"Rainbow at Tyuonyi" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Bandelier

National Monument - New Mexico

Bandelier National Monument is a 33,677-acre United States National Monument near Los Alamos in Sandoval and Los Alamos Counties, New Mexico. The monument preserves the homes and territory of the Ancestral Puebloans of a later era in the Southwest.

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Map of the Westward Expansion of the Santa Fe Trail for Fort Larned National Historic Site (NHS) in Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Santa Fe - Santa Fe Trail Westward Expansion

Map of the Westward Expansion of the Santa Fe Trail for Fort Larned National Historic Site (NHS) in Kansas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NHT) in Colorado, Kansas, Misouri, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Santa Fe - National Historic Trail

Official Visitor Map of Santa Fe National Historic Trail (NHT) in Colorado, Kansas, Misouri, New Mexico and Oklahoma. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Official Visitor Map of Bandelier National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Bandelier - Visitor Map

Official Visitor Map of Bandelier National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Detail of the Official Visitor Map of Bandelier National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).Bandelier - Visitor Map Detail

Detail of the Official Visitor Map of Bandelier National Monument (NM) in New Mexico. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units

Map of the U.S. National Park System. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Park Units and Regions

Map of the U.S. National Park System with Unified Regions. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).National Park System - National Heritage Areas

Map of the U.S. National Heritage Areas. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Map of Los Alamos Area Trails in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Los Alamos - Trails Map

Map of Los Alamos Area Trails in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Southwestern area of Santa Fe National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).Santa Fe MVUM - Southwest 2024

Motor Vehicle Use Map (MVUM) of the Southwestern area of Santa Fe National Forest (NF) in New Mexico. Published by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS).

Tourist-Road Map of New Mexico. Published by the New Mexico Department of Transportation.New Mexico - Tourist-Road Map

Tourist-Road Map of New Mexico. Published by the New Mexico Department of Transportation.

