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Redwood National and State Parks

Visitor Guide 2022

brochure Redwood National and State Parks - Visitor Guide 2022

Visitor Guide to Redwood National and State Parks (NP & SP) in California. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).

Redwood National and State Parks Redwood National Park Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park Visitor Guide PHOTO / STEVE OLSON The offcial 2022 visitor guide of Redwood National and State Parks Park Map Big Trees Scenic Drives Discover the best way to navigate Redwood’s mosaic of habitats…pages 6-7 Learn about the three kinds of redwood trees and the best places to see them…page 5 The type of vehicle you drive will determine which roads are suitable for you…page 7 Da il Tra ad iri D P Cree k Road To Bald Hills Road 101 Tr a os tM il L n vi s o Da k ee Cr e ra a Ro Elk Meadow Day Use Area L ost M a n so n vi s on vi Berry Glen Trail an Creek Tr ail ll s Fa m Parking area Restrooms ow 101 Be rr to LB JG ro ve j Lady Bird Johnson Grove Trail yG len T ct. ½ Be rry l rai nT Gle jc t Hi Bald lls R oad . ai Trip Ideas Lady Bird Johnson Grove Trailhead o ile t m il ra Coastal Trail: Skunk Cabbage Section Picnic area Elk M a d e lli u Tri 3 mi les f r om Tr a il Other trails No matter how short or long your visit is, check out our recommendations…page 6 Camping Pets Find out which of the parks’ four developed campgrounds is best for you…page 10 Several designated, pet-friendly adventures should suit the whole family…page 3 In 2022, after years of work by dedicated conservationists, we are the release site for an experimental condor population. This efort is being led by the Yurok Tribe working with numerous partners— including the National Park Service, California State Parks, Oregon Zoo, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, Ventana Wildlife Society, and Pacifc Gas and Electric. Indigenous peoples along the Pacifc Coast lived with condors NPS PHOTO /GAVIN EMMONS entire California coast and into the Pacifc Northwest. With a nineand-a-half-foot wingspan—the largest of any North American land bird—condors can travel over a hundred miles each day in search of food. These prehistoric-looking scavengers can easily tear into carcasses too large for others, but will gladly consume any carrion they come across. Despite their impressive size, condors are not hunters, and cannot kill prey themselves. Only 27 condors remained in the world— all living in zoos —when a captive breeding program began. In the span of three decades, it has dramatically increased condor numbers, and they have now been successfully reintroduced to the wild in California’s Central Coast, the Arizona/Utah border, and Baja California, Mexico —all part of the condors’ historic range. Redwood National and State Parks is a combination of four parks from two agencies; a unique partnership that has endured for over a quarter century. Together, the National Park Service and California State Parks provide the best possible experience while managing 133,000 acres of diverse landscapes. Our 28-year old partnership continues to showcase the best each agency offers. Yet, we cannot complete our work alone. Redwoods Rising is an unprecedented effort to improve redwood forest health across 120,000 acres. By combining the resources and expertise of the public and private sectors, Redwoods Rising is promoting the development of healthier, more vibrant redwood forests reminiscent of the old-growth that once blanketed this region. The Grove of Titans raised walkway protects a well-loved stand of redwoods while also allowing visitors access to be inspired by their awe and grandeur. In partnership with the Yurok Tribe, the condor reintroduction is an opportunity to bring healing back to this area, by restoring a signifcant piece of the ecosystem and part of the heritage of the original stewards of these lands. CA L IF O RNI A C ON D OR S ONCE ROAM ED THE S K IES ALON G T HE Keeping your distance and not leaving trash is the best help for Condors. We welcome you to explore the many wonders of Redwood National and State Parks. This enchanted place has awed millions from around the world. Park staff work to preserve this wonderful place so future generations will have the same chance to experience that sense of awe. Redwood National and State Parks is proud of its ability to partner with other organizations to take on signifcant projects that never could be accomplished by a single group. These projects