"Aerial view" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Santa Cruz Island

Inerpretive Guide

brochure Santa Cruz Island - Inerpretive Guide
Channel Islands National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior Channel Islands National Park Interpretive Guide Steve Smith Kathy Dewet-Oleson Wm. B. Dewey timhaufphotography.com Peter Howorth timhaufphotography.com Eastern Santa Cruz Island EXPERIENCE YOUR AMERICA Trail Guide 4 timhaufphotography.com Contents Channel Islands Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point Other Points of Interest Scorpion Ranch Area Place Name, Pier, Flooding Ranch House Bunkhouse Storage Shed, Caves Outhouse, Implement Shed Meat Shed, Eucalyptus Trees Scorpion Water System Telephone System Farm Implements Dry Stone Masonry Retaining Walls, Check Dams Stone Piles Smugglers Cove Place Name, Road Oil Well, Delphine’s Grove Ranch House, Windmill, Well Eucalyptus, Olive Groves Scorpion Bluffs Living on the Edge Mixing of Waters Potato Harbor Diatomaceous Earth The Rest of Santa Cruz Island The Giant Kelp Forest Marine Protected Areas 2 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE 14 14 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 19 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 How To Use This Guide We recommend that you begin with the“Trail Guide” section that provides six interpretive stops along the one-mile walk from Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point. This will give you a general overview of the island. Then, if there is still time, use the “Other Points of Interest” section to select another area to visit. Also, please note that many of the topics covered in both sections are applicable to any island location. For a more detailed hiking map, trail descriptions, and safety and resource protection information please see the “Hiking Eastern Santa Cruz Island” map and guide available at island bulletin boards, the visitor center, or at nps.gov/chis. Scorpion Canyon 31 Volcanism Native Plants Terrestrial Animals 31 32 35 Prisoners Harbor 42 Xaxas, Place Name, Ranch Pier, Wharehouse Corrals, Scale House, Lookout Ranch House Complex Wetland, Restoration Landbirds 42 43 40 40 45 48 National Park .2 Map Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND 3 Tr Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point Channel Islands N owhere Else On Earth Scorpion Beach timhaufphotography.com Trail Guide— 1 p ail Sto C lose to the mainland yet worlds apart, Santa Cruz Island, along with the other Channel Islands, is home to plants and animals that are found nowhere else on earth. Like on the Galapagos Islands of South America, isolation has allowed evolution to proceed independently on the islands, fostering the development of 145 endemic or unique species. Santa Cruz Island is host to 60 of these endemic species. Some, like the island jay, are found only on Santa Cruz. 4 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Isolation also has played a major role in shaping human activities on the island. While the southern California coastal mainland has seen extensive development, the Channel Islands are undeveloped. The island’s separation from the mainland by 25 miles of an often turbulent ocean has limited and directed human use and occupation for thousands of years. And it continues today, giving us a chance to see coastal southern California as it once was. So step back in time and experience the island’s isolation as you walk to Cavern Point. It’s like nowhere else on earth. reserving the Past 2 Scorpion Ranch Complex Isolated and far behind the times as the island was, it was a demonstration of how a group living as we did could learn to make do with what we had. -former ranch superintendent, Clifford McElrath, On Santa Cruz Island Pier Gherini family collection Pier Gherini family collection “Joe could do most anything, except write. An expert rider, huntsman, and general ranch worker, Joe also was a mechanical whiz. He once took a 1915 Waterloo Boy tractor that had been “mothballed” because the early workmen wouldn’t touch it, and used the parts to make a sawmill. The fact that we didn’t need a mill in no way detracted from the ingenuity and skill that went into its making. All of these people had one common characteristic. They knew and loved the Island. Each in his own way was rugged and self-reliant. They took its beauties and hardships in stride.” continued on next page Unloading sheep, Scorpion pier, 1977. Sawmill built by Joe Griggs, 1955. timhaufphotography.com hile the isolated island offered ranchers several advantages over the mainland, including no predators and the world’s best fence (the ocean), it created special challenges as well. Supplying such a remote outpost was probably the biggest challenge. The transportation of supplies and stock onto and off the island was always an adventure—the distance to the mainland, rough seas, and expense made it very difficult. However, as former ranch superintendent Clifford McElrath wrote in his memoir On Santa Cruz Island, ranchers would adapt to the difficulties of isolated island life through self-reliance and by “learning to make do with what [they] had.” Pier Gherini, former owner of the eastern portion of the island, wrote a humorous story in “Island Rancho” about the self-reliance of Joe Griggs: Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point W Trail Guide— Tr a i l St o p P National Park Sawmill as it looks today (bottom, right). Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND 5 Tr Historic bunkhouse, ranch house, and grader at Scorpion Ranch. Historic chapel in the central valley. Although livestock ranching on Santa Cruz Island began in the 1850s, it was under the direction of Justinian Caire beginning around 1880 that a variety of agricultural and ranching endeavors were developed in an effort to create a selfsufficient operation on the island. Since the island was too large to manage from the one main ranch in the Central Valley, other facilities, or out-ranches like the one at Scorpion, were developed. Completed in 1887, the two-story Scorpion ranch house, and later, the wooden bunkhouse (ca 1914), were home to ranch hands who tended the flocks of sheep and cattle and the crop fields on the broad plateaus and rich black soils on this eastern end of the island. Known as the “granary of the island,” the Scorpion and Smugglers ranches were the bases that supplied much of the food and hay for the island operation. In California’s Channel Islands, Marla Daily writes that, “Buildings including several ranch houses, bunkhouses, barns, wineries, a chapel, mess hall, blacksmith shop, and saddle shop were constructed. Wherever possible, native island materials were used. Kilns were built for the manufacture of bricks and limestone mortar. Stones were quarried and cut to shape on the island. A resident blacksmith forged wrought-iron fittings, railings, and hinges used on many of the buildings. Employees included masons, carpenters, dairymen, team drivers, vintners, a wagon maker, cobbler, butcher, seasonal grape pickers and sheep shearers, a sea captain and sailors to run the company’s 60-foot schooner. Hay, vegetables, and over a dozen varieties of grapes were grown, in addition to almond, walnut and other fruit and ornamental trees. Sheep, cattle, horses, and pigs were raised.” 6 continued Scorpion Ranch Complex timhaufphotography.com Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point Trail Guide— 2 Channel Islands p ail Sto INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Sheep ranching for meat and wool by descendants of Justinian Caire, the Gherini family, continued on the eastern end of Santa Cruz Island between 1926 and 1984. The Gherini era ended in February 1997 when the National Park Service acquired the last interest from the family. Today, the National Park Service is preserving the historic area so visitors always will have the chance to remember and understand this unique part of the island’s past. Tr T What was once an island covered with coastal sage-scrub, chaparral, oak scrub, oak woodland, and native grasslands (both annuals and perennial) has given way to non-native, European grazing grasses and an assortment of weeds, Santa Cruz Island 1. Santa Cruz Island buckwheat 2. Santa Cruz Island silver lotus 3. Channel Islands live-forever 4. Island oak 5. San Miguel Island locoweed 6. Island bush poppy 7. Island paintbrush 8. Santa Cruz Island bush mallow 9. Northern island nightshade 10. Santa Cruz Island ironwood including oats, bromes, fox-tails, thistles, mustard, and fennel. Today, nearly 25 percent of the plant species found on eastern Santa Cruz Island are introduced, providing approximately 75 percent of the ground cover. Native plants that developed in isolation often are vulnerable to competition from introduced or alien species. Many of these alien plants have evolved with grazing pressure, whereas the native island plants have not co-existed with grazers or browsers on the islands since the pygmy mammoths, nearly 12,000 years ago. With sheep, cattle, horses, and pigs grazing and browsing on the native vegetation and disturbing the soil, the alien plants spread rapidly, competing with the natives for limited soil and moisture. The non-natives eventually overwhelm the natives, which often have longer germination and growth cycles. continued on next page Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND Scorpion Beach to CavernPoint he over 100-year-old blue gum eucalyptus grove that spreads out behind the ranch area was one of many groves that were planted throughout the island during the ranching era for use as windbreaks, fuel, and wharf piles. Fortunately, the spread of these non-native trees can be controlled. Many other non-native plants that reached the islands during the ranching period, however, are not as benign. 3 Trail Guide— eturn of the Natives Eucalyptus Grove/Cavern Point Trail Junction Endemic Plants ail Sto p R National Park 7 Channel Islands Tr continued Eucalyptus Grove/Cavern Point Junction Santa Cruz Island lace pod Hoffman’s rock cress endangered Santa Cruz Island silver lotus Island barberry Seacliff bedstraw The restoration of the island’s native vegetation is the goal of the National Park Service. Special focus is being placed on the plants that are endemic to the islands, those occurring only on the Channel Islands and nowhere else in the world. Eight of these occur only on Santa Cruz Island. Nine of these endemic plants are listed as endangered species. To ensure the survival of these unique species and encourage the recovery of the island’s native vegetation, the National Park Service, along with The Nature Conservancy, is working towards the removal of non-native species. Over 9,000 sheep were removed from the eastern 6,200 acres of Santa Cruz Island between 1997 and 1999 (Sheep were eliminated by The Nature Conservancy from the rest of the island by the late 1980s.) Pigs were removed from the island by 2007 and weed control is currently underway. One needs only to look at the recovery of vegetation, reduction of erosion, and the condition of archeological sites on San Miguel Island since the removal of sheep in the 1950s to envision what may eventually occur on Santa Cruz Island. 