"Stained glass fan window" by National Park Service photo , public domain

Belmont-Paul Women's Equality

National Monument - District of Columbia

The Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument (formerly the Sewall House (1800–1929), Alva Belmont House (1929–1972), and the Sewall-Belmont House and Museum (1972–2016)) is a historic house and museum of the U.S. women's suffrage and equal rights movements located in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Washington, D.C.. The monument is named after suffragists and National Woman's Party leaders Alva Belmont and Alice Paul.



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Official visitor map of National Mall and Memorial Parks in Washington D.C. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

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Official Visitor Map of Civil War Defenses of Washington in District of Columbia, Maryland and Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

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Official Visitor Map of George Washington Memorial Parkway (MEMPKWY) in Virginia and District of Columbia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

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Official Visitor Map of Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Historical Park (NHP) in Washington D.C., Maryland and West Virginia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

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Official Visitor Map of Rock Creek Park in the District of Columbia. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

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Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

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Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

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Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

https://www.nps.gov/bepa/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belmont-Paul_Women%27s_Equality_National_Monument The Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument (formerly the Sewall House (1800–1929), Alva Belmont House (1929–1972), and the Sewall-Belmont House and Museum (1972–2016)) is a historic house and museum of the U.S. women's suffrage and equal rights movements located in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Washington, D.C.. The monument is named after suffragists and National Woman's Party leaders Alva Belmont and Alice Paul. Home to the National Woman's Party for more than 90 years, this was the epicenter of the struggle for women's rights. From this house in the shadow of the U.S. Capitol and Supreme Court, Alice Paul and the NWP developed innovative strategies and tactics to advocate for the Equal Rights Amendment and equality for women. President Barack Obama designated the national monument on April 12, 2016. The Belmont-Paul Women's Equality NM is located on Capitol Hill at the corner of Constitution Avenue and 2nd Street, NE, next to the Hart Senate Office building. It is a free-standing, federal style brick house surrounded by a black cast-iron fence. The entrance for the museum tours and bookstore is located on 2nd Street. Follow the entrance signs to the brick staircase and outdoor lift. The door facing Constitution Avenue is not an entrance. Museum Information Desk Visitors to the museum at Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument are greeted by a friendly member of our staff of rangers and volunteers. At the desk, you can stamp your National Park Service Passport book, pick up a Junior Suffragist booklet, and chat about the ongoing struggle for women's equality. Belmont-Paul Women's Equality NM is located on Capitol Hill at the corner of Constitution Avenue and 2nd Street, NE, next to the Hart Senate Office Building. It is a free-standing, federal style brick house surrounded by a black cast-iron fence. The entrance for museum tours and the museum shop is located on 2nd Street. Follow the entrance signs to the brick stairway. The exterior lift is temporarily out of order. We apologize for the inconvenience. The doors facing Constitution Avenue are not entrances. Belmont-Paul Women's Equality NM House Belmont-Paul Women's Equality NM House 411th Unit of the National Park Service Suffrage Banner Suffrage Banner Calling out for Women Suffrage Stained Glass Entrance Stained Glass Entrance Entry way beauty Thinking Woman Statue Thinking Woman Statue A moment of repose Susan B. Anthony's Desk Susan B. Anthony's Desk To write a letter... Hall of Portraits with Mirror Interior photo of the Hall of Portraits lit by sunlight streaming through stained glass Vase of flowers in Hall of Portraits illuminated by sunlight streaming through stained glass fan light Forward Into Light! “Forward into Light” was a popular rallying cry for the women’s suffrage movement. Suffragists carried banners at marches and demonstrations emblazoned with a compelling verse: “Forward out of error / Leave behind the night. / Forward through the darkness, / Forward into light!” From BEPA, poster of Inez Milholland on a white horse carrying a Forward Into Light banner Maud Malone: Places Associated with Her Story For those interested in visiting some of the sites where Maud Malone helped to reinvigorate the suffrage movement, there are a number of National Park Sites and New York City locations where one can stand where Maud once stood. Suffragists at Grant's Tomb, LOC The 19th Amendment: A Crash Course After years of petitions, protest, and activism, votes for women is recognized with the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. This crash course introduces the pivotal moments and people who worked to secure women's voting rights. Suffragists marching through the street wearing white dresses and holding flags. Lesson Plan to Accompany Video: Bad Romance: Woman’s Suffrage The 19th amendment to the Constitution gave all women of legal age the right to vote. This lesson plan will explore the various means of non-violent protests used by Alice Paul and the National Woman’s Party (NWP). from the collections of the library of congress 11 Ways National Parks Influenced World War I (and vice versa) Uncover the hidden history of World War I in the national parks! A Renault tank and infantry move through a field Did You Know: Women and African