https://www.nps.gov/band/index.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandelier_National_Monument Bandelier National Monument is a 33,677-acre United States National Monument near Los Alamos in Sandoval and Los Alamos Counties, New Mexico. The monument preserves the homes and territory of the Ancestral Puebloans of a later era in the Southwest. Bandelier National Monument protects over 33,000 acres of ruggedly beautiful canyon and mesa country. Petroglyphs, dwellings carved into the soft rock cliffs, and standing masonry walls pay tribute to the early days of a culture that still survives in the surrounding communities. From NM285 US84 in Pojaque NM. West on NM502, West on NM4 to White rock. Then 12 miles to the monument entrance on the south side of the road. Bandelier National Monument Visitor Center Main Visitor Center for Bandelier National Monument located in the main Frijoles Canyon area Directions from Santa Fe 1 hour each way Take Saint Francis Drive (HWY 84/285) north toward Los Alamos. After passing Pojoaque, merge right onto New Mexico 502 to Los Alamos. Continue up 502 toward Los Alamos. Bear right and exit onto New Mexico 4 towards White Rock. Continue for 12 miles, passing White Rock. Bandelier's entrance is on your left. Juniper Family Campground 3 loops, 52 site campground near the entrance to the monument. 2 sites for small groups up to 20 people. No reservations. First come, first serve except for the 2 group sites. Per site, two (2) cars 20.00 Per night, per campsite, up to two (2) vehicles Juniper Campground site a site at Juniper Campground Some sites are perfect for small trailers. Juniper Campground site with bigger trees Juniper Campground site with bigger trees Juniper Campground site with bigger trees Juniper Campground pull through site for larger vehicles Juniper Campground pull through A pull through site in Juniper Family Campground. Juniper Campground restrooms restrooms at Juniper Campground flush toilets at Juniper Campground Dump station at Juniper Campground dump station at Juniper Campground dump station at Juniper Campground, closed when freezing temps at night Parking at Ponderosa Campground Parking at Ponderosa Campground Parking at Ponderosa Campground Ponderosa Ponderosa group campground is open year round, with water available May - October only. Site is available by reservation only. Group camping fee 50.00 Fee per night, per campsite, per group Ponderosa Group Campground an image of a wooden structure and a covered picnic area with large green trees Ponderosa Group Campground Ponderosa Group Campground Picnic Shelter an image of an open sided but covered picnic shelter with big green trees all around Ponderosa Group Campground Picnic Shelter Tyuonyi the village of Tyuonyi A view of Tyuonyi and the cliff dwelling in Frijoles Canyon from the mesa. View from a Cavate Tyuonyi from a cavate A view of Tyuonyi from a cavate along the Main Loop Trail in Frijoles Canyon. Long House archeological sites in Frijoles Canyon A view of Long House dwellings from the mesa top. Frijoles Canyon a view of Frijoles Canyon from the rim A view of Frijoles Canyon from the Frey Trail Cerro Grande a view of the Valles Caldera from Cerro Grande A view of the Valles Caldera from Cerro Grande, the highest point in Bandelier. The Rio Grande a view of the Rio Grande A view of the Rio Grande, the lowest point in Bandelier, from the mesa above Frijoles Canyon Visitor Center visitor center in winter Bandelier visitor center in winter Park Air Profiles - Bandelier National Monument Air quality profile for Bandelier National Monument. Gives park-specific information about air quality and air pollution impacts for Bandelier NM as well as the studies and monitoring conducted for Bandelier NM. Castle Kiva in winter National Park Getaway: Bandelier National Monument Explore the rugged, volcanic landscape of northern New Mexico. Archaeological ruins and petroglyphs give a glimpse into the lives of the Ancestral Puebloans who settled the area hundreds of years ago. Two visitors looking inside a Pueblo ruin Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship of Birds of Conservation Concern at Bandelier and Mesa Verde Southern Colorado Plateau Inventory and Monitoring Network bird monitoring allows scientists to track bird numbers, diversity, and habitat relationships. However, it is less able to identify reasons for changes in bird populations. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship program (MAPS) is complementary in that regard. It collects demographic data such as bird reproduction and survival rates. Bandelier and Mesa Verde implemented MAPS programs in 2010. Wildlife biology intern demonstrates the proper way to hold a bird. National Park Service Staff Explore Strategies for Success at Leadership Conference With a goal of creating better leaders and promoting gender balance, the 2016 Women and Leadership Conference introduced influential policy and business leaders who shared their insights and offered tools to help participants become leaders in their respective fields. A group of men and women stand in front of a blue curtain and an Andrus Center banner. NPS Geodiversity Atlas—Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico Each park-specific page in the NPS Geodiversity Atlas provides basic information on the significant geologic features and processes occurring in the park. Links to products from Baseline Geologic and Soil Resources Inventories provide access to maps and reports. steep walled canyon Increasing temperature seasonality may overwhelm shifts in soil moisture to favor shrub over grass dominance in Colorado Plateau drylands Increasing variability of temperature favors a shift to shrublands over grasslands in arid southwestern landscapes. This effect is greater than the effect of increasing soil moisture, which favors a shift to grasslands over shrublands. Grassland with scattered junipers and hills in the background. Bandelier National Monument and Beyond: Inspiring Future Fire Ecologists in Los Alamos County Bandelier National Monument’s Ponderosa Campground, an area that has been impacted by several major wildfires, was a fitting location to meet and learn about Fire Ecology. On June 14th, 2016, Bandelier’s Fire Ecology Crew members met with twenty-three elementary-aged youth from Los Alamos, Bernalillo, and Rio Arriba counties who were attending the Pajarito Environmental Education Center’s (PEEC) Summer Camp. Bandelier’s Fire