8 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE timhaufphotography.com Santa Cruz Island bush mallow Brad Sillasen Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point Trail Guide— 3 p ail Sto San Miguel Island in 1930 (top) and in 2000 (middle) from about the same angle. The island’s native vegetation as it appears today above Cuyler Harbor (bottom). Described as a “barren lump of sand” in the 1930s, San Miguel Island has undergone a remarkable recovery and now is densely vegetated with a diverse assemblage of native plants. In fifty years, we hope to write about the remarkable recovery and return of the native plants of Santa Cruz Island. eographical Isolation 4 Halfway up the Canyon A This white layer is known as diatomaceous earth. It is derived from very small, single-cell sea plants called diatoms, which are made of silica (silicon dioxide). As these plants die, their silica skeletons settle into the various marine sediments at the bottom of the ocean, often enmasse. It is from this diatomaceous earth that the mineral chert is derived—some of the siliceous diatoms are dissolved by water and then later recrystallized as a dense hard form of rock. Chert fractures like glass and was used by the Chumash Indians for arrowheads, drill bits, and scraping and cutting tools. Chert on the islands has a light brown color owing to small amounts of iron impurities. Other impurities in chert give it a variety of colors that can be found throughout the world. The black variety is called flint and is colored by inclusions of organic matter. Jasper is the name given to the red-colored variety owing to inclusions of an iron oxide, hematite. continued on next page Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point s you hike up to Cavern Point, take a moment and rest halfway up the canyon. As you have been hiking, you probably have noticed areas of bright white, chalky rock that have been exposed along the hillsides due to erosion. While this excessive erosion due to overgrazing is detrimental to the island’s native vegetation, it does give us the chance to take a closer look at part of the island’s complex geology. Trail Guide— Tr ail Sto p G National Park Santa Cruz Island Geologic Map Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND 9 continued Tr Halfway up the Canyon Trail Guide— Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point 4 Channel Islands p ail Sto Although never connected to the mainland by a land bridge, the four northern islands were once part of the Pleistocene ‘superisland’ known as Santarosae, nearly four times as large as the combined areas of the modern Channel Islands. The dark shaded area on the map depicts ancient coast of Santarosae and California around 20,000 years ago when sea level was 100 meters (approximately 350 feet) lower than it is today. As the ice sheets and glaciers melted and the sea level rose, only the highest parts of Santarosae remained as modern islands. (Adapted from a map by geologist Tom Rockwell) Around 5 million years ago, compressional forces, caused by the ramming of Baja California into southern California, resulted in folding and faulting of these marine sediments and volcanic rocks (deposited between 15-30 million years ago) and the eventual uplift of the islands. These compressional forces are still ongoing, making this area geologically active today. Earthquakes are quite common. A major fault that runs through the center of the island has moved nearly 100 feet in the last 30,000 years, and all the islands continue to be uplifted. 10 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE Ever since these compressional forces caused the islands to emerge from the sea, they have been separated from the mainland. For decades, scientists assumed that the two were connected by a landbridge, but as bathymetric information (or topography) of the sea floor improved, it revealed that even during periods of lowest sea levels (about 17,000 years ago), the islands still remained isolated by at least four miles of ocean. It is this continuous geographical isolation that has shaped island life. n Ideal Isolated Island Home 5 Cavern Point A Santa Cruz Island, the other Channel Islands, and all their associated islets and offshore rocks comprise one of the largest breeding centers on the west coast for sea birds and shore birds. Their isolation and freedom from predators and human disturbance, and the abundance of food in the cold, nutrient-rich ocean waters, make them an ideal place for marine birds to breed and rear their young. This isolation and abundance of food also make the islands an ideal home for seals and sea lions. Watch for California sea lions and harbor seals swimming in the waters around Cavern Point and Potato Harbor. These two species rest and breed throughout Santa Cruz Island’s shoreline. But even the island’s isolation could not protect these and other sea mammals from human predation. As early as the late 1700s fur hunters