Americans Could Vote in NJ before the 15th and 19th Amendments? The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote, but some New Jersey women could vote as early as 1776. African Americans in the state could vote if they met the residency and property requirements. They lost these rights in 1807, only to fight to regain them. women carrying suffrage banners greet each other on the street. Photo @ Library of Congress Did You Know? Alice Paul Versus Carrie Chapman Catt Jeannette Rankin, the first woman elected to Congress, stands on the balcony of the Washington, D.C. headquarters of the National American Woman Suffrage Association on April 2, 1917. But look closely. Do you see the alterations to the photo on her right? What--or who--has been erased? Jeannette Rankin speaking from the balcony of the National American Woman Suffrage Association US Women's Suffrage Timeline 1648 to 2016 This is an extended timeline of the fight for women's suffrage in the United States. It includes information on failed and successful attempts at changes in law, including at the state and federal levels, how women's suffrage has been interlaced with quests for other civil rights, and some key court cases. It spans the years from 1648 through 2016. National Woman's Party Watchfire Outside the White House. LOC Women's Suffrage and WWI Women’s fight for the right to vote was in its final years, but in the heavy sacrifice and a changing understanding of the meaning of democracy the war brought, the movement had found a renewed energy and enthusiasm during World War I. Women stand in front of the White House with placards demanding the right to vote The Story of the "Jailed for Freedom" Pin Authorized for wear on NPS uniforms only during August 2020—the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment—the "Jailed for Freedom" pin is a reminder of previous struggles and protests which led to real and lasting change to our evolving democracy. metal pin in the shape of a jail cell door Your Voice Matters: Stand Up For What You Believe In! Women fought for the right to vote for years before the 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920. They did this by organizing themselves and getting others to follow them. In this activity you will learn about the 19th amendment and get a chance to create your own movement to help society. Are you up for the challenge? Example of a mascot that a Junior Ranger submitted saying that everyone should be able to travel. War of 1812: Burning of the Sewall House Why did British troops burn down Robert Sewall's house on August 24, 1814? National Park Getaway: Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument The stained glass fan window at Belmont-Paul Women’s Equality National Monument. Stained glass window above doorway Suffrage in 60 Seconds Woman Suffrage Procession "We demand an amendment to the Constitution of the United States enfranchising the women of this country." Marching women, floats, equestrian units--and a surprising ally participate in the first event of its kind on March 3, 1913. Enjoy this one-minute video story with Ranger Mannie. Official Program Woman Suffrage Procession March 3 1913 Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Ida B. Wells Ida B. Wells spent her life fiercely dedicated to truth and equality, including the rights of all to vote. In this Suffrage in 60 Seconds video, hear a story about the way that determination showed up during the 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession. Ida B. Wells-Barnett Suffrage in Sixty Seconds logo Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Nina Allender As the official cartoonist of the National Woman's Party, Nina Allender changed public perception about what feminists looked like. But her political cartoons, while witty and provocative, excluded many people who were fighting for the vote. Combined photo of park ranger and Nina Allender with Suffrage in 60 Seconds logo Suffrage in 60 Seconds: African American Women and the Vote African American women often found themselves marginalized by both Black men and white women in the fight for equality. How did they ensure that their voices were heard? Ranger Titus has the story. Photo collage of several African American suffragists. Suffrage in 60 Seconds logo Suffrage in 60 Seconds: How Women Won the West Women in the western states and territories won the first victories in the fight for woman suffrage. But there were difficult battles marked by reversals, defeats, and questionable alliances. Largo group of women wearing white carrying shields with names of western states Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Deadly Political Index Maud Younger, chief lobbyist of the National Woman’s Party, greased the gears of democracy. While the unrelenting force of the National Woman's Party protests kept the momentum of the movement, would the 19th Amendment have gotten through Congress without suffragist lobbyists? Ranger Lorne has the details of the Deadly Political Index. Painting and photo of Maud Younger with Suffrage in 60 Seconds Logo Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Harry Burn When the Tennessee state legislature opened a special session to consider ratification of the 19th Amendment in August 1920, no one knew whether woman suffrage was headed for victory or defeat. What--and who--made the difference? Ranger Chip has the story of the drama in Nashville. Portrait of Harry Burn and picture of Alice Paul unfurling ratification banner over a balcony Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Temperance What does woman suffrage have to do with alcohol? Woman's Christian Temperance Union leaders like Frances Willard and Frances Watkins Harper convinced WCTU members that they could accomplish social change if women won the vote. Frances Willard and Frances Harper with WCTU and Suffrage in 60 Seconds logos Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Colors Why did the National Woman's Party choose Gold, White, and Purple as their signature colors on sashes, flags, and banners in their fight for the 19th Amendment? In this episode of Suffrage in 60 Seconds, Ranger Lauren has the answer. Alice Paul unfurling Ratification Banner. Suffrage in 60 Seconds logo Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Picketing the White House "Mr. President, How Long Must Women Wait for Liberty?" asked National