include Redwoods Rising, condor reintroduction, Grove of Titans elevated walkway, and our continuous effort to make our parks a more welcoming place for everyone. Condors Are Back Condors began disappearing as Westward Expansion—beginning in the 1800s—altered their habitat. As new settlers killed bears, wolves, and mountain lions, it reduced the number of large predators that provided condors with prey to scavenge. The carcasses that homesteaders left behind were often flled with toxic lead fragments from bullets, and poisoning campaigns inadvertently killed condors who came to clean up the dead “nuisance” wildlife. Within a century, condors had declined to a tiny population in Southern California, and by 1987 they were extinct in the wild. Working Together since time immemorial. For the Yurok, the condor is a fundamental part of their culture. They believe the return of the condor will also restore spiritual balance to the world. Yurok wildlife biologists committed years of feldwork to demonstrate the feasibility of reintroducing condors to their homeland. You can help make this next chapter a success! The best way to see a condor is with a pair of binoculars, but please keep your distance. These are intelligent and curious birds, and their success in the wild hinges on being cautious around humans. Never attempt to feed a condor, and please pick up all trash. Condors may consume trash and become ill or require intensive treatment to recover. Even small pieces of trash can become a big problem. Today, the main killer of wild condors is the inadvertent ingestion of fragments from lead ammunition in animal remains left on the landscape. These tiny fragments are eaten by many scavenging birds—like bald eagles and condors. Using non-lead ammunition in all hunting and ranching activities protects their health. As you wander here, we hope that you will be moved by these signifcant places, and the stories of the original stewards of these lands. Please do your part to ensure that future visitors can experience these enchanted parks as you see them today by staying on trail, packing out all trash, and respecting the sacredness of these lands. Enjoy your visit to your parks! Steve Mietz Superintendent (National Park Service) Erin Gates Deputy Superintendent (California State Parks) By keeping your distance, and keeping your food and trash to yourself, you can help give condors their best chance at surviving back in their redwood home. Sarah Brimeyer, Park Ranger National Park Service Mobile App Printed on paper with post-consumer recycled content Visitor Centers: A Great Start National or State Park? It’s both! In May 1994, the National Park Service and California State Parks agreed to cooperatively manage their contiguous redwood parklands. Both park systems have a long history of working together that dates back to Yosemite, which became California’s frst state park in 1864. Though designated a national park in 1890, Yosemite was briefy managed by both state and federal governments. Redwood National and State Parks manages 133,000 acres. Our mission is to preserve, protect—and make available to all people, for their inspiration, enjoyment, and education—the forests, scenic coastlines, prairies, and streams and their associated natural and cultural values, which defne this World Heritage Site; and to help people forge emotional, intellectual, and recreational ties to these parks. Mailing Address Redwood National and State Parks 1111 Second Street Crescent City, Calif. 95531 Web and E-mail For e-mail, click “Contact Us” Join the Conversation Five visitor and information centers provide orientation, information, and trip-planning advice. Park staff and park partners are on duty. Park Passes Crescent City Information Center Information, passport stamps, nearby restrooms, Junior Ranger workbook. Location: 1111 Second Street, Crescent City, Calif. Operating Hours: Summer: Open daily, 9 am to 5 pm; Off-season: As staffng permits—please call ahead: 707-464-6101. If you’re an America the Beautiful pass holder (“Annual,” ”Military,” “Senior,” “Access,” or “Volunteer”), you enjoy free entry to more than 2,000 federal recreation sites, including national parks. Now, those same benefts are extended to state parklands within Redwood National and State Parks: With your America the Beautiful Pass, you won’t pay day-use fees (where applicable) at Jedediah Smith Redwood, Del Norte Coast Redwood, and Prairie Creek Redwood State Park. “Senior” and “Access” passholders receive a 