Ecology Crewmembers talk with PEEC camp participants. Credit: PEEC The Colorado Plateau The Colorado Plateau is centered on the four corners area of the Southwest, and includes much of Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Hazy Fajada Butte, Chaco Culture National Monument Monitoring Upland Vegetation and Soils on the Southern Colorado Plateau Vegetation and soils are the foundation upon which all terrestrial ecosystems are built. Soils provide the medium for the storage and delivery of water and nutrients to plants, which in turn provide animal populations with both habitat and food. Sampling grassland vegetation at a long-term monitoring plot at Wupatki National Monument Monitoring Bird Communities on the Southern Colorado Plateau Bird communities can tell us a lot about changing environmental conditions. High on the food chain, and sensitive to climate and habitat changes, birds are monitored on the Southern Colorado Plateau as indicators of riparian and upland ecosystem health. Male Williamson’s sapsucker. Wildland Fire in Douglas Fir: Western United States Douglas fir is widely distributed throughout the western United States, as well as southern British Columbia and northern Mexico. Douglas fir is able to survive without fire, its abundantly-produced seeds are lightweight and winged, allowing the wind to carry them to new locations where seedlings can be established. Close-up of Douglas fir bark and needles. Bandelier and Beyond: Interagency Partnerships for Fire Ecology Staff of Bandelier NM fire ecology program collect both short- and long-term data to determine whether management objectives are being met, measure the effectiveness of treatments, and determine if additional research is needed. The fire ecology program has assisted other local agencies, parks, and partners in conducting treatment effectiveness assessments. 2013 Harry Yount National Park Ranger Award Being a park ranger comes naturally for Tom Betts – you could even say it's in his blood. As the son of a park ranger, he literally and figuratively grew up honing his outdoor skills in national parks. Currently the chief ranger at Bandelier National Monument, Betts has worked at eight additional national parks during his 32-year National Park Service career. Portrait of Tom Betts Modeling Past and Future Soil Moisture in Southern Colorado Plateau National Parks and Monuments In this project, USGS and NPS scientists used the range of variation in historical climate data to provide context for assessing the relative impact of projected future climate on soil water availability. This report provides the results of modeled SWP generated for 11 ecosystems in nine Southern Colorado Plateau Network parks. Extensive grassland at Wupatki National Monument Monitoring Night Skies and Natural Soundscapes on the Southern Colorado Plateau Many national parks in the Southern Colorado Plateau region contain large areas of wilderness, where dark night skies and natural soundscapes are important human values. Dark night skies, which depend upon the visibility of stars and other natural components, are diminishing resources in several park units because of anthropogenic activities. Natural soundscapes—that is, the natural sounds of wildlands—are degraded by sounds caused by humans or human technology. Clouds and sky turning red and orange over Navajo National Monument at sunset Wildland Fire in Ponderosa Pine: Western United States This forest community generally exists in areas with annual rainfall of 25 inches or less. Extensive pure stands of this forest type are found in the southwestern U.S., central Washington and Oregon, southern Idaho and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Recently burned ponderosa pine forest. Civilian Conservation Corps at Tumacácori The CCC is one of the most well-remembered and highly regarded programs of the New Deal. Camp NM-1-N, located at Bandelier National Monument in New Mexico, made important contributions to Tumacácori’s visitor center. men with truck and olive tree in courtyard garden 'Mantén Viva la Llama' - 'Keep the Flame Alive!' Mantén Viva la Llama' --'Keep the Flame Alive!’ describes the theme of the Spanish Language Training Exchange (TREX) held near Santa Fe, New Mexico in October of 2019. The two week TREX program brings diverse fire practitioners from many Spanish speaking countries, including Argentina, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Spain, together to build skills in prescribed fire, fire management, and fire ecology. monitoring surface vegetation Pollinators - Hummingbirds Hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) are amazingly adapted pollinators, and they play an important role in pollination. A flying hummingbird hovers next to a red flower Monitoring Water Quality on the Southern Colorado Plateau Water quality data are used to characterize waters, detect trends over time, and identify emerging problems. In Southern Colorado Plateau Network parks, water quality is monitored as an indicator of aquatic ecosystem integrity, as a component of watershed condition, and to document water quality conditions in relation to state and federal regulations. Collecting water quality data Bandelier National Monument and Beyond: Bandelier Fire Management in the Los Alamos Community “Water: Where Does it Come From, and Where Does it Go?” This was the question posed to Los Alamos fourth grade students at the 2015 Water Day Festival organized by Pajarito Environmental Education Center. In addition to learning about water conservation, students learned about the effects that water, or the lack of it, can have on the fire environment. Bandelier’s Engine Crew introduces students to the fire engine. Bandelier National Monument and Beyond: International Collaborations in Fire Ecology 'Mantén Viva la Llama' - 'Keep the Flame Alive!' was the theme of this year’s Spanish Language Training Exchange (TREX), held September 15th to October 4th, 2015 in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. Twenty TREX participants traveled from Spain, Guatemala, Argentina, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Mexico to share experiences, learn about prescribed fire, fire management, fire ecology, and restoration practices in forests and grasslands. Fire ecology crew member Nathalie Besse discusses the factors that can contribute to fire severity. Vegetation Characterization and Mapping on the Southern Colorado Plateau Vegetation mapping