Woman's Party picketers as they stood outside the White House gates in all kinds of weather. Ranger Mannie tells the story about the tactic of picketing in the fight for woman suffrage. Women wearing sashes standing in front of White House with banners Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Pockets In 1915, poet Alice Duer Miller published "Are Women People? A Book of Rhymes for Suffrage Times." Her poem titled "Why We Oppose Pockets for Women" is a satire about arguments against women voting. Why We Oppose Pockets for Women poem with NPS logo Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Jail Door Pin The women who faced arrest for protesting at the White House in support of women's right to vote were not ashamed that they had been to jail. In fact, they wore it as a badge of honor. Ranger Lauren tells the story of the Jail Door Pin, awarded to more than one hundred women by the National Woman's Party in appreciation for their sacrifice. Blended image of jail door and suffrage banner Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Traitors or Patriots? When the United States entered World War I in April 1917, the National Woman's Party faced a decision. Should the NWP continue to pressure Woodrow Wilson to support woman suffrage? Or should they demonstrate their citizenship and patriotism by joining the war effort, hoping to win the vote that way? Ranger Lorne has the story. Merged image of Woodrow Wilson and suffrage pickets Suffrage in 60 Seconds: NAWSA Versus NWP Carrie Chapman Catt led the National American Woman's Suffrage Association (NAWSA) which had more members, more power, and more money than the National Woman's Party. Although Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt were both fighting for woman suffrage, they often fought each other as they worked for passage of the 19th Amendment. Enjoy this one-minute video telling a story of the tension. Whose side are you on? Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul. Suffrage in Sixty Seconds logo Suffrage in 60 Seconds: The Night of Terror The women of the National Woman's Party sentenced to prison in November 1917 for picketing the White House had no idea what awaited them when they arrived at the Occoquan Workhouse. They endured brutality and abuse from the prison guards, but remained committed to their cause. Ranger Susan provides an eyewitness account. Lucy Burns in front of jail door Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Equali-Tea How did women who were excluded from the political process work for change? Before they marched in the streets and stood on soapboxes to get the word out, women encouraged each other and spread the radical message of women's equality in their parlors. Ranger Lauren spills the tea about equali-tea. Ranger Lauren holding a tea cup that reads Suffrage in 60 Seconds Introduction When was the last time you voted? Enjoy one-minute videos that highlight suffrage subjects and the heroes who made woman suffrage a reality—including those women who continued the fight for full enfranchisement beyond 1920. Alice Paul in front of Ratification Banner. Suffrage in Sixty Seconds logo Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Inez Milholland Who was the New Woman of the 20th Century, the Herald of the Future, who rode a white horse at the beginning of the 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession down Pennsylvania Avenue? Inez Milholland was a lawyer, an activist, and a powerful speaker who was also known as the "Most Beautiful Suffragist." Inez Milholland on horse in suffrage procession National Woman's Party Protests During World War I During the war years, women's suffrage supporters waged their own war on injustice at home, demanding the right to vote, and turning President Wilson's words against him. Women wearing long coats and sashes carry signs in front of the White House. Lobbying for Suffrage NWP Lobby Committee at the time of Tennessee ratification of suffrage amendment- Washington, D.C., 1920. National Woman's Party Ten women suffragists at US Capitol Walk in the Footsteps of Suffragists American women demanded their right to vote in a Declaration of Sentiments issued at the first Women’s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848. By the 1913 inauguration of President-elect Wilson, women were still waiting for that democratic right. Explore the spectacular pre-inauguration parade that filled Pennsylvania Avenue in DC with 5,000 marching women, colorful floats and banners, ladies on horseback, and mayhem delivered by opposing forces. Nurse Contingent in the 1913 Suffrage March LOC Belmont-Paul Virtual Tour Join Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument staff as we explore the exhibits and objects on display in the museum. Do you see yourself in the Hall of Portraits? What treasured items connect you with the past? Interior photo of the Belmont-Paul Hall of Portraits with paintings and a large mirror National Park Service Commemoration of the 19th Amendment In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the passing of the 19th Amendment the National Park Service has developed a number of special programs. This includes online content, exhibits, and special events. The National Park Service’s Cultural Resources Geographic Information Systems (CRGIS) announces the release of a story map that highlights some of these programs and provides information for the public to locate and participate. Opening slide of the 19th Amendment NPS Commemoration Story Map A Great Inheritance: Introduction The abolition movement was one of the leading factors in the formation of the 19th century women’s rights movement. This series explores the connections between the abolition movement and the women’s rights movement to reveal the relationship between the two campaigns. Black and white photo of a tall building. Site of the 1869 AERA meeting. Library of Congress A Great Inheritance: Abolition and the Women's Sphere Prior to the 1830s, American antislavery organizations were formed and controlled by white men. This changed in December of 1833 when African American men were invited to participate at the first convention of the American Anti-Slavery Slavery Society (AASS) held in Philadelphia. Some women were also invited to the convention, but as spectators rather than as members. Excluding women from full participation was customary