50% discount on camping fees, too! Of course, visitors with a California State Parks Annual or Special Pass will continue to receive the same benefts and discounts they’ve enjoyed at sites throughout the state. Hiouchi Visitor Center Information, exhibits, passport stamps, restrooms, picnic area, ranger-led activities and programs, Junior Ranger workbook. Location: 9 miles northeast of Crescent City, Calif. on US 199. Operating Hours: Summer: Open daily, 9 am to 5 pm; Off-season: Open daily, 9 am to 4 pm. Jedediah Smith Visitor Center Information, exhibits, passport stamps, restrooms, picnic area, ranger-led activities and programs (summer only), Junior Ranger workbook. Location: Jedediah Smith Campground (see page 10), 9 miles northeast of Crescent City, Calif. on US 199. Operating Hours: Summer: Open daily, 9 am to 5 pm; Off-season: As staffng permits—please call ahead: 707-464-6101. Find out which pass is right for you and where passes can be purchased by visiting any park visitor center (see left) or online at: California State Parks Annual or Special Passes America the Beautiful Pass Series Prairie Creek Visitor Center Information, exhibits, passport stamps, restrooms, picnic area, ranger-led activities and programs (summer only), Junior Ranger workbook. ADA trails. Location: 6 miles north of Orick, Calif. on the Newton B. Drury Scenic Parkway (exit off US 101). Operating Hours: Summer: Open daily, 9 am to 5 pm; Off-season: Open daily, 9 am to 4pm. Thomas H. Kuchel Visitor Center Information, exhibits, passport stamps, restrooms, picnic area, ranger-led activities and programs (summer only), Junior Ranger workbook. Location: 2 miles south of Orick, Calif. on US 101. Operating Hours: Summer: Open daily, 9 am to 5 pm; Off-season: Open daily, 9 am to 4 pm. Passport Stamps Park Headquarters ph: 707-464-6101 Don’t forget your park passport stamp! Stamps are available at all visitor centers in Redwood National and State Parks. Each of the fve visitor centers has a unique stamp. Redwood National Park can be found in the Western Region (page 83) of the passport booklet. Newspaper Editor Gregory Litten The Fine Print: What You Need to Know Dates and Hours of Operation The Parks are open every day. Visitor centers (above), campgrounds (see page10), and day-use areas maintain regular/seasonal hours of operation. Sportfshing Sportfshing requires a California fshing license for those 16 years-old and older and must be in accordance with California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) regulations. For more information, contact the CDFW Field Offce at (707) 445-6493. Firearms and Hunting Federal law allows people who can legally possess frearms under applicable federal, state, and local laws to possess frearms in National Park Service (NPS)-administered lands within Redwood National and State Parks. It is the responsibility of visitors to understand and comply with all applicable state, local, and federal frearms laws. Federal law also prohibits frearms in federal buildings in the national park. State laws prohibit frearms in California State Parks-administered lands. Hunting (and/or any discharge of frearms) is prohibited in Redwood National and State Parks. Fees and Reservations State parks collect day-use fees at entrance stations and fees are required for camping at campgrounds; camping reservations may be required (see pages 10-11). Holders of qualifying park passes may be eligible for discounts (see above). 2 Redwood Visitor Guide Special Use Permits Permits are required for weddings, scientifc research, collecting, organized events, and commercial activities. Call 707-465-7307 or visit for more information. Backcountry Camping Permits are required for camping at all our backcountry campsites. These are issued online. Visit to apply for a permit. Tall Trees Access Road The gated Tall Trees Access Road is only accessible via a free permit. Fifty permits per day are issued online. Visit to apply. Collecting and Vandalism Disturbing, defacing, or collecting any park resource without a permit is prohibited. Exceptions on national (NPS) parklands only: apples (fve per person per day); acorns (ten gallons per person per day); and berries, hazelnuts and unoccupied seashells (one gallon per person per day). Exception on state (CDPR) parklands only: berries (fve pounds per person per day). Gold Bluffs Beach Day Use Permits From May 1st - Sept 30th, a permit is required to park at Fern Canyon and Gold Bluffs Beach parking areas. Visit to apply. Drone Aircraft