"Sunrise at Valley Forge, Valley Forge National Historical Park, 2015." by U.S. National Park Service , public domain
Brochure about Trees at Valley Forge National Historical Park (NHP) in Pennsylvania. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).
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Tree Species in the Park Beech Family (Fagaceae) American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) American Chestnut (Castanea dentate) Black Oak (Quercus velutina) Blackjack Oak (Quercus marilandica) Chestnut Oak (Quercus montana) European Beech (Fagus sylvatica)** European Chestnut (Castanea sativa)** Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Pin Oak (Quercus palustris) Scarlet Oak (Quercus coccinea) White Oak (Quercus alba) Birch Family (Betulaceae) American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) Eastern Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) River Birch (Betula nigra) Sweet Birch (Betula lenta) Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis) Cashew/Sumac Family (Anacardiaceae) Poison-sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) Cedar/Cypress Family (Cupressaceae) Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) Eastern White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis) Custard Apple Family (Annonaceae) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Dogwood Family (Cornaceae) Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida) Ebony Family (Ebenaceae) Common Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) Elm Family (Ulmaceae) American Elm (Ulmus Americana) Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) Figwort Family (Scrophulariaceae) Princess Tree (Paulownia tomentosa)** Ginseng Family (Aralliaceae) Devils-walking-stick (Aralia spinosa) Holly Family (Aquifoliaceae) American Holly (Ilex opaca) Honeysuckle Family (Caprifoliaceae) Blackhaw Viburnum (Viburnum prunifolium) Laurel Family (Lauraceae) Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) Linden Family (Tiliaceae) American Basswood (Tilia americana) Magnolia Family (Magnoliaceae) Cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminate) Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera) Maple Family (Aceraceae) Boxelder (Acer negundo) Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)** Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) Olive Family (Oleaceae) Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) White Ash (Fraxinus americana) Pea Family (Fabaceae) Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Bristly Locust (Robinia hispida)** Honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Kentucky Coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) Pine Family (Pinaceae) Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) European Larch (Larix decidua)** Norway Spruce (Picea abies)** Red Pine (Pinus resinosa)** Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris)** Quassia Family (Simaroubaceae) Tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima)** Rose Family (Rosaceae) Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) Dotted Hawthorn (Crataegus punctata) Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea) Smooth Serviceberry (Amelanchier laevis) Sycamore Family (Platanaceae) American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) Tupelo Family (Nyssaceae) Black Tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica) Walnut Family (Juglandaceae) Bitternut Hickory (Carya cordiformis) Black Walnut (Juglans nigra) Butternut (Juglans cinerea) Mockernut Hickory (Carya tomentosa) Pignut Hickory (Carya glabra) Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata) Sweet Pignut Hickory (Carya ovalis) National Park Service U.S. Department of Interior Valley Forge National Historical Park King of Prussia, Pa Trees of Valley Forge National Historical Park Willow Family (Salicaceae) Bigtooth Aspen (Populus grandidentata) Black Willow (Salix nigra) Cottonwood (Populus deltoids) Crack Willow (Salix fragilis)** Weeping Willow (Salix babylonica)** White Poplar (Populus alba)** Witch-Hazel Family (Hamamelidaceae) Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) **Non-native tree species NPS Photo Forests at Valley Forge Forest condition was first evaluated in 1983, and was described as excellent. Over the past two decades an increasing number of deer has resulted in undesirable changes in the species composition, structure, abundance, and distribution of native plant communities, particularly forests. Browsing of tree and shrub seedlings by deer has eliminated the ability of forests to regenerate, leading to monocultures of invasive plants, such as Japanese stilt grass, above. Future management will focus on the protection, preservation, and restoration of forests and other native plant communities. NPS Photo The spectacular display of fall foliage at Valley Forge provides a dramatic backdrop for a day in the park. 2010 www.nps.gov/vafo Encampment-Era Trees State Champion Trees Encampment-era trees are those likely to have been growing here State champion trees are particularly impressive or unusual examples of a tree species due to size, shape, age, or other trait. 1. Lafayette Sycamore 4. Knox Black Walnut Estimated to be over 300 years old. Also a “William Penn Tree,” indicating it was growing in 1682. Circumference: 18.1 ft Height: 93.9 ft Spread: 113 ft 3 Black Walnut was used for gun stocks, furniture, dye (nuts) and firewood NPS Photo 2. Maxwell Sycamore Circumference: 20.9 ft Height: 119.9 ft Spread: 114 ft American sycamores make poor firewood, but were used for chopping or butcher’s blocks NPS Photo 5. Potts Blackhaw Viburnum 5 Circumference: 2.4 ft Height: 19.9 ft Spread: 26 ft Photo by Scott Wade 3. Pawling Sycamore Photo by Scott Wade Circumference: 21.4 ft Height: 82.9 ft Spread: 142 ft 6. Tindle Hornbeam Circumference: 8.6 ft Height: 42.9 ft Spread: 53 ft NPS Photo Prior to European settlement, Pennsylvania was 90-95% forested. In the Valley Forge area, forests were cleared for lumber, agriculture, firewood, and fences, reducing forest cover to approximately 60% by 1777. During the encampment of George Washington and the Continental Army, almost every tree in what is now the park—and for miles beyond—was cut down for firewood, shelter, and defensive structures. Post-encampment, small woodlots and hedgerows were re-established by farmers. Some areas of the park such as Mount Joy and Wayne’s Woods were re-planted by the Valley Forge Park Commission in the early 20th century. Today, forest communities cover 34% of the park and contain 110 different kinds of trees. Hornbeam was used for bowls or dishes Photo by Scott Wade 4 2 1 Did You Know? 6 Forests create a cleaner, healthier environment. The estimated 1,200 acres of forest at Valley Forge create enough oxygen for 21,600 people each year. At the same time the forest removes 3,120 tons of carbon dioxide and 15,600 tons of dust from the atmosphere.