"Cannon Firing" by NPS Photo , public domain
Castillo de San Marcos
Junior Rangers at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument (NM) in Florida. Published by the National Park Service (NPS).
Agustín’s Adventure Instructions Welcome to the Castillo de San Marcos! My name is Agustín, and I will be your guide. This Junior Ranger booklet has two levels. You may choose the level that works best for you. Basic To receive your badge, complete SIX pages of activities. Advanced To receive your badge and Master Junior Ranger patch, complete ALL pages of activities, except for the color-by-numbers. While you are at the Castillo, please be safe and treat the fort with respect. Do not sit, stand, or climb on any of the cannons or on the walls of the fort. The stone the fort is built out of is very fragile to the human touch, and we would like the Castillo to be here for many more years. We want to preserve this National Monument for future generations. As a Junior Ranger, it will be your job to help us with this! If you see your family sitting on the walls, politely ask them not to, and tell them why. Colonial American Cities In this letter, there are four underlined cities. On the map, there are four cities marked with stars. Draw a line to match the name of the city to its location on the map. The letter will help you figure out where they are located. December, 1670 To Her Most Catholic Majesty, Queen Mariana, I am writing to you on behalf of the people of the city of San Agustín in La Florida. Our town has been left defenseless since the burning of our wooden fort by pirates two years ago, and we have just learned that the British have founded a new colony directly to the north of us, called Charles Towne, Carolina. I am writing to beg you for the money to build a stone fort for our city’s protection. The threat of attack grows greater every day. North of Charles Towne, the British long ago settled in Jamestowne, Virginia. If English forces attack our city, we are left defenseless. The closest help would have to come from the Spanish colony in La Habana, Cuba, far to the south of us. Queen Mariana, we beseech you, please help our city raise the funds for a stone fortress for our protection. Your Most Faithful Servant, Agustín 1 The Columbian Exchange The exchange of plants, animals, and ideas between the Old World and the New World. When the Europeans came to the New World, they brought many new things with them. Can you label these? Castillo Construction The walls of the Castillo are made out of a stone called coquina. Look closely at this picture and the walls, but do not touch. The stone is fragile. What is coquina made of? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 2 Parts of the Castillo shot furnace courtyard bastions well ravelin moat Use our brochure to learn about these parts of the fort, then fill in the sentences below ! 1. The _______________ in front of the drawbridge protected the entrance from enemy cannon fire. 2. The __________ was usually dry, not wet, and the Spanish could put livestock in it if they were under attack. 3. The __________ inside the courtyard provided fresh water. 4. The ______________ are the diamond-shaped corners of the fort. These allowed cannons to be placed for deadly crossfire. 5. The ________________ is where soldiers practiced marching and drilling with their muskets. 6. The ___________________, which was built later by the U.S. Army, was used to heat cannonballs up red-hot to fire at wooden ships! 3 Colonial Life Answer the questions in each box. Next to your answers, you will read about boys and girls who lived in colonial times! What chores do you do at home? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ What do you do for fun? _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ What do you want to be when you grow up? ____________________________ ____________________________ What do you learn at school? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Boys Girls Chopping Wood Feeding Animals Hunting Grinding Corn Spinning Weaving Colonial children often did outdoor activities for fun, such as swimming, fishing, and flying kites. Boys Girls Farmers Soldiers Surgeons Teachers Mothers Tavern Keepers Many poorer children did not go to school. They learned from their parents. Boys learned to farm and hunt. Girls learned household tasks like cooking and sewing. You and colonial children still have some things in common! Many colonial kids played games that we still play today. Hopscotch, tag, dominoes, marbles, jacks, and pick-up sticks were all popular in the colonial era. 4 Learn Spanish Answer the questions in Spanish! Colores rojo (ro-hoh) azul (ah-sool) verde (ver-day) amarillo (ah-mah-ree-yoh) marrón (mah-roan) blanco (blahn-koh) negro (neh-groh) Colors red blue green yellow brown white black Ropa sombrero (som-bray-roh) calzones (cal-sone-es) casaca (ka-sak-ah) zapatos (sah-pah-tos) chaleco (cha-leh-coh) camisa (ka-mee-sah) medias (may-dee-ahs) vueltas (voo-el-tas) sandalias (san-dah-lee-as) Clothing hat pants coat shoes vest shirt stockings cuffs sandals Otro soldado (sol-dah-doh) fusil (fyoo-seal) espada (es-pah-dah) sí (see) no (noh) Other soldier musket sword yes no 1. The soldado’ s sombrero is _____________ with a ____________ bow. 2. What color are his vueltas? _____________ His medias? ______________ 3. What parts of the soldado’s uniform are azul? _____________ and ___________. 