Federal and state laws prohibit the use of drones anywhere in Redwood National and State Parks. Crescent City, California Weather Month Average High Average Low Average Precip. January 54.1°F (12.3°C) 39.5°F (4.2°C) 11.6” (29.5 cm) February 55.7°F (13.2°C) 40.5°F (4.7°C) 9.9” (25.2 cm) March 56.9°F (13.8°C) 40.9°F (4.9°C) 9.0” (22.7 cm) April 59.1°F (15.1°C) 42.4°F (5.8°C) 5.3” (13.6 cm) May 61.9°F (16.6°C) 45.3°F (7.4°C) 3.5” (8.8 cm) June 64.9°F (18.3°C) 48.3°F (9.1°C) 1.6” (4.0 cm) July 66.9°F (19.4°C) 50.6°F (10.3°C) 0.5” (1.1 cm) August 67.3°F (19.6°C) 50.9°F (10.5°C) 0.6” (1.6 cm) September 67.6°F (19.8°C) 49.1°F (9.5°C) 1.8” (4.7 cm) October 64.1°F (17.8°C) 46.2°F (7.9°C) 5.2” (13.3 cm) November 58.4°F (14.7°C) 42.9°F (6.1°C) 9.9” (25.0 cm) December 54.7°F (12.6°C) 40.1°F (4.5°C) 11.7” (29.6 cm) Safety The wild animals, plants, waterways, and other natural features, as well as certain weather conditions that occur here, can be dangerous. For more information about protecting yourself and your parks, see page 12. In case of emergency dial: In case of emergency dial: 911 Ranger-Led Programs & Activities Programs are available mid-May to mid-September. Some winter walks are ofered too. Inquire at visitor centers (left) or campground bulletin boards for times, topics, and locations. NPS NPS / LORI MAROIS NPS MAKE NEW MEMORIES AND LEARN! Park staf lead a variety of seasonally available activities and educational programs throughout the parks that are free, informative, and fun for all ages. TIDEPOOL WALK (2 HOURS, AS TIDES PERMIT) CAMPFIRE PROGRAMS (1 HOUR) NATURE WALKS (1-2 HOURS) Get your hands (and feet!) wet while discovering delicate tidepool creatures. A park ranger-naturalist leads this investigation into the hidden world beneath the waves. Shedules will be at visitor centers and on our website. Come prepared: dress for the weather; wear sturdy hiking shoes or boots (no sandals) with non-slip soles! As darkness descends on the North Coast, the Jedediah Smith, Mill Creek, and Elk Prairie campgrounds (see page 10) are ideal settings for a creative and inspiring evening. Programs may include narrated slide shows, storytelling, music, and/or games. Campfre circles and outdoor amphitheaters are wheelchair accessible. Immerse yourself in the forest, sea, or prairielands. Join a park ranger for a down-to-earth exploration of the natural communities that contribute to one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth. Come prepared: dress for the weather; bring drinking water and a snack; wear sturdy hiking shoes or boots with non-slip soles. FAQs: Where can I… …fnd an accessible trail in the redwoods? Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park: Leiffer Loop Trail and Simpson-Reed Grove (see page 6). Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park: Several trails and loops begin at the Prairie Creek Visitor Center. Off the Newton B. Drury Scenic Parkway is an accessible path at “Big Tree Wayside” (see page 7). …take my pet for a walk in the redwoods? Jedediah Smith Rewoods State Park: Walker Road (see page 6). Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park: Cal Barrel Road (see page 7). Pets on a leash not exceeding six feet in length are allowed at designated campgrounds, picnic areas, public roads, parking areas, and beaches with road access. …have a campfre? Fires are only permitted in park-provided grills and fre rings at picnic areas, campgrounds, and designated backcountry camps; on Redwood Creek gravel bars per conditions of a valid permit; and, on national parkland beach wave slopes. Up to 50 pounds of dead and downed wood (including driftwood) may be collected from: Freshwater, Hidden, Crescent, and Enderts beaches; Redwood Creek gravel bars; and, within 1-mile radius of designated backcountry camps on national parkland. Wood collection is prohibited in developed campgrounds. On state parklands, up to 50 pounds of driftwood only may be collected by hand, per person, per day. …ride my bicycle? Bicycles are permitted on all public roadways open to vehicle traffc, as well as on designated backcountry bicycle routes (see page 11). Biker/hiker campsites are available at all developed campgrounds and at some backcountry campsites. …ride my horse or travel with pack animals? Travel with horses and/or pack animals is allowed only in designated areas or on designated routes and trails (see page 11). Camping with horses is allowed at two stock-ready campsites along these routes; free permit may be required. …take my