of the period’s social conventions. Drawing of the exterior of a five story, rectangular building A Great Inheritance: Conclusion and References The abolition movement helped form and influence those who built and led the women’s rights movement. The beliefs and practices of the abolition movement provided a backdrop against which antislavery women could challenge gender roles and leave the woman’s sphere to enter the public sphere. Black and white drawing of the exterior of a building, three stories with a peaked roof A Great Inheritance: Abolitionist Practices in the Women's Rights Movement Some abolitionist women found the confidence needed to reject social conventions and participate in public activities by denying the authority of clerical rules. Abolitionist feminists also found resolve to contradict gender roles in the abolitionist belief of the common humanity of all people. The belief in common humanity was used by abolitionists to argue for the definition of African American slaves as people, not property. Color drawing of Pennsylvania Hall, a three story building with peaked roof A Great Inheritance: The Abolition Movement and the First Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls The Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention is regarded as the beginning of the US women’s rights movement. The organizers of the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls were neighbors, friends, and relatives who decided to arrange the convention over their shared convictions. Each had backgrounds in the abolitionist movement and were dedicated to the anti-slavery cause which prepared them to organize the first women’s rights convention in 1848. Portrait of Lucretia Mott wearing a bonnet A Great Inheritance: Prejudice, Racism, and Black Women in Anti-Slavery Societies The establishment of Female Anti-Slavery Societies in the 1830s facilitated the formal beginnings of women’s political participation in the abolitionist movement. One women’s antislavery society that formed in the wake of the first American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) convention was the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society (PFASS). The AASS organized itself as an interracial organization, and PFASS was founded in the same manner. A Black woman kneels, her hands are chained and raised asking for help "Am I Not A Woman" Alice Paul, Woodrow Wilson, and the Battles for Liberty President-elect Woodrow Wilson’s train pulled into Washington’s Union Station on March 3, 1913, the day before his inauguration. A relatively thin crowd greeted him and his family before a motorcade took them to a hotel. “Where are all the people?” Wilson asked as he peered out the car window. “On the Avenue, watching the suffrage parade.” Across town, Alice Paul was in the thick of that suffrage procession, an event she created, planned and executed. women stand in front of a statue at Lafayette Park. Library of Congress How Native American Women Inspired the Women’s Rights Movement “Never was justice more perfect; never was civilization higher,” suffrage leader Matilda Joslyn Gage wrote about the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy, whose territory extended throughout New York State. black and white head and shoulders portrait of Matilda Joslyn Gage. Library of Congress The Prequel: Women’s Suffrage Before 1848 Most suffrage histories begin in 1848, the year Elizabeth Cady Stanton convened a women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York. There, she unfurled a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments, seeking religious, educational and property rights for women – and the right to vote. While Seneca Falls remains an important marker in women’s suffrage history, in fact women had been agitating for this basic right of citizenship even before the first stirrings of the Revolution. drawing of a group of women in front of a counter A Noble Endeavor: Ida B. Wells-Barnett and Suffrage On March 3, 1913, the eve of Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration, Ida B. Wells-Barnett was in a Washington, D.C. drill rehearsal hall with sixty-four other Illinois suffragists. She was there representing the Alpha Suffrage Club (ASC)-- which she had founded as the first black suffrage club in Chicago just two months before. Ida planned to march with the women in what promised to be a parade of unprecedented scale and significance. photo portrait of Ida B Wells “Failure is Impossible!” The Battle for the Ballot Harry T. Burn had a secret. Everyone assumed he was an “anti,” meaning he would vote against ratification of the 19th Amendment granting women the right to vote. After all, the 24-year-old first-term member of the Tennessee House of Representatives was from a conservative district, and he was running for reelection in the fall. Black and white portrait photo of a young Harry Burn in a starched collar and tie "To the wrongs that need resistance:” Carrie Chapman Catt’s Lifelong Fight for Women’s Suffrage When Carrie Lane Chapman Catt was 13-years-old and living in rural Charles City, Iowa, she witnessed something that would help to decide the course of her life. Her family was politically active and on Election Day in 1872, Carrie’s father and some of the male hired help were getting ready to head into town to vote. She asked her mother why she wasn’t getting dressed to go too. Her parents laughingly explained to their daughter that women couldn’t vote. black and white portrait of catt speaking into an old fashioned candlestick phone. LOC Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (Zitkala-Ša): Advocate for the "Indian Vote" When suffragist and voting rights activist Gertrude Simmons Bonnin (Zitkala-Ša) passed away in Virginia in 1938, she and her husband chose as their final resting place Arlington National Cemetery. Her tombstone reads: "Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, 'Zitkala-Ša of the Sioux' 1876-1938" This statement left an enduring message: she could be both a citizen of the United States and a citizen of the Yankton Sioux Nation. She did not have to choose. black and white profile portrait of zitkala sa Fraught Friendship: Susan B. Anthony and Frederick Douglass News of the death of Frederick Douglass reached Metzerott’s Music Hall in Washington, D.C., in the early evening of February 20, 1895. There, at a session of the National Council of Women’s triennial meeting, sat Susan B. Anthony. After remarking on her usual “wonderful control over feeling,” a reporter noted, “last night she could not conceal her emotion.”