is a tool used by botanists, ecologists, and land managers to better understand the abundance, diversity, and distribution of different vegetation types across a landscape. Vegetation plots used for the classification and mapping of El Malpais NM Climate Change on the Southern Colorado Plateau The combination of high. elevation and a semi-arid climate makes the Colorado Plateau particularly vulnerable to climate change. Climate models predict that over the next 100 years, the Southwest will become warmer and even more arid, with more extreme droughts than the region has experienced in the recent past. One result of climate change may be more, larger floods, like this flash flood in Glen Canyon NRA Monitoring Aquatic Macroinvertebrates on the Southern Colorado Plateau Aquatic macroinvertebrates, such as insect larvae, snails, and worms, play a vital role in stream ecosystems, both as a food source and as consumers of algae and other organic matter. Because macroinvertebrates are sensitive to environmental change, monitoring them can help to detect chemical, physical, and biological impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring aquatic macroinvertebrates Southern Colorado Plateau Mammal Inventories Mammal inventories help to close the gap in our knowledge and understanding of some taxonomic groups on the Colorado Plateau. Coyote (Canis latrans) Celebrating soils across the National Park System First in a series of three "In Focus" articles that share insights into the near-universal and far-reaching effects of soils on the ecology, management, and enjoyment of our national parks. Fossil soils at Cabrillo National Monument reveal marine deposits Frijoles Canyon Tree Planting: Reforestation Efforts within the Las Conchas Fire Perimeter Bandelier National Monument’s Resource Management and Fire Ecology Programs are collaborating on a spring tree planting and monitoring project in Frijoles Canyon. Within the 2011 Las Conchas fire perimeter, the Frijoles Canyon landscape ranges from low severity burn areas with intact forest to areas that burned at high severity with no mature live trees remaining. Person carries tree seedlings in a backpack. Series: Geologic Time Periods in the Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display at a visitor center Series: The New Deal at Tumacácori The grounds of Tumacácori protect a map of treasures made by men and women during the New Deal era of the 1930's. Will you find them all? black and white photo of young men and truck in walled courtyard garden Series: Defining the Southwest The Southwest has a special place in the American imagination – one filled with canyon lands, cacti, roadrunners, perpetual desert heat, a glaring sun, and the unfolding of history in places like Tombstone and Santa Fe. In the American mind, the Southwest is a place without boundaries – a land with its own style and its own pace – a land that ultimately defies a single definition. Maize agriculture is one component of a general cultural definition of the Southwest. Series: Park Air Profiles Clean air matters for national parks around the country. Photo of clouds above the Grand Canyon, AZ Quaternary Period—2.58 MYA to Today Massive ice sheets advanced and retreated across North America during much of the Quaternary, carving landscapes in many parks. Bering Land Bridge National Preserve contains geologic evidence of lower sea level during glacial periods, facilitating the prehistoric peopling of the Americas. The youngest rocks in the NPS include the lava of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the travertine at Yellowstone National Park, which can be just a few hours old. fossil bone bed and murals of mammoths Cenozoic Era The Cenozoic Era (66 million years ago [MYA] through today) is the "Age of Mammals." North America’s characteristic landscapes began to develop during the Cenozoic. Birds and mammals rose in prominence after the extinction of giant reptiles. Common Cenozoic fossils include cat-like carnivores and early horses, as well as ice age woolly mammoths. fossils on display in a visitor center Two for the Price of One Companion, assistant, confidant, ambassador, host, nurse, cook, secretary, editor, field technician, wildlife wrangler, diplomat, and social director are some of the many roles that people who marry into the NPS perform in support of their spouses and the NPS mission. Although the wives and daughters of park rangers were some of the earliest women rangers in the NPS, many more women served as “park wives” in the 1920s–1940s. Three members of a family Substitute Rangers As the 1940s dawned, the United States was still dealing with the economic woes of the Great Depression and trying not to get drawn in WWII. Even as it continued to manage New Deal Program work in national and state parks, the NPS remained understaffed as a government bureau. The emergency relief workers and about 15 percent of NPS staff enlisted or were drafted during the first couple of years of WWII. Winifred Tada, 1940. (Courtesy of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin) Volcanic Craters Craters are present at many volcanic vents. The size and shape of volcanic craters vary a great deal from volcano to volcano, and they even change during the lifespan of an active volcano. Craters can become filled by lava domes or lava flows, and new craters may form during subsequent eruptions. cinder cone crater Find Your Park on Route 66 Route 66 and the National Park Service have always had an important historical connection. Route 66 was known as the great road west and after World War II families on vacation took to the road in great numbers to visit the many National Park Service sites in the Southwest and beyond. That connection remains very alive and present today. Take a trip down Route 66 and Find Your Park today! A paved road with fields in the distance. On the road is a white Oklahoma Route 66 emblem. Maars and Tuff Rings Maars and tuff rings are low-standing pyroclastic cones with large craters that usually form from highly-explosive eruptions caused by the interaction of magma with ground or surface waters. Ubehebe Crater in Death Valley National Park is a maar. lakeshore and tundra Changing Patterns of Water Availability May Change Vegetation Composition in US National Parks Across the US, changes in water availability are altering which plants grow where. These changes are evident at a broad scale. But not all areas experience the same