were exploiting sea otters, elephant seals, fur seals, and California sea lions for their fur, hides, and oil. This slaughter would continue until 1911, when the sea otter finally became the last sea mammal to receive legal protection. Isolation also was not able to protect some species of sea birds from human impacts. The gathering of eggs, disturbance of rookeries, and pesticides all have been detrimental. The endangered California brown pelican, for example, once nested on Scorpion Rock, but human disturbance caused the entire colony to be abandoned by the 1930s. In addition, during the 1960s, the pesticide DDT nearly caused the pelican to become extinct as a breeding species on the west coast of the United States. In 1970, on neighboring Anacapa Island, only 552 nesting attempts were made with just one chick surviving. On October 13, 1970, the brown pelican was listed as an endangered species. Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point cool, salty mist fills the air as you approach Cavern Point. The ever-present western gulls and graceful pelicans often can be sighted soaring along the steep, rugged volcanic cliffs. These cliffs, their numerous caves, and the rest of Santa Cruz Island’s coastline and neighboring islets are home to eleven different species of nesting seabirds and shorebirds, including ashy stormpetrels, Brandt’s cormorants, Cassin’s auklets, pigeon guillemots, and black oystercatchers. Trail Guide— Tr a i l St o p A National Park Today, the gradual recovery of these species continues as their isolated island home is ensured protection within Channel Islands National Park. Through monitoring and restoration programs, the park and its partners are working to conserve critical nesting habitat and to protect the integrity of island and marine ecosystems that support 90 percent of the seabird populations in southern California. On Santa Cruz Island, these efforts have focused on closing off public access to certain habitat critical sea caves and restoring seabird habitat on Scorpion and Orizaba Rocks. These rocks are important nesting islets for burrow-nesting seabirds. To restore seabird habitat on these islets, restoration efforts have included removing non-native vegetation, revegetation with native plants, installation of nest boxes, and closures to protect nesting seabirds. Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND 11 Tr Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point Trail Guide— 6 A p ail Sto Channel Islands A Window Into Their World s you return from Cavern Point and head off to the right (southwest) you will see a change in rock type—from the darker volcanic rocks to a lighter, sedimentary deposit. Look carefully without digging or disturbing the area and soon you will see tiny fragments of broken shell glittering in the soil and a pile of shells falling out from the cliff edge. How did these shells get up here? Must be the ocean at work—or is it? Archeologists identify this as a “midden,” a debris pile containing remnants of those societies who came before—the Chumash and their ancestors. This midden is just one of an estimated 3,000 prehistoric sites on Santa Cruz Island, ranging from small temporary camps to larger villages and dating back at least 7,500 years. At the time of European contact (Cabrillo’s voyage in 1542), at least 1,200 Chumash lived in 10 villages distributed around the island’s coast, including the largest historic island village, Swaxil, located near the Scorpion ranch. These midden sites offer us a window into the Chumash world. By examining these sites, archeologists can piece together a picture of their ancient island life.The Southwest from Cavern Point Chumash were skilled crafts people and seafarers with a vast knowledge of the world around them and how to use it for their survival. The predominance of shells and fish bones within the midden reveal that although the islanders exploited terrestrial plant resources, such as acorns and cherries, they subsisted primarily on fish, shellfish, and other marine organisms. They often plied the channel in search of this rich variety of marine food, traveling in swift tomols (canoes) made of redwood or pine planks caulked with tar from natural seeps. The midden also reveals that other items not available in this isolated island environment had to be obtained from villages on the mainland or other islands. One of the principal products manufactured and traded by the islanders was shell beads, which were the currency of trade in the Chumash area and throughout California. Chert microdrills were used to bore holes in pieces of Olivella snail shells to produce these beads. Not only did the islands have an abundance of Olivella shells, but, even more importantly, eastern Santa Cruz Island also had considerable natural deposits of chert, a hard durable silica rock. Taking from or disturbing of any archeological site or artifacts is a violation of state and federal law. Help preserve 13,000 years of Native American Indian island culture and other cultural resources by respecting these sites. 