[1] Just hours before his death, Anthony and Douglass had been in the same room. black and white photo of frederick douglass Nemesis: The South and the Nineteenth Amendment The South was the nemesis of the woman suffrage movement, the long-term, impassioned adversary that, in 1920, almost kept the Nineteenth Amendment from being ratified. Regional hostility to the women’s rights movement long delayed the development of a southern suffrage movement and precluded state suffrage victories. Powerful resistance from white southern Congressmen and Senators for many years precluded Congressional approval of a federal woman suffrage amendment. Cover of the NAWSA Headquarters Newsletter, "Winning Plan" LOC A Centennial Reflection During my lifetime Black people were deeply entrenched in the struggle for voting rights. As a child of the 1960s I heard a constant emphasis on how important it was to vote. To make our voices heard. I went with my parents to polling places when they voted, where I was surrounded by adults who grew up in the Jim Crow South and knew that voting was not something to take for granted. Michelle Duster is the great-granddaughter of Ida B. Wells. Color portrait of Michelle Duster, courtesy Michelle Duster (copyright) On This Day August 26, 1920: The Significance of Ratification of the 19th Amendment “The Secretary has signed the proclamation,” the Secretary of State’s office told Carrie Chapman Catt over the phone on August 26, 1920. “So quietly as that,” lobbyist Maud Wood Park, who was there, later wrote, “we learned that the last step in the enfranchisement of women had been taken, and the struggle of more than seventy years brought to a successful end.” Women celebrate the passage of the 19th Amendment. Black and white photo. LOC Alice Paul’s Crusade: How A Young Quaker from New Jersey Changed the National Conversation and Got the Vote On March 2, 1918, a news item appeared on the front page of the Alaskan newspaper The Seward Gateway. Under the headline, “Alice Paul Has Measles,” was a report that the “militant suffrage leader” was confined to her room but carrying on her campaign through the door’s keyhole. Paul was largely unknown five years earlier when she arrived in Washington to work for an amendment to the Constitution prohibiting voter discrimination based on sex. Black and white portrait of Alice Paul seated at a desk. LOC Mary McLeod Bethune, True Democracy, and the Fight for Universal Suffrage Mary McLeod Bethune -- educator, club woman, and stateswoman -- asserted the universality of equality in and through all things. Her contributions to the women’s suffrage movement were evident in her rhetoric challenging American society to become a true democracy, as well as in her utilization of institutional spaces to plan, strategize, and allocate resources. black and white portrait of bethune, seated. NMAH Mary Church Terrell: Black Suffragist and Civil Rights Activist Born a slave in Memphis, Tennessee in 1863 during the Civil War, Mary Church Terrell became a civil rights activist and suffragist leader. Coming of age during and after Reconstruction, she understood through her own lived experiences that African-American women of all classes faced similar problems, including sexual and physical violence, inadequate access to health care, limited opportunities for meaningful and fairly compensated work, and no constitutional right to vote. Black and white profile portrait of Mary Church Terrell LOC “All Men and Women Are Created Equal:” The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) was the leading activist-intellectual of the nineteenth-century movement that demanded women’s rights, including the right to education, property, and a voice in public life. Among those rights was the right to vote, which Americans of her era increasingly understood as an important mark of citizenship. To those who were beginning to demand an end to women’s subordinate status, gaining suffrage came to be seen as an essential step. Portrait of a woman holding a child. LOC Should We Care What the Men Did? “Who cares what the men did?” That was all the book editor’s rejection note said. Yet in real time, during the 1910s, women cared deeply about the men in their fight. That all-important decade brought the campaign new momentum as state pro-suffrage referenda passed in California in 1911; Kansas and Oregon in 1912; Montana and Nevada in 1914; New York in 1917; and Michigan, Oklahoma, and South Dakota in 1918. Black and white portraits side by side of du bois and malone. Library of Congress Jeannette Rankin: One Woman, One Vote Only one woman in American history – Congresswoman Jeannette Rankin – ever cast a ballot in support of the 19th Amendment. In 1916, Rankin represented the citizens of Montana in the U.S. House of Representatives, and she wanted American women nationwide to enjoy the benefits of suffrage. “If I am remembered for no other act, I want to be remembered as the only woman who ever voted to give women the right to vote,” Rankin said. Black and white photo of Jeannette Rankin; library of congress Suffrage in Spanish: Hispanic Women and the Fight for the 19th Amendment in New Mexico At three o'clock on an October afternoon in 1915, the suffragists of Santa Fe, New Mexico, took to the streets of the capital city to make "a public act of faith in the cause of woman suffrage." One hundred and fifty women joined the parade, Anglos (the term New Mexicans used to refer to whites) and Hispanics (which referred to the Spanish-speaking citizens of the state). Some marched; others rode in gaily decorated automobiles. New Mexico Suffragists, 1915. Collections of the National Woman's Party The Very Queer History of the Suffrage Movement The women’s suffrage movement allowed women to re-examine, question, and begin to systematically rebel against the many restrictions they had lived under for centuries – including oppressive gender and sexual norms. There are, of course, more serious examples, besides Laughlin’s demand for pockets, of how suffragists defied the gendered conventions of their day. newspaper clipping do you want the vote or a husband Mabel Ping-Hua Lee: How Chinese-American Women Helped