"Wall of Names with Wildflowers" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Flight 93

Design Elements

brochure Flight 93 - Design Elements
National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Flight 93 National Memorial Pennsylvania Design Elements Timeless in simplicity and beauty, like its landscape, both stark and serene, the Memorial should be quiet in reverence, yet powerful in form, a place both solemn and uplifting. It should instill pride, and humility. The Memorial should offer intimate experience, yet be heroic in scale. Its strong framework should be open to natural change and allow freedom of personal interpretation. We want to restore life here, to heal the land, and nourish our souls. In this place, a scrap yard will become a gateway and a strip mine will grow into a flowering meadow. But more than restoring health, the Memorial should be radiant, in loving memory of the passengers and crew who gave their lives on Flight 93. NPS Photo / B. Torrey Schwartz Paul Murdoch, Architect Design Contest Flight 93 National Memorial has transformed significantly since Congress authorized its development in 2002. An international design competition was held to choose the design for the permanent memorial. Over 1,100 entries were submitted from 27different countries. The work of Paul Murdoch Architects and Nelson Byrd Woltz Landscape Architects was selected after a two-stage competition. The three major components of that design are complete. The first constructed features of the memorial, the Memorial Plaza and the Wall of Names, were dedicated on September 10, 2011. The Visitor Center Complex opened to the public on September 10, 2015. The Tower of Voices, a wind chime tower, was dedicated on September 9, 2018. Gateway Entrance The gateway entrance is located on US Route 30/Lincoln highway. The Approach Road, leading into the memorial, sets the tone and color palette as you drive through the national memorial. The concrete pedestal of the entrance sign contains the pattern of hemlock barn beams that is used throughout the memorial’s design, a nod to its rural past. The sign is black in color to remind us of the industrial coal mining history, and the rusted guard rails hint at the past as a coal mining haul road. The varied uses of this land become apparent. Tower Of Voices The Tower of Voices is a monumental, ninety-three foot tall musical instrument holding forty wind chimes, representing the forty passengers and crew members. It is intended to be a landmark feature near the memorial entrance, visible from US Route 30/Lincoln Highway. The Tower of Voices provides a living memorial in sound to remember the forty through their ongoing voices. There are no other chime structures like the Tower of Voices in the world. The shape and orientation of the tower are designed to optimize air flow through the tower walls. The chime system is designed using music theory to identify a mathematically developed range of frequencies needed to produce the musical notes. The pitches are based on a C Lydian mode and are C,D,E,F#,G, and B. The applied music theory produces musically compatible tones with slight variations in tuning frequencies, creating a set of forty tones (voices) that connote, through consonance, the serenity and nobility of the site. The dissonance recalls the tragic event of September 11, 2001. Flight Path Walkway Overlook Portal Walls Visitor Center The black granite walkway leading through the tall Portal Walls is located along the flight path of Flight 93 and is also a timeline of events. The high walls draw the eyes skyward. Upon reaching the overlook, which continues the flight path, the view opens to the crash site, marked by a 17-ton sandstone boulder, and the Wall of Names. The Portal Walls begin at a height of approximatetly 35 feet, connecting the circle created by the Allée and following the natural contours of the landscape. At their tallest point, they draw the eye skyward, directing your gaze to the airspace along the flight path. The exterior walls of the Visitor Center and the Portal Walls are cast concrete. The concrete was poured in molds made from old hemlock barn beams, giving the walls the texture of the wooden beams. The use of hemlock design patterns throughout the memorial is a reference to the hemlock trees which absorbed the impact of the crash and subsequent explosion of Flight 93. It also references the rural landscape of this tragic event in history. Field of Honor Allée Memorial Groves A curving landform formally defines the edge of the Field of Honor, the field which Flight 93 flew over in its final second of flight. This circle of embrace enhances the landscape and monumental scale of the this area to commemorate the actions of the 40 passengers and crew members of Flight 93. The Allée is lined with 320 Red Sunset maple trees (Acer rubrum) and gently descends, crossing the wetlands, to the focal point, the crash site and debris field. The Memorial Groves, 40 groves of 40 trees for each passenger and crew member, radiate along Ring Road. The Allée, a formal walking path, follows the edge of the groves and connects the Visitor Center Complex and the Memorial Plaza, crossing the wetlands via the Wetlands Bridge. The groves are planted with seven species of Pennsylvania hardwoods: Red Oak, White Oak, Black Oak, Scarlet Oak, Chestnut Oak, Black Gum, and Sugar Maple. CrashSite/Debris Field Wall of Names Ceremonial Gate As the final resting place for the passengers and crew, the crash site and debris field is the focus of the memorial’s design. Here is where the plane crashed into a grove of hemlock trees. Visitors may walk along the boundary of the crash site. An approximately 17-ton sandstone boulder marks the general area of impact. The Wall of Names is located along a continuation of the flight path. A wall of forty polished marble panels are inscribed with the names of each passenger and crew member. The space between each panel highlights their unique individuality. From a distance, the Wall of Names appears solid, representing their unified action. Look closely at the wall and you will be able to identify the passengers from the crew members. An unborn child is honored on its mother’s wall; and a mother writes her son’s name in his native language characters. The Ceremonial Gate separates the Wall of Names from the crash site. It is only opened on September 11 for family members to visit the crash site together, after the annual remembrance ceremony. Family members may visit the crash site any day of the year but use a private entrance gate at other times. The Ceremonial Gate is constructed of hewn hemlock beams with forty angles cut into it, again representing the crew and passengers. Wetlands Wildflower Meadows Among the restorative features intended to heal the landscape, a series of wildflower meadows were planted. Wetlands and ponds adjacent to the crash site are preserved as natural features in the design and construction of Flight 93 National Memorial. Originally a part of the surface mining activities, the wetlands have been transformed into a selfsustaining natural habitat and aquatic eco-system. Local flora and fauna reside and thrive here now. In addition to creating environmental interest, the ponds serve important design functions as a naturally-occurring reservoir for storm water that flows down from higher elevations. EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA™ Printed on recycled paper. Cock ield/Hartman 2019

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