12 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE 6 Southwest from Cavern Point Santa Cruz Island was not, unfortunately, isolated enough to protect the Chumash from the diseases the Spanish brought with them as they began colonizing California in the late 1700s. By the early 1800s, the island Chumash population had been devastated by measles and other introduced epidemics. The last of the Chumash islanders would leave their traditional island home in 1822. Although much has been lost, enough remains to remind us of this unique part of the island’s past. These midden sites, along with today’s descendants of the island Chumash, give us a window into this ancient world and remind us on another level how important and sacred these isolated islands are. Scorpion Beach to Cavern Point Eastern Santa Cruz Island was the center for manufacturing chert microdrills, as this location had chert of the proper type and quality for such tools within coastal Chumash territory. One particular site contains evidence of the highest density of microdrill production in North America. Other sites on Santa Cruz Island have been labeled by archeologists as “bead factories,” with amazing amounts of discarded drills and bead debris. Trail Guide— continued p ail Sto Tr National Park Protecting the Islands T his is why Channel Islands National Park was established by Congress in 1980—to protect, preserve, and teach us about the islands’ unique past and fragile resources, including: the island Chumash and the ranchers who came after them; the native plants that are struggling to recover; the complicated geologic story; the pinnipeds, sea birds and shore birds that depend on these isolated islands for survival; and the wide variety of other natural and cultural resources not mentioned in this trail guide. By understanding these resources and the role isolation plays on these islands, we can avoid repeating the mistakes of the past and help preserve them for future generations to study and enjoy. The National Park Service needs your help as well. We encourage you to explore and learn more about Santa Cruz Island and the rest of the Channel Islands. But don’t stop there. In recognizing the importance of these islands, take your awareness to the action level. Make every effort to safeguard—to preserve—the plants, animals, and artifacts found not only within this park, but throughout the world as well. Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND 13 Scorpion Ranch Area Channel Islands Scorpion Ranch Area Place Name It is unclear how Scorpion was named; it may be the shape of the valley or the fact that there are small scorpions present. Pier Prior to the construction of the first pier at Scorpion Harbor, small boats, or “lighters,” were used to offload supplies. According to John Gherini in his book Santa Cruz Island: A History of Conflict and Diversity (p. 103), “The freight was unloaded onto a pontoon, and a heavy rope ran from the schooner to a deadman on the beach. The crew working on the pontoon would guide it to shore as a team of horses on the beach would pull the lighter ashore.” After this first pier was destroyed by winter storms, Pier Gherini constructed a combination concrete and wood wharf in 1938 and, later, a steel pier was erected in 1966. Violent winter storms destroyed the wharves, no matter what the design. In summer 1999, the National Park Service took its turn at building a pier. A concrete abutment was constructed on the shore and a military flatbed railroad car was laid down, connecting the new abutment to the historic concrete block. This pier has increased safety and accessibility on eastern Santa Cruz Island and has, so far, survived the winter storms. Flooding in Scorpion Valley The El Niño event of 1997-1998 had a devastating impact upon the Scorpion Ranch area. During the night of December 5, 1997, over 12 inches of rain fell on eastern Santa Cruz Island, sending over one billion gallons of water down the valley in which you Pier Gherini family collection Eventually a pier was constructed in the center of the beach at Scorpion Harbor in the early 1930s, using the thick trunks of eucalyptus trees as pilings for the wharf. “With a pier in place,” states Gherini, “ranch hands herded the sheep (about 1,000 to 1,500 annually) onto the rickety wharf, through the wooden corrals and into the loading chute which hung precariously over the side of the pier. The sheep often leaped from the chute onto the boat which frequently moved with the surging currents. The boat, loaded with sheep, sailed for Santa Barbara with deckhands moving among the packed sheep and lifting up the animals who had fallen to prevent them from suffocating. The trip ended at Stearns Wharf where the sheep were off-loaded. In later years, the boats cruised down to Port Hueneme in Ventura County, which was better equipped to handle livestock. From the mainland ports, the sheep were moved into waiting trucks and driven to the livestock yards and slaughtered for meat.” Scorpion Valley and the first wharf built at Scorpion Harbor in the 1930s. 14 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE National Park Preservation work on the historic ranch features has been completed and the two-story ranch house is now open to the public as a visitor center. Two-Story Ranch House According to early unpublished maps and diaries, the ranch at Scorpion was in full operation by 1885 with a work force of 8 to 12 men. Scorpion Ranch played a significant role in the development of Justinian Caire’s island-wide enterprise: are standing. Flood waters crested at almost four feet above the valley floor, inundating the area with mud and alluvial deposits over two feet thick. This torrent destroyed the campground and caused extensive