extremely large bases. Camp Blanding near Starke became Florida's fourth largest city, growing to 180,000 acres and housing 55,000 soldiers at a time. There were forty airfields actively training military personnel throughout the state. Likewise Naval Stations and Airfields lined the coast from Pensacola in the panhandle to the newly built Mayport Naval Station near Jacksonville. Many of these sites are still active military installations today. Others have been transformed and now form the core of Florida’s State Park system. Economic Stimulus for Florida The war effort sent large amounts of money into Florida, which led to rebuilding and growth after the devastation of the Great Depression. War contracts helped to rebuild Florida's manufacturing, agricultural, and tourism businesses. Defense contracts boosted industry and revitalized Florida cities. Florida's nickname almost changed from the Sunshine State to the Steel State. With the rebuilding of industry, jobs were plentiful, but most men were off fighting in the war. Because of this, World War II provided an opportunity for American women. It helped show that women could handle a man's job. In Florida, women worked in shipyards, welding shops, and military bases. Women also helped run the agriculture industry, where one fourth of all farm workers were women. They were able to take over jobs left behind by the men and keep America stable. In addition to providing the necessary work force needed during the war, women bought war bonds and volunteered as nurses, fire fighters, and even police officers. Florida's citrus industry also thrived. In 1942 Florida became the top citrus producing state in the country surpassing California for the first time. Also Florida citrus growers patented a new process to create frozen concentrated orange juice. The cotton industry also increased its profits. In 1945, researchers in Orlando discovered an insecticide, DDT, which became available for commercial use. The drawback was that the chemical's long-term effects had not yet been tested, and it would later have a negative impact on Florida's wildlife and agricultural industries. The war also changed the appearance of Florida cities with a surge in urban population. The boom had begun. The War Comes to St. Augustine Local youth were being shipped off to the dangerous corners of the world but until August of 1942 when The U. S. Coast Guard took over several local hotels, the direct impact of war on St. Augustine had been limited. The Ponce de Leon Hotel (now Flagler College) was converted into a Coast Guard boot camp, where young men learned the art of war. At any given time, as many 2,500 guardsmen were stationed in St. Augustine. Matanzas Bay was filled with zigzagging boats on maneuver. Even the famous protector of early St. Augustine, the Castillo de San Marcos, played an important part in the Coast Guard's war time role. “The vast grounds of the Fort area were in daily use by boot training companies and here thousands learned close order drill with as many as eight companies deployed there on most days,"reported a local newspaperman. Few then realized just how close the war would come to home. Submarines off the Florida Coast The state's vulnerability became evident shortly after Pearl Harbor. In early 1942 German submarines opened an offensive, code named Operation Drumbeat, against the virtually undefended Allied shipping lanes along the east coast. Before the carnage was over, nearly 400 ships had been sunk, and thousands of lives lost. Dozens of ships were torpedoed just off Florida's Atlantic coast and others in the Gulf of Mexico. German submarine skippers used the light of coastal citie
Agustín’s Adventure Instructions Welcome to the Castillo de San Marcos! My name is Agustín, and I will be your guide. This Junior Ranger booklet has two levels. You may choose the level that works best for you. Basic To receive your badge, complete SIX pages of activities. Advanced To receive your badge and Master Junior Ranger patch, complete ALL pages of activities, except for the color-by-numbers. While you are at the Castillo, please be safe and treat the fort with respect. Do not sit, stand, or climb on any of the cannons or on the walls of the fort. The stone the fort is built out of is very fragile to the human touch, and we would like the Castillo to be here for many more years. We want to preserve this National Monument for future generations. As a Junior Ranger, it will be your job to help us with this! If you see your family sitting on the walls, politely ask them not to, and tell them why. Colonial American Cities In this letter, there are four underlined cities. On the map, there are four cities marked with stars. Draw a line to match the name of the city to its location on the map. The letter will help you figure out where they are located. December, 1670 To Her Most Catholic Majesty, Queen Mariana, I am writing to you on behalf of the people of the city of San Agustín in La Florida. Our town has been left defenseless since the burning of our wooden fort by pirates two years ago, and we have just learned that the British have founded a new colony directly to the north of us, called Charles Towne, Carolina. I am writing to beg you for the money to build a stone fort for our city’s protection. The threat of attack grows greater every day. North of Charles Towne, the British long ago settled in Jamestowne, Virginia. If English forces attack our city, we are left defenseless. The closest help would have to come from the Spanish colony in La Habana, Cuba, far to the south of us. Queen Mariana, we beseech you, please help our city raise the funds for a stone fortress for our protection. Your Most Faithful Servant, Agustín 1 The Columbian Exchange The exchange of plants, animals, and ideas between the Old World and the New World. When the Europeans came to the New World, they brought many new things with them. Can you label these? Castillo Construction The walls of the Castillo are made out of a stone called coquina. Look closely at this picture and the walls, but do not touch. The stone is fragile. What is coquina made of? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 2 Parts of the Castillo shot furnace courtyard bastions well ravelin moat Use our brochure to learn about these parts of the fort, then fill in the sentences below ! 1. The _______________ in front of the drawbridge protected the entrance from enemy cannon fire. 2. The __________ was usually dry, not wet, and the Spanish could put livestock in it if they were under attack. 3. The __________ inside the courtyard provided fresh water. 4. The ______________ are the diamond-shaped corners of the fort. These allowed cannons to be placed for deadly crossfire. 5. The ________________ is where soldiers practiced marching and drilling with their muskets. 6. The ___________________, which was built later by the U.S. Army, was used to heat cannonballs up red-hot to fire at wooden ships! 3 Colonial Life Answer the questions in each box. Next to your answers, you will read about boys and girls who lived in colonial times! What chores do you do at home? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ What do you do for fun? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ What do you want to be when you grow up? ____________________________ ____________________________ What do you learn at school? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Boys Girls Chopping Wood Feeding Animals Hunting Grinding Corn Spinning Weaving Colonial children often did outdoor activities for fun, such as swimming, fishing, and flying kites. Boys Girls Farmers Soldiers Surgeons Teachers Mothers Tavern Keepers Many poorer children did not go to school. They learned from their parents. Boys learned to farm and hunt. Girls learned household tasks like cooking and sewing. You and colonial children still have some things in common! Many colonial kids played games that we still play today. Hopscotch, tag, dominoes, marbles, jacks, and pick-up sticks were all popular in the colonial era. 4 Learn Spanish Answer the questions in Spanish! Colores rojo (ro-hoh) azul (ah-sool) verde (ver-day) amarillo (ah-mah-ree-yoh) marrón (mah-roan) blanco (blahn-koh) negro (neh-groh) Colors red blue green yellow brown white black Ropa sombrero (som-bray-roh) calzones (cal-sone-es) casaca (ka-sak-ah) zapatos (sah-pah-tos) chaleco (cha-leh

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