climate in the same way, even within the boundaries of a single national park. A new dataset gives park managers a valuable tool for understanding why vegetation has changed and how it might change in the future under different climate-change scenarios. Green, orange, and dead grey junipers in red soil, mountains in background Volcanic Domes Lava domes are steep-sided rounded accumulations of highly viscous silicic lava over a vent. Some domes are part of composite volcanoes, but large ones can make up their own volcanoes. Lassen Peak is a dome. photo of a rounded hill of blocky rock Cinder Cones Cinder cones are typically simple volcanoes that consist of accumulations of ash and cinders around a vent. Sunset Crater Volcano and Capulin Volcano are cinder cones. photo of a dry grassy field with a cinder cone in the distance Series: Volcanic Features Volcanoes vary greatly in size and shape. Volcanoes also may have a variety of other features, which in turn, have a great range in diversity of form, size, shape, and permanence. Many volcanoes have craters at their summits and/or at the location of other vents. Some craters contain water lakes. Lakes of molten or solidified lava may exist on some volcanoes. Fumaroles and other geothermal features are a product of heat from magma reservoirs and volcanic gases. photo of a lava lake in a summit crater Water Resources on the Colorado Plateau Describes the origin, uses, threats to, and conservation of water on the Colorado Plateau. Dark green body of water winding through red rock formations with brilliant sun overhead. Calderas Calderas are large collapse features that can be many miles in diameter. They form during especially large eruptions when the magma chamber is partially emptied, and the ground above it collapses into the momentary void. Crater Lake and Aniakchak Crater are calderas. photo of oblique aerial view of a volcanic caldera with snow and ice Series: Volcano Types Volcanoes vary in size from small cinder cones that stand only a few hundred feet tall to the most massive mountains on earth. photo of a volcanic mountain with snow and ice Explosive Calderas Explosive calderas result from violent eruptions of great quantities of silicic magmas. These eruptions produce massive eruption columns that extend into the stratosphere, and voluminous pyroclastic flows. Eruptions that produce explosive calderas generally range from 6 (Colossal) on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) to 8 super eruptions (Apocalyptic). digital oblique aerial image of a volcanic caldera Ranger Roll Call, 1950-1959 In the 1950s, women in uniform continue to work as guides, historians, and archeologists. Few women had permanent positions. A handful of women began to get seasonal ranger-naturalists positions at large national parks for the first time in two decades. Ann Livesay in her NPS uniform standing in front of a low wall at the edge of the Grand Canyon. Bridging Boundaries to Protect Migratory Birds U.S. national parks are part of an international network tracking vulnerable migratory birds. They are also vital training grounds for future bird conservationists. Young man holds the hand of a boy with a bird in it Pyroclastic Flows and Ignimbrites, and Pyroclastic Surges Pyroclastic flows and surges are among the most awesome and most destructive of all volcanic phenomena. Pyroclastic flow deposits are found in at least 21 units of the National Park System. photo of a cloud of ash and dust moving down a mountain side. Volcanic Ash, Tephra Fall, and Fallout Deposits Volcanic ash, pumice, and tephra ejected in volcanic eruptions ultimately falls back to Earth where it covers the ground. These deposits may be the thin dustings or may be many tens of feet (meters) thick near an eruptive vent. Volcanic ash and tephra can present geohazards that are present great distances from the erupting volcano. photo of a bluff with exposed fine-grained volcanic ash and pumice. Studying the Past and Predicting the Future Using Rat Nests In the western United States, packrat middens are one of the best tools for reconstructing recent environments and climates. These accumulations of plant fragments, small vertebrate remains, rodent droppings, and other fossils can be preserved for more than 50,000 years. Packrat middens have been found in at least 41 National Park Service units. Photo of a wood rat. Series: Park Paleontology News - Vol. 14, No. 2, Fall 2022 All across the park system, scientists, rangers, and interpreters are engaged in the important work of studying, protecting, and sharing our rich fossil heritage. <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/newsletters.htm">Park Paleontology news</a> provides a close up look at the important work of caring for these irreplaceable resources. <ul><li>Contribute to Park Paleontology News by contacting the <a href="https://www.nps.gov/common/utilities/sendmail/sendemail.cfm?o=5D8CD5B898DDBB8387BA1DBBFD02A8AE4FBD489F4FF88B9049&r=/subjects/geoscientistsinparks/photo-galleries.htm">newsletter editor</a></li><li>Learn more about <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossils/">Fossils & Paleontology</a> </li><li>Celebrate <a href="https://www.nps.gov/subjects/fossilday/">National Fossil Day</a> with events across the nation</li></ul> Photo of a person sitting while using a laboratory microscope. Research Spotlight: Jemez Mountains Salamander Valles Caldera National Preserve and Bandelier National Monument are home to one of the rarest species on the planet, the Jemez Mountains salamander. Plethodon neomexicanus is only found in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico, and it was listed in 2013 as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A brown salamander on a log twists its body toward us Research Spotlight: Large Mammal Monitoring Project The Large Mammal Monitoring Project is a collaborative effort to monitor the responses of mule deer, elk, black bear, and mountain lion to ecosystem disturbances like wildfires in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. A park biologist wearing protective gloves holds a mountain lion cub. Wildfire and Archeology in the Jemez Mountains The Jemez Mountains area is a rich cultural landscape comprised of thousands of archeological sites and their related artifacts, rock art, trails, habitations, and countless other features that are vulnerable to wildland fire. Understanding the effects of high fuel loads and the resultant high heat exposure to archeological resources during fire is one necessary step towards developing a range of climate change responses for land managers to implement on the ground. A wildfire burns near a historic cabin at Valles Caldera National Preserve. Series: Geologic Time—Major Divisions and NPS Fossils The National Park System contains a magnificent record of geologic time because rocks from each period of the geologic time scale are preserved in park landscapes. The geologic time scale is divided into four large periods of time—the Cenozoic Era, Mesozoic Era, Paleozoic Era, and The Precambrian. photo of desert landscape with a petrified wood log on the surface Guide to the Thomas J. Allen Photograph Collection Finding aid for the Thomas J. Allen Photographs in the NPS History Collection. 