damage to trails, property, and the structures in the historic ranch. The storms swept away the historic blacksmith shop, barn, and moved the Scorpion Ranch Area wooden bunkhouse (1914) 30 feet off its foundation. “Early maps depict many buildings, sheds and other structures at the Scorpion ranch including a residence, wood sheds, carpenter shop, a blacksmith shop, baking ovens, wool sheds, a bakery, a granary, a general storage building, a matanza, a butcher shop, tallow furnaces, a garden store, barns, stables, corrals, a wagon shed, a chicken yard, wells, windmills, a water tank, water troughs, and a concrete reservoir….. [and] vineyards and large vegetable gardens.” (Gherini, p. 97) continued on next page Scorpion Valley Map, 1885 Pier Gherini family collection Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND 15 Scorpion Ranch house as it appeared in 1960. The first reference to the still standing two-story ranch house was made in 1887, by the company foreman, when he wrote in his diary that there is “work on the attic of the new house.” Although often referred to as an “adobe,” ranch staff built this building of rubble masonry, using island rocks held together by a lime and cement mortar. Only part of the interior walls are constructed of adobe blocks. Gherini describes the bread oven as one of the most prominent features of this building: “…located on the west end of the building in a small room…(the oven) was used to store flour, bake bread and keep the finished bread. Margaret Eaton (in Diary of a Sea Captain’s Wife) observed that the large oven was made of white bricks and had a large iron door. With a fourfoot-long wooden spatula, the cook put the loaves into the piping hot oven which could bake twenty-five loaves at a time.” Although this room is no longer used for bread making, it still has an important role in providing the appropriate environmental conditions (temperature, light, access, etc.) for a maternity roost during the spring and summer for Townsend’s big-eared bats. With the species in decline in general, and with recent documented loss of maternity colonies in California, maintenance of this colony and protection of the roost site at Scorpion is important for conservation of the species in California. This historic ranch house has been rehabilitated with special efforts made to protect this roosting site. The downstairs is now open as a visitor center. Bunkhouse timhaufphotography.com Pier Gherini family collection Scorpion Ranch Area Channel Islands The existing wooden bunkhouse dates from about 1914. After this building floated thirty feet downstream during the El Niño flood of 1997, an archeological test pit was excavated near the original northeast corner of the foundation. This test revealed a low masonry wall with thick lime plaster and a very solid, highly polished concrete floor. This floor is about eighteen inches below the present ground surface. Review of the existing island records or literature did not reveal any mention of an earlier building. However, three maps, dated 1876, 1885, and 1892, show a square structure in what appeared to be the same location. On the later two of these maps, this structure is labeled as a residence. None of the maps has a scale, but the 1892 map shows the existing two-story adobe building, which is slightly longer than 50 feet. If the 16 INTERPRETIVE GUIDE National Park protect the food from animals such as mice, foxes, ravens, and skunks. Today, Townsend’s big-eared bats sometimes roost in these small caves. This building was likely the oldest ranch residence on the eastern end of the island. Archeological evidence indicates that it was constructed of adobe. Outhouse Storage Shed Scorpion Ranch Area buildings are accurately shown to scale on this map, this older residence was 31 feet square. No other details of the structure were depicted on the map. The small 2-hole outhouse dates to the late 19th century. Reroofing and repairs to the building have been done. This small shed is similar in construction to the 1914 bunkhouse and is believed to have been constructed at the same time. It houses a generator that was used to provide power to the ranch and was also used for storage. The building was extremely deteriorated due to termite damage and slumping of the hillside against the back wall. The National Park Service substantially rebuilt the shed in 1999. Caves According to Gherini, early island maps show that the volcanic caves within the ranch area were used as “dairy caves” to store dairy products. Prior to refrigeration, the caves offered the coolest place on the island for these items. Doors were constructed at the entrance way to Implement Shed Archeological excavations around and within this building revealed artifacts and materials that suggested that this may have been the location of the“forge” or blacksmith shop shown on an 1892 map. In addition to a distinct layer of ash that was discovered, the excavation also revealed other materials that easily could be associated with the craft of blacksmithing, including bits of charcoal, fused and oxidized metal, chunks of mixed ash, charcoal debris, several horse shoes, nails, and a pair of rusty pliers. Built sometime between 1885-1892, this shop is one of the oldest wood buildings on the east end of the island. continued on next page Eastern Santa Cruz ISLAND 17 Sco

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