Shape the Suffrage Movement Mabel Ping-Hua Lee was a feminist pioneer. She was the first Chinese woman in the United States to earn her doctorate and an advocate for the rights of women and the Chinese community in America. However, due to discriminatory immigration laws, she was unable to become a citizen of the United States. Despite this injustice, she played an important part in the fight for voting rights both in the United States and in China. Newspaper photo of Mabel Lee LOC Suffragette & Suffragist: The Influence of the British Suffrage Movement “I am what you call a hooligan,” Emmeline Pankhurst announced to the standing-room only crowd of women packed into Carnegie Hall in October 1909. Hundreds more gathered outside, hoping to hear the famous “suffragette” speak. The American suffrage and labor activists in attendance cheered as Mrs. Pankhurst regaled the audience with stories about the fight to win the vote for British women. Black and white portrait of emmeline pankhurst LOC How Susan B. Anthony Became the Most Recognizable Suffragist When I ask my college students to name a suffragist, most of them name Susan B. Anthony. Over a century after her death, many even recognize her picture. In 1979, she became the first woman whose portrait appeared on a circulating coin in the United States. A recent study by the National Women’s History Museum reveals that many states require students to learn about her. How did Anthony’s face become so visible? Susan B Anthony sitting at her desk 1900 Library of Congress Sister-Wives and Suffragists: Mormonism and the Women’s Suffrage Movement “Do you know of any place on the face of the earth, where woman has more liberty, and where she enjoys such high and glorious privileges as she does here, as a Latter-day Saint?” So spoke Eliza R. Snow in 1870, the year when women in territorial Utah became among the tiny minority of nineteenth-century American women to win the right to exercise the franchise. Head and shoulders portrait of emmeline wells, black and white. library of congress The Great Suffrage Parade of 1913 On the afternoon of March 3, 1913, the day before the inauguration of Woodrow Wilson as the nation’s 28th president, thousands of suffragists gathered near the Garfield monument in front of the U.S. Capitol. Grand Marshal Jane Burleson stood ready to lead them out into Pennsylvania Avenue at exactly 3:00, in what became the first civil rights march on Washington, DC. It also proved to be turning point in the fight for the vote. A woman in white sits atop a white horse 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession The Woman Suffrage Procession along Pennsylvania Avenue on March 3, 1913, the day before Woodrow Wilson's presidential inauguration, used pageantry to raise awareness about women's exclusion from the nation's political process. The publicity following the event re-energized the woman suffrage movement in the United States. Cover of the Woman Suffrage Procession program with herald on horseback Women in World War I Five million men were mobilized for war. Nine million women mobilized themselves. Joy Bright Hancock in navy uniform A Great Inheritance: Reflected Shortcomings in Abolition and the Women's Rights Movement It is a disservice to consider the abolitionist movement for all of its triumphs and none of its problems. It is likewise naïve to consider the positive influences of abolition on the women’s rights movement without acknowledging the negative. The following is an examination of the problems within the abolition movement and how these issues are reflected in the early women’s rights movement. Suffrage Envoy Sara Bard Field In 1915, suffragist Sara Bard Field drove thousands of miles across the United States collection signatures on a petition in support of women's right to vote. Ranger Lorne has the story of her incredible journey. Photograph of three women in coats and hats standing in front of open top automobile with banner Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Forward Into Light If you could write a letter to the woman of the future, what would you say? Alice Paul did just that when she contributed to an article series in The Washington Times asking prominent women and men to offer their predictions for the future. Her answer: "Women Will Be Real Equals in 2023." Black and white photo of Alice Paul with text "The World 100 Years From Now" superimposed over it Series: A Great Inheritance: Examining the Relationship between Abolition and the Women’s Rights Movement This series was written by Victoria Elliott, an intern at Women's Rights National Historical Park. The abolition and women’s rights movements are deeply connected. This series looks at the connections, as well as how the movements differed for Black and white women. Drawing of a Black woman kneeling, her hands chained. Text: "Am I Not A Woman And A Sister?" Series: On Their Shoulders: The Radical Stories of Women's Fight for the Vote These articles were originally published by the Women’s Suffrage Centennial Commission (WSCC) as a part of the WSCC blog, The Suff Buffs. The Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission was created by Congress to commemorate 100 years of the 19th Amendment throughout 2020 and to ensure the untold stories of women’s battle for the ballot continue to inspire Americans for the next 100 years. In collaboration with the WSCC, the NPS is the forever home of these articles Logo of the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission Series: Suffrage in Sixty Seconds When was the last time you voted? For the 100th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution enfranchising women, park rangers at the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument created these one-minute videos that highlight suffrage subjects and the heroes who made woman suffrage a reality—including those women who continued the fight for full enfranchisement beyond 1920. Alice Paul raises glass above ratification banner Series: Maud Malone - New York City Librarian and Suffrage Powerhouse Series by Dan Meharg. The fight to win voting rights for American women began in 1848, but by 1905 the effort was about dead. The movement’s founders were passing away and only four western states allowed women to vote. Maud Malone, a New York City librarian, was determined to revive the dying movement. Single working women like