motorhome, RV, or trailer? With the exception of major highways, Newton B. Drury Scenic Parkway, and access roads to visitor centers and campgrounds (though length limits may apply—see page 10), motorhomes, recreational vehicles (RVs), and trailers are ill-advised or prohibited on other roadways. Check-out the map on pages 6-7 . …have a picnic? Picnic tables are available at numerous locations throughout the parks, including all visitor centers (see page 2). Help Keep Wildlife Wild: never feed wildlife; properly store and dispose of all food and garbage—even crumbs. …fnd lodging? While there are no lodging services (hotels, motels, or hostels, etc.) within the parks, lodging is available in and around nearby communities—contact local chambers of commerce. See “Area Information,” (above-right) for more information. …dine or purchase groceries? While there are no food services within the parks, food is available in and around nearby communities—contact local chambers of commerce for more info. See “Area Information,” (above-right). Full-service grocery stores are available in Brookings, Ore., and Crescent City, Trinidad, McKinleyville, Arcata, and Eureka, Calif. …go camping? Camping is permitted: in four developed campgrounds; at numerous designated backcountry camps; and at dispersed sites on Redwood Creek gravel bars upstream of MacArthur Creek and no closer than 1-mile from Tall Trees Grove. Permits, reservations, and/or fees may apply (see pages 10-11). Outside the national and state parks, tent, trailer, and RV camping may be available on adjacent public lands or nearby private campgrounds. See “Area Information” for additional information. Area Information Chambers of Commerce & Visitor Bureaus Arcata, Calif. California Welcome Center 1635 Heindon Road Arcata, CA 95521 ph: 707-822-3619 Klamath, Calif. P.O. Box 476 Klamath, CA 95548 ph: 707-482-7165 or 800-200-2335 McKinleyville, Calif. P.O. Box 2144 McKinleyville, CA 95519 ph: 707-839-2449 Blue Lake, Calif. P.O Box 476 Blue Lake, CA 95525 ph: 707-688-5655 Orick, Calif. P.O. Box 234 Orick, CA 95555 ph: 707-488-2885 Brookings, Ore. 16330 Lower Harbor Road Brookings, OR 97415 ph: 541-469-3181 or 800-535-9469 Crescent City, Calif. / Del Norte County 1001 Front Street Crescent City, CA 95531 ph: 707-464-3174 or 800-343-8300 What’s Left of the Redwoods? Eureka, Calif. Eureka Visitors Center 240 E Street Eureka, CA 95501 ph: 707-798-6411 Humboldt County Visitors Bureau 322 1st Street Eureka, CA 95501 ph: 800-346-3482 Redwoods Historic Range: 2,000,000 acres ~5% remains: 4.7% preserved in public lands ≤ 1% privately owned & managed ...see some really tall trees? When logging began in 1850, roughly two million acres of ancient or “old-growth” coast redwood forest canopy mantled the coastal mountains of California. Today, just about fve percent remains. Redwood National and State Parks preserves over 35 percent of all remaining, protected oldgrowth coast redwood forests in California. To experience these rare yet iconic forests yourself, refer to the map on pages 6-7: Shaded areas identify the general locations of old-growth forests. Most “Recommended Short Walks” and “Recommended Scenic Drives” offer easy access to some really tall trees. Most of the “Suggested Hikes” in the chart on page 11 also traverse old-growth forests. Even travelers on major highways will catch a glimpse of these giants (just keep an eye on the road!): look for ancient coast redwoods along US 199 through Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park, as well as on US 101, especially just south of Crescent City, Calif. in Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park—it’s not called the Redwood Highway for nothing! NPS Redwood Visitor Guide 3 NPS / JOHN CHAO Coastal Wonders Seastacks, tide pools and cold, crashing waves are common along our 40-miles of protected coastline. Marine Protected Areas Just beyond park boundaries, ffteen Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) lie of the coasts of Humboldt and Del Norte counties. These MPAs are home to remarkable ecosystems and wild creatures that are rarely noticed by visitors. Just as our nation’s parks protect special places on land, California’s statewide network of MPAs protect marine animals and their underwater homes. Within these protected areas, fshing and other human impacts are limited, providing a refuge for diverse marine life to live and reproduce. Within Northern California’s MPAs you will discover tranquil estuaries, lush bull-kelp forests, colorful rocky