50 Nifty Finds #17: Common Threads Each National Park Service (NPS) employee has a unique story. We can't tell them all, but sometimes there's a personal account—like that of Sallie Pierce Brewer Van Valkenburg Harris—that speaks to common experiences. Although her NPS connections ran from 1933 to 1971, many of her joys, challenges, and frustrations can still be recognized in the NPS today. Sallie's story resonates regardless of era, gender, or position. How will it speak to you? Sallie Brewer in her NPS uniform standing at a gate Conservation Diaries: Erwin Lopez Osorio, International Volunteer Meet Erwin Lopez Osorio, an international volunteer from Oaxaca, Mexico. Erwin spent the summer at Bandelier National Monument in New Mexico with the International Volunteers In Parks program. He shared his expertise as a biologist, including during research and education programs about birds in the park. Erwin Lopez Osario holding a bird Making an Impact: Long-Term Monitoring of Natural Resources at Intermountain Region National Parks, 2021 Across the Intermountain Region, Inventory & Monitoring Division ecologists are helping to track the effects of climate change, provide baseline information for resource management, evaluate new technologies, and inspire the next generation of park stewards. This article highlights accomplishments achieved during fiscal year 2021. A man looks through binoculars at sunrise. Fire, Soil, and Preserving History at Bandelier Bandelier National Monument tells the story of over 10,000 years of Ancestral Pueblo and Spanish history, the evidence of which is threatened by unsustainable land use exacerbated by climate change. Hundreds of ancient cultural sites are endangered as a result. How did Bandelier get this way? Archeological site Testing Treatments for Mitigating Climate-Change Effects on Adobe Structures in the National Parks In the US Southwest, climate change is making it harder to preserve historic adobe structures for future generations. Using adobe test walls and rainshower simulators, staff at the Desert Research Learning Center are evaluating the potential for increased erosion, and testing the effectiveness of different treatments methods to protect against it. The results will help park managers tailor their preservation methods to better protect culturally valuable resources. American flag viewed through the remains of an adobe doorway. The Plateau Postcard: Spring-Summer 2023 The Plateau Postcard is the official newsletter of the Southern Colorado Plateau Inventory and Monitoring Network. In this issue, we say hello to many new faces within the network and head to the field with some of this year's spectacular monitoring crews. Pile of postcards with images of various southwest national parks on them. A Changing Bimodal Climate Zone Means Changing Vegetation in Western National Parks When the climate changes enough, the vegetation communities growing in any given place will also change. Under an expanded bimodal climate zone, some plant communities in western national parks are more likely to change than others. National Park Service ecologists and partners investigated the future conditions that may force some of this change. Having this information can help park managers decide whether to resist, direct, or accept the change. Dark storm clouds and rainbow over mountains and saguaros. 50 Nifty Finds #29: Traditions in Clay In the 1920s and 1930s the National Park Service (NPS) began to focus on education as a key part of its mission. New exhibits were being created in NPS museums throughout the country. Many Native Americans, like Legoria Tafoya of Santa Clara Pueblo, were hired to demonstrate their traditional cultural practices or to make examples of pottery, paintings, clothing, tools, or other objects for park exhibits. Legoria Tafoya sits outdoors using a knife to think a clay pot in her lap. Reintroducing Beavers to Bandelier Beaver reintroductions in Frijoles Canyon began in 2019, with a total of 27 beavers introduced to date. These beavers have lived up to their reputation as ecosystem engineers and have built a string of ponds in the canyon, creating habitat for birds, like the America Robin, fish, like our reintroduced Rio Grande Cutthroat Trout, and even visiting black bears that just want to cool off. A beaver in a stream Survey for the Federally Threatened Mexican Spotted Owl in Post-Burn Critical Habitat Historically, Mexican spotted owls, a federally threatened species, were known to inhabit and breed within the steep-walled canyons of Bandelier National Monument. In 2011, the Las Conchas wildfire burned through 58% of the Mexican spotted owl's critical habitat within the park, of which 23% burned at high and moderate intensities. Mexican spotted owl surveys have become essential for proper management of their remaining habitat. Two scientists look into the distance from the canyon rim. Project Profile: Expand Southwest Seed Partnership for Intermountain Region Parks The National Park Service and organizations of the Southwest Seed Partnership will implement the National Seed Strategy and associated revegetation and ecosystem restoration efforts. The project focuses on native plant development and involves collecting, producing, cleaning, testing, tracking, and storing seeds from native species. grasses and shrubs on a hillside Climate Change and Fire Ecology of Valles Caldera - Preparing for the Future Human-caused climate warming and 20th-century forest management policies have led to dramatic changes in wildfire frequency and size, which in turn has impacted our forests’ ecosystem structure and functioning. Climate change drives wildfire frequency by raising temperatures, lowering relative humidity and increasing vapor pressure deficits, all of which contribute to lower forest fuel moisture, increased combustibility, and subsequent expansion of areas burned. Firefighters monitor a large wildfire in the distance. National Park Service project to build up 'workhorse' native seed stocks for major restoration and revegetation efforts The National Park Service, with funds from the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, will be able to build up stocks of the native workhorse plant species that can out compete invasive plant species so that native grasses and forbs can grow in previously disturbed areas.  