herself paid taxes but had no say in how that money was spent. America prided itself on being a free country but... Maud Malone speaking in New York City. Library of Congress The Final Desperate Battle for Suffrage in Tennessee Everyone knew that Tennessee was a dangerous place to stage the decisive battle for ratification of the 19th Amendment, but the suffragists had no choice. It was their last, best hope to secure ratification before the fall 1920 national elections; it was their only feasible prospect for gaining the elusive 36th ratification state to make women’s suffrage part of the Constitution. After seven decades of struggle, it would come down to Tennessee, and that was terrifying. Exterior photo of the Hermitage Hotel, Nashville. Courtesy Hermitage Hotel Leaders in Coins: Eisenhower and Anthony How important are individuals in the work for change? How do leaders set the stage for the next generation? Ranger Lorne looks at coins from the United States Mint to investigate the common leadership characteristics between woman suffrage leader Susan B. Anthony and President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Eisenhower and Anthony coins with Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument arrowhead logo Leaders in Equality: The Portrait Monument Ranger Lorne tells the story of the installation of the Portrait Monument in the Capitol Rotunda on February 15, 1921. The sculpture by Adelaide Johnson and commissioned by the National Woman's Party incorporates busts of Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, three founders of the woman suffrage movement, into a large block of white marble. What does the design, the ceremony, and the statue's fate tell us about the ongoing struggle for women's equality? The Portrait Monument depicting Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton Teaching Justice: Ida B. Wells in the Suffrage Procession Have you ever wondered how to respond when you are told that you cannot do something? Have you seen someone else being excluded or left out? In this Teaching Justice activity using the Suffrage in 60 Seconds video about Ida B. Wells, students discuss the experience of being excluded unfairly. What responsibility do we have to stand up to exclusion, prejudice, and injustice? Head and shoulders portrait of Ida B. Wells looking over her left shoulder Teaching Justice: Protest When is protest an effective tactic for social change? Using two Suffrage in 60 Seconds videos about the National Woman's Party's campaign of picketing the White House, this lesson invites fourth grade students to discuss collective action against injustice. What strategies are most effective in convincing others to change their mind? Three women with suffrage sashes stand outside the White House holding a large banner Teaching Justice: Symbols of Suffrage Women in the suffrage movement had multiple items they wore that identified them as suffragists and supporters or advocates for the movement. Not only would they wear these items while they were protesting or picketing, but they would wear them to meetings and out in public settings. This activity designed for fifth grade students uses a historic photograph as a primary source to engage students with issues of identity, appearance, and bias. Suffragists picketing with Banner Teaching Justice: Suffrage Prisoners Banner Have you ever spoken out when you saw someone mistreated? This anti-bias learning activity designed for fifth graders uses a photograph of Mary Winsor protesting against the imprisonment of suffrage protesters to spark discussion about the responsibility to stand up to exclusion, prejudice, and injustice. Mary Winsor holding a banner that reads Teaching Justice: The Prison Special and the Courage to Speak Out When have you needed courage? In this anti-bias learning activity for fifth grade, students explore questions about when and how to take a stand against bias and injustice in their everyday lives. Using photographs of Lucy Burns, co-founder of the National Woman's Party and the woman who spent more time in prison than any other American suffragist, students engage with questions about the courage needed to speak out for social justice. A line of women in prison dress in a train station. Front woman carries a banner Teaching Justice: Forward Into Light How are signs and banners used for social change? In this anti-bias learning activity designed for fifth grade, students examine a suffrage banner and compare it to signs used by other movements for justice. They analyze how words and slogans have been used as strategies in the history of social justice and imagine how they can take a stand against bias and injustice in their everyday lives. Suffrage banner at Belmont-Paul museum with slogan that includes "Forward Into Light" Series: Teaching Justice Identity. Diversity. Justice. Action. These learning activities engage students with the history of women's ongoing struggle for equality. Each lesson uses an item from the National Woman's Party collection or an aspect of the story of suffrage to make connections to broad questions of equity and the work of social change using anti-bias objectives from the Learning for Justice framework. A word cloud at Belmont-Paul with the question Teaching Justice: Arrested How does identity shape our interactions with others? In this anti-bias learning activity designed for fifth and sixth grade, students examine three photographs of women arrested for protesting for the right to vote. Through discussion, students will recognize that people's multiple identities interact and create unique and complex individuals. Two suffragists carrying banners held by the arms by a police woman as a crowd looks on Teaching Justice: Suffrage Cartoons How can art be used to change people's minds? What happens when we leave someone out of the picture? In this anti-bias learning activity, students evaluate the political cartoons of suffragist Nina Allender to discover how women are represented in her art, and who is left out. Then they will create their own artwork, responding to diversity by building empathy, respect, understanding, and connection. Cartoonist Nina Allender seated with work in progress on her lap Plan Like a Park Ranger: Top 10 Tips for Visiting the National Mall Memorial Day weekend usually marks the beginning of the summer travel season. Across the country, friends, families, and