reefs, productive sandy bottom habitats, and deep ocean canyons. California’s 124 MPAs connect these habitats, protecting marine life during many stages of their life. Like underwater parks, MPAs mirror the marvels you have come to explore on land, while providing a vital resource protection to our coastal ocean. Seasonal interpretive programs focused on the watery world are ofered during the summer months, shedding light on some of the ocean’s myths and mysteries. MPAs are open for everyone to explore, providing opportunities for ocean recreation including surfng, diving, kayaking and wildlife viewing. Although the ocean contains incredible beauty worth exploring, California’s north coast waters are turbulent and frigid. Always use caution when recreating in or near the water. Know the signs of a tsunami: • A strong earthquake lasting 20 seconds or more near the coast. • A noticeable rapid rise or fall in coastal waters. • A loud roaring noise from the ocean. If you are in a coastal area and feel a strong earthquake...: • Drop, cover, and hold on. • Protect yourself from the earthquake. • When the shaking stops, move quickly to higher ground away from the coast. A tsunami may be coming within minutes. • Be prepared for aftershocks which happen frequently after earthquakes. Each time the earth shakes: drop, cover, and hold on. • Move as far inland and uphill as possible. What to do during a Tsunami Watch: • Use a NOAA Weather Radio or listen to local radio or television stations for updated information. • Locate loved-ones and review evacuation plans. • Be ready to move quickly if a Tsunami Warning is issued. 4 Redwood Visitor Guide Sneaker Waves are very large waves that can occur at any time. Never turn your back on the ocean. Rip Currents are strong out-going currents that can occur at any time. They are stronger than you are. Rising Tides can cut off access. Know the tides; plan for rising water. Think “TSUNAMI!” if you feel a strong earthquake. Go to high ground or inland. Stay there. Cold Water quickly paralyzes muscles, making it hard to swim. If someone in the water appears to be in trouble, CALL 911. Don’t go in after them—you may not survive. The colorful underwater world is closer than you think, hosting incredible life. During your visit to walk amongst ancient giants, let your mind wander to what vibrant mysteries are just ofshore. Visit an MPA today! Angela Edmunds, Marine Protected Area Interpreter You are in Tsunami and Earthquake Country Since 1933, Crescent City, California has recorded 34 tsunamis—more than any other community on the Pacifc Coast of the United States. Crescent City’s tsunami preparedness came at the highest of costs, however. Often through unwelcomed experience and practice, it has proven itself to be one of the most tsunami ready cities on the Pacifc Coast. These tips will help you to stay safe while visiting tsunami country: A life vest can be the difference between an incident and a tragedy. Enjoy the beaches but don’t let the ocean catch you off guard: UBA Each year, over one million visitors travel from around the world to visit Redwood National and State Parks. Many seek to step back in time when visiting the ancient old growth redwoods. Others come to enjoy long walks on pristine beaches. Some wander along restored creek beds, observing salmon accomplish the unimaginable. Of the millions that visit each year, few are aware of a nearby mystery: a colorful world hidden within an underwater wilderness. 33% of California MPAs are located next to California State Parks, a preservation partnership which benefts both land and sea. Visitors to Redwood National and State Parks can experience MPAs in many ways. ITY MLPA SC These habitats are home to remarkable ecosystems and wild creatures. Just like ancient redwood groves, these submerged treasures provide a playground for the visitor’s imagination. TE UNIVERS MBOLDT STA living rainbows and crawling with colorful critters. Special skills allow for creatures to disappear within plain sight. Animals digest their food outside of their bodies beneath a towering watery forest. There are neighborhoods permanently drenched in darkness beneath a speckled bioluminescent sky. This bizarre world exists just a stone’s throw from Redwood National and State Parks iconic redwood groves. PHOTO: HU IM AGINE AN AL I EN WORLD, WHERE RO CKS ARE PAIN T E D WI T H What to do during a Tsunami Advisory: • Because of the threat of a potential tsunami and the danger to those in or near the water, local