a man kneels next to a bucket collecting seeds in a field 50 Nifty Finds #38: A Germ of an Idea A lot of articles have been written about the history of the National Park Service (NPS) arrowhead emblem. Many recycle the same content and outdated information that has largely come from the NPS itself. Challenging the traditional story has revealed new sources of information—and two previously overlooked arrowhead designs—that rewrite the arrowhead origin story. Wooden arrowhead plaque on stand 50 Nifty Finds #39: An NPS Art Factory Between 1938 and 1941 the National Park Service (NPS) Western Museum Laboratories (WML) created many iconic posters. Often described as “the WPA park posters,” they should be called “the WML posters.” Research reveals more designs than previously thought (including several previously unknown ones), reevaluates what is known about the artists, and argues that modern reproductions have made the designs more significant to NPS graphic identity today than they were in the past. Poster with a purple El Capitan at Yosemite Data Publication Brief - Aquatic Macroinvertebrates and Upland Vegetation/Soils The data packages for all our long-term monitoring efforts across the Southern Colorado Plateau are the foundations for almost everything we do here. We recently underwent our biggest effort yet in reformatting our data to fit the new standards put out by the Inventory & Monitoring Division. We are proud to announce that two of our largest datasets have now been published and are available for everyone to utilize. A split image, one side is a stonefly insect and the other side is a white flower. Dr. Ana Steffen: A Legacy of Science Leadership Dr. Ana Steffen has worked at Valles Caldera National Preserve since its establishment, building an incredible legacy of science leadership and resource stewardship. A woman kneels in a lush grassland with a map at her side. The Plateau Postcard: Winter 2024 The Plateau Postcard is the official newsletter of the Southern Colorado Plateau Inventory and Monitoring Network. In this issue, we learn about how we are trying to predict pinyon-juniper die-offs, as well as a new tool we developed to help make us all better field scientists, and we hear from Bob Parmenter about his remarkable career at Valles Caldera National Preserve. A pile of postcards.
The Tuff Times (Tuff - consolidated volcanic ash that forms Bandelier’s cliffs and canyons) Summer/Fall/Winter 2010 What’s Old is New Again Updating a Historic CCC Visitor Center Visitor Center circa 1930’s August 25, 2010 marked the grand reopening of the fully rehabilitated historic visitor center at Bandelier National Monument. This building was originally constructed in the 1930’s by members of the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC). Early exhibits displayed work by a young WPA (Work Projects Administration) artist, Pablita Velarde, from nearby Santa Clara Pueblo. The Visitor Center today building featured beautiful hand-carved visitors with diverse needs and the outdated vigas, polished tuff floors, and ornate 1930’s wiring/heating system has been punched tin light fixtures that stood tribute replaced to meet new safety standards. All to the hard work and dedication of the many of this was done while the integrity of the young men who worked and learned at historic structure was kept intact. Bandelier under the CCC. The construction project alone took almost As the 21st century began it became a year, while the new film was shot over a apparent that the building was five year period so that all four seasons and increasingly unable to meet many of the many different areas of the park could be needs of the visiting public or working staff. represented. Likewise, the exhibits took A long and involved planning process began several years and many revisions as park and now nearly a decade later has staff strove to acknowledge and incorporate culminated in a completely rehabilitated the diverse viewpoints encompassed by the visitor center. The new visitor center has all many people who have or have had strong new museum exhibits done in consultation with the park’s affiliated pueblos ties to Bandelier throughout its history. We hope the new visitor center will remain and a brand new high definition film which relevant in an ever-changing world, for a features Bandelier’s amazing resources throughout the seasons and elevations. The few decades at least. Let us know what you think of the changes. modernized bathrooms are accessible to Be sure to read these stories inside Park Flight Migratory Bird Program Page 5 American Pika in Bandelier Page 7 Table of Contents Park Highlights....................................2 Area Highlights....................................3 Change Comes to Frijoles Canyon......4 Park Flight Migratory Bird Program....5 Visitor Center Rehab ...........................6 American Pika ..................................7 Junior Ranger Program.......................7 Friends of Bandelier..........................8 Western National Parks Association..8 Volunteers....................................8 Park Highlights The Main Loop Trail (Tyuonyi, Long House, Alcove House) along State Road 4. The 1.5 mile loop trail, which involves 3 ladders, takes you to a mesatop village then returns past numerous petroglyphs and carved cliff-side homes. In addition, visitors enjoy expansive views of the surrounding mountains and valleys. Open from 7 AM - 7 PM. A guide book is available for $.50 on site. Cerro Grande Route - Views, Wildlife, and Flowers Ladders and stone stairs allow you to climb140 feet up into Alcove House, a rock shelter that once housed 25 Ancestral Pueblo people. Beginning just behind the visitor center the Main Loop Trail leads to numerous Ancestral Pueblo dwellings and petroglyphs. Just over 