individuals will head out to enjoy adventures and make memories. Of course, national parks - including the National Mall - are popular destinations. To help you #PlanLikeAParkRanger, we're offering our Top 10 tips to help you on your next National Mall visit. Text reading Teaching Justice: Anti-Suffrage Postcards How have you responded when you have been teased or ridiculed? In this anti-bias learning activity designed for sixth-eighth grade, students will examine four anti-suffrage postcards from the early 20th century and analyze how women (and men) are represented. They will make connections with the way women are characterized today while learning to exchange ideas and beliefs in an open-minded way. Color illustration labeled "Militant Suffragists" with three children parading, carrying signs Teaching Justice: She's Good Enough How can popular culture be used in the work of social change? In this anti-bias learning activity for sixth-eighth grade, students examine a suffrage illustration modeled on a popular cartoon circulated during Teddy Roosevelt's re-election campaign. They will analyze the use of cultural touchstones to change public perception about an issue, and evaluate which strategies are most effective when planning collective action against injustice. Illustrated sheet music cover for Teaching Justice: Six Reasons for Suffrage What actions should you take when facing injustice? In this anti-bias learning activity designed for sixth-eighth grades, students examine a flier created by the National American Woman Suffrage Association that lists six reasons that women should be enfranchised across the country by amending the U.S. Constitution. They will analyze the arguments presented by the suffragists and identify unfairness at the individual and systemic level. Extend the lesson and create a flier! Flier from 1917 listing six reasons for woman suffrage by federal amendment How Long Must Women Wait? The Belmont-Paul Women’s Equality National Monument was home to the National Woman’s Party for more than 90 years and served as the epicenter of the struggle for women’s rights. Over the last two years, the National Park Service and Quinn Evans have collaborated on a Historic Resource Study for this nationally significant site. The study highlights the people, places, and stories that helped propel the Women’s Suffrage and Equal Rights movements in the Washington, DC, area. Purple shaded photo of women on the steps of NWP headquarters Teaching Justice: Frenemies How do we resolve conflict? What happens when those working for change agree on the goal but not the methods? In this learning activity for 9th-12th grade, students examine tensions in the suffrage movement using essays and a video about the topic. They will recognize that people’s multiple identities interact and create unique and complex individuals. Using what they learn, they will develop conflict resolution strategies. Jeannette Rankin standing up in an open-topped car with four other women around her Write-Out Prompt: A Message from Beyond at the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality NM In this video for the National Writing Project's Write Out, staff at the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument share stories of the spirits of fierce women that inspire us. Writing prompt: Imagine that someone from the past visited you as a ghost. What message does the spirit have for you? Write a story or create a meme. #WriteOut NPS Intern Nia stands next to a white board with the writing prompt Sea Level Rise in the DC Area Learn about current and projected rates of sea level rise in the greater DC area, based on local water level data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) A tall white cylinder attached to a wooden pier with Hains Point in the background. Lesson Plan: Ain't I A Woman? Sojourner Truth was an abolitionist, women's rights activist, and dynamic speaker. Her speech at the Ohio Woman's Rights Convention known as "Ain't I A Woman?" had a powerful effect on the audience. But did she ever say "Ain't I A Woman?" In this learning activity, 4th and 5th graders analyze two versions of the speech. How do speakers engage audiences to make their argument? How do we make sense of conflicting versions of the same event? Sojourner Truth, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left. Woman Suffrage Pageants Hazel MacKaye designed and directed many suffrage pageants during the campaign for the 19th Amendment. Women wore elaborate costumes to represent ideals like Liberty and Justice and dramatized the accomplishments of women. Pageants were a popular type of entertainment in the early 20th century. They provided an opportunity for the community to perform along with professionals. Pageants were an effective form of propaganda in the cause of women's right to vote. Woman dressed as "Columbia" with other suffrage pageant participants standing in background NAMA Notebook: January Birthdays There are several important birthdays connected with NAMA monuments and memorials. How can you use the birthdays of historical figures to connect students with concepts like family, struggle, equality, and leadership? Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial statue in profile with Washington Monument in distance National Parks Named in Honor of Women Women’s history is found in more than 400 national parks across the country and still being made today. National parks come in many different shapes, sizes, naming designations, and reasons for being created. Explore national parks that were created and named in honor of specific women and take a closer look at these women’s lasting legacy on American history. Bust of Alice Paul Podcast 136: Preserving and Sharing the Story of Women's Suffrage Jason Church talks with Joanne Westbrook about preserving and presenting the National Women's Party collections at the Belmont-Paul House. "...the National Women's Party has actually been collecting since the 19-teens, when they were lobbying Congress for the right, for women's suffrage. And luckily, we had some women in the party who were very forward-thinking and knew that this was going to be an important organization and important work to commemorate for the future..." Alice Paul sewing a suffrage flag. Image courtesy of the Library of Congress

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