offcials may close beaches and evacuate harbors and marinas. Please obey their directions. What to do during a Tsunami Warning: • If you hear a tsunami warning siren, detect signs of a tsunami, or hear about a tsunami warning on the radio or TV, move to higher ground and inland immediately. • Bring pets with you to keep them safe. • Take your disaster supplies kit. Having adequate supplies on hand will make you more comfortable. • Watching a tsunami from near the shore is dangerous, and it is against the law to remain in an evacuated area. • Keep listening to NOAA Weather Radio or local radio or TV for the latest updates. What to do after a tsunami: • Return ONLY when local offcials tell you it is safe to do so. A tsunami is a series of waves that may continue for hours. Do not assume that the danger is over after one wave. The next wave(s) may be larger than the frst. • Stay away from damaged areas so emergency responders can have full access. • Stay out of any building that has water around it and take care when re-entering any structure. Surge foodwater may damage buildings. Protect yourself during the earthquake DROP COVER HOLD ON Move to high ground or inland as soon as you can GO TO HIGH GROUND Remain on high ground! Tsunamis last for hours STAY THERE! ©DEAN PENNALA / SHUTTERSTOCK.COM Nature & Science Ancient coast redwoods seen along the Newton B. Drury Scenic Parkway in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park (see “Recommended Short Drives” on pages 6-7). Humble beginnings: Actual size of a coast redwood seed cone. Three Redwoods: All in the Subfamily NPS COLLECTION T H O U G H W E O F T E N S I M P LY R E F E R T O DAWN REDWOOD GIANT SEQUOIA COAST REDWOOD the world’s tallest living trees on California’s North Coast as “redwoods,” there are in fact three distinct redwood species: dawn redwood, giant sequoia, and coast redwood. Much like the members of your family, the species in this subfamily (Sequoioideae) share a common ancestry and many similar characteristics while maintaining their own unique identities. Metasequoia glyptostroboides Sequoiadendron giganteum Sequoia sempervirens Thought to have been extinct for millions of years, the dawn redwood was rediscovered in 1944 by a forester in the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. Also popular as an ornamental today, the tree is easily distinguished from its California relatives by its smaller size and deciduous leaves. Quick-growing and long-lived (some over 3,000 years), no tree is more massive than the giant sequoia. The General Sherman Tree in Sequoia National Park is the most massive living thing on Earth, with an estimated total volume of over 50,000 cubic feet. Coast redwoods are the tallest trees in the world. Dense forest stands grow on nutrient-rich river bars and food plains, protected from the wind. Heavy winter rains and fog from the Pacifc Ocean keeps the trees continually damp, even during summer droughts. Distribution: Western slopes of Sierra Nevada Mountains in Central California. Height: To 314 feet (96 m). Diameter (DBH): To 30 feet (9 m). Age: To more than 3,000 years. Leaves: Evergreen; awl-shaped, attached at base. Cone size: Like a chicken egg; can stay on tree for two decades. Seed size: Like an oat fake. Reproduction: By seed only. Habitat/climate: Seedlings require abundant light, are frost tolerant, and droughtresistant. Distribution: Northern California coast, and into southernmost coastal Oregon. Height: To 379 feet (115 m). Diameter (DBH): To 26 feet (8 m). Age: To more than 2,000 years. Leaves: Evergreen; both needle- and awlshaped, attached at base. Cone size: Like a large olive; shed after 1-2 years. Seed Size: Like a tomato seed. Reproduction: By seed or sprout. Habitat/climate: Seedlings are shadetolerant but frost sensitive; require abundant moisture. Fossil evidence suggests that redwoods descended from a group of conifers that thrived across Europe, Asia, and North America when dinosaurs roamed the Earth—in the Jurassic period more than 145 million years ago. As Earth’s climate gradually and generally became cooler and drier, redwoods became restricted to three distinct geographic regions and evolved into the three species we know today. All redwoods are cone-bearing trees and get their common name from their reddish-brown bark and heartwood. And, by whatever name, these magnifcent trees have the uncanny ability to inspire awe and mystery. It’s a subfamily tradition! Distribut

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