1.2 miles round-trip, the trail is paved and the first portion is accessible to wheelchairs. Be sure to buy a trail guide to learn more about the fascinating history of this place. An additional mile round-trip trail takes you to Alcove House - a group of dwellings built in an rock outcrop 140 feet above the canyon floor. You can reach Alcove House by climbing long ladders or view the site from the canyon floor. The ladders at Alcove House may be closed in winter due to icy conditions that make them unsafe. Tsankawi Although a steep climb (1300 ft elevation gain in 2 mi), this hike offers wonderful views from the summit at Cerro Grande (10199 ft) of the Valles Caldera and the surrounding countryside as well as unlimited opportunities to encounter wildlife and to Mariposa lilies are one of the beautiful high elevation wildflowers that grow along the Cerro observe native high elevation Grande Route. wildflowers such as mariposa lilies, Trail, the Falls Trail, Tsankawi, and the CCC harebells, and monument plant in summer and Historic District. Main Loop Trail guides cost $1 wonderful golden fall color in autumn. There is and describe Ancestral Pueblo life at 21 a paved parking lot adjacent to highway 4 at the numbered stops. The Falls Trail guide discusses trailhead. interesting geology and the flora/fauna of the area for $1.50. The guide for Tsankawi also interprets Ancestral Pueblo life with a focus on Guided Walks ties to the modern Pueblos. It costs $.50. For Ranger-guided walks a
The Tuff Times (Tuff-consolidated volcanic ash that forms Bandelier’s cliffs and canyons) A Bandelier National Monument Publication July-December 2009 Bepowaveh Kuwatzi Bienvenidos Welcome Voices across the landscape speak the history of the Pueblo people Within the trees, plants and animals Within water, rocks and air Stories of origin, survival and continuance live. Can you hear them? The voices are in the strong, steady hands of the Potter, The designs of the Basket Maker, The knowledge of the Drum Maker, The gentle Woodcarver, The patience of the Turkey Feather Blanket Maker, The color and patterns of the Jewelry Maker, The skill of the Flintknapper, The words of the Storyteller, The songs of the Singer, The memory of an Elder, The laughter of a Child Can you hear them? I feel privileged to work in a place that is so special to so many people. Bandelier is very fortunate to be in such close proximity to many Pueblo communities. From new Pueblo exhibits to focus groups to youth internships, we are continuously looking for ways to connect the Pueblo people with their ancestral homelands at Bandelier National Monument. I look forward to continuing to expand and strengthen these relationships. -Jason Lott, Superintendent of Bandelier National Monument I close my eyes and listen, As the breeze brushes against my face, Peace and solitude come The voices of the Earth sing Can you hear them? B Cochiti Pueblo Canteen, 1960 By Seferina Ortiz NPS Collection andelier National Monument is an important and special place to the Pueblo people. From every rock, to every delicate creature, the area known as Bandelier National Monument is sacred. To all that keep the voices alive, you are my happiness To all that hold reverent the knowledge of ceremony, you are my heroes To all that love and care for the Earth, you are my teachers To all that believe, you are my inspiration Yes, I hear them. -Cecilia Shields, Park Ranger Pueblo Voices Scattered across the landscape are pieces of the Pueblo story and their love and respect for this special place. Bandelier is not only important to the Pueblo people because their ancestors lived here, but because within all that is in the park, the voice of the Pueblo people still remains. The language, songs, prayers and knowledge are alive and well in the 19 Pueblos and the connections to their ancestral homelands is very strong. Dedicated to the mission of the National Park Service, Bandelier strives to preserve the natural and cultural resources of this area for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. Through partnerships with the Pueblos, local community, the Friends of Bandelier, Western National Parks Association and others, the park tells the stories of the land and the people who have vast knowledge of the wonderful and unique resources found in Bandelier. Table of Contents Park Highlights.....................................2 Area Highlights.....................................3 Focus Groups.......................................4 Pueblo Consultation and Outreach........4 Youth Internship Program.....................5 Cultural Demonstrations.......................6 Americas Best Idea.............................6 Visitor Center Rehabilitation Project ..........7 Friends of Bandelier..............................8 Western National Parks Association.....8 Volunteers..........................................8 Park Highlights Burnt Mesa Trail In the Piñon- Juniper Woodland, Burnt Mesa Trail is an excellent place for hiking during the summer and fall. See wild flowers, a variety of birds and other wildlife. Check at the visitor center for trail details and what interesting things to look for. NPS Collection Guided Walks Female Black-headed Grosbeak Photo by Sally King Ranger-guided walks along the Main Loop Trail to Tyuonyi Pueblo are offered most days throughout the year, once in the morning and once in the afternoon (staffing permitting). The walk follows a path (partly wheelchair accessible) through Frijoles Canyon discussing the lifestyles of the Ancestral Pueblo people. Walks last 45 minutes to 1 hour. Check at the visitor center for times. Evening Campfire Programs Evening programs will be offered every Friday and Saturday night between Memorial Day weekend and August 15, 2009. On holiday weekends an additional program will be presented on Sunday night. Topics and times vary. Check at the visitor center for a list of upcoming campfire programs. This special guided evening walk in Frijoles Canyon is such a popular activity that reservations are required. There is a charge of $6/adult and $3/child or holder of a senior pass. All attendees must be able to remain silent for an hour. Call (505)672-3861 ext. 517 for reservations. Tsankawi If you would prefer to bring your class on a selfguided visit to Bandelier, you may also request materials from the visitor center. A fee waiver request can be made and a reservation is requ
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