4. The soldado has una espada. Sí or no? ________ 5. The soldado is wearing sandalias. Sí or no? ________ 6. Can you see his chaleco rojo? Sí or no? ________ 5 Weaponry The cannons were the main line of defense for the Castillo. The Spanish soldiers had to go through many steps to fire the cannons. To do this drill, they used many different tools. Here are some pictures of the cannon tools. Watch our movie to see how the cannon drill works. Draw a line to match each tool to its description, and write the order in which they are used (Steps 1, 2, 3, and 4). Lanada (Sponge) Step ___ Atacador (Rammer) Step ___ Cuchara (Ladle) Step ___ Sacatrapos (Worm) Step ___ Shaped like a big scoop, this tool was used to check the gun before it was fired. The end of this tool was wrapped in soft wool to soak up water and clean the cannon. A tool shaped like a cork-screw was used to pull any leftover trash out of the cannon. This tool was used to push the gunpowder and cannonball all the way down the cannon. Did you know that cannons could fire more than just cannonballs? Chain shot is two iron balls attached by a chain. It is very good for destroying a ship’s sails. Canister is a metal can full of musket balls. It acted like a big shotgun shell. Grape shot is similar to canister, but with small cannonballs and wrapped in cloth. It looks like a bunch of grapes! 6 Multiple Militaries 1672: The Spanish begin construction! The Castillo has changed hands between countries many times over the years, but always by a treaty or agreement, never by losing a battle. Its most important job has always been to protect people. 1763: The British arrive. Which country’s military used the fort the longest? (Hint: which flag is bigger?) 1784: The Spanish come back! ___________________ How would YOU use the Castillo to protect people today? ____________________ ____________________ 1821: The United States takes over. ___________________ ___________________ 1861: Confederate soldiers arrive. 1862: The United States comes back! 1900: The U.S. Army decides to decommission the fort, which means they no longer used it for military purposes. 7 Dear Junior Ranger, Draw your picture here. My name is Ahkes. I am a Comanche Indian, and I am 10 years old. My mom, dad, and I were brought to the Castillo with a group of prisoners. I was the only child at the fort. It was lonely, but I liked to draw pictures for fun. The jailor bought us sketchbooks, crayons, colored pencils, and watercolors. I drew pictures and sent them to my family out west. I was imprisoned here from 1875 to 1878, but I am sure it looks different now. Draw a picture of what the fort looks like today. Include all the interesting things you see. This is an example of ledger art, a type of Native American artwork usually done on paper. Captain Pratt bought sketchbooks for prisoners at the fort. This image shows the first Pow Wow in Florida, performed by prisoners inside the Castillo. 8 The National Park Service at the Castillo Ask a Ranger or Volunteer! Why do you like working with the National Park Service? ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _______________________________ Signature President Calvin Coolidge made the Castillo de San Marcos a National Monument in 1924. Almost ten years later, the National Park Service took over the care of the fort. Since 1933, the National Park Service has cared for the Castillo, preserving the site for future generations to visit and enjoy. Today, most of the standing structure is original. Visiting the fort is like taking a step back in time. When you look at the walls of the fort, you are seeing the same building that Spanish, British, and American soldiers looked at one hundred, two hundred, and even three hundred years ago. This is one of the oldest structures in the United States, and it is the job of the National Park Service to make sure it remains standing for another one hundred, two hundred, or even three hundred years. Park Rangers love working at our National Parks. You may also meet a Volunteer at the Castillo, someone who spends their time helping people without being paid. Some of the Volunteers dress in soldiers’ uniforms and fire the cannons on the weekends! 9 The Arrowhead The Arrowhead is the official logo of the National Park Service. Each symbol in the logo represents something we have a mission to preserve or protect. Arrowhead: History & Archeology Sequoia Tree: Plants Mountain & Lake: Scenery & Recreation Bison: Wildlife Think about what you have seen and experienced while visiting the fort. Create and label your own logo for the Castillo! 10 “Leave nothing but footprints, take nothing but pictures.” When we recycle, we take old, used items and turn them into new things. If we recycle, then we don’t leave behind as much trash. In colonial St. Augustine, people reused almost everything because it would take a very long time to get anything new. Old clothes were turned into cleaning rags. Old metal could be melted down to make new tools. What can YOU recycle at home? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Cross out which things DO NOT belong in the Castillo. Cannon Trash Pirate Flintlock Pistol Soldier Pets Park Ranger Food and Drink You! (Draw a picture of yourself.) 11 Reflect On Your Visit The National Park Service is dedicated to preserving the Castillo de San Marcos because it is an important part of American history. Take time to think about why this place is so important. What have you learned at the fort? List at least three facts that you didn’t know before you visited the Castillo. In your opinion, why should we preserve the Castillo for future generations of Junior Rangers? 12 Imagine you are living in St. Augustine when an enemy attacks. Write a letter to your relatives in Spain. Are you a soldier defending the Castillo, or a civilian taking care of your family at home? Are you afraid? What do you think will happen? If you can’t finish your booklet while you’re here, please mail it to us! We will return the book along with your badge and patch. Master Junior Ranger 1 South Castillo Drive St. Augustine, FL 32084 13 Color-By-Numbers to Do At Home! Spanish Soldier British Soldier 3 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 3 14 1. Red 2. Dark Blue 3. Black The bow on his hat is red and the trim is yellow. His buttons are brass. 3 3 1. Red 2. Dark Blue 3. Black The bow on his hat is black, and the trim is white. His buttons are silver. Color-By-Numbers to Do At Home! Confederate Soldier Union Soldier 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1. Grey 2. Blue 3. Black His buttons are copper. 3 3 1. Dark Blue 2. Light Blue 3. Black. His buttons are brass. 15 Connections to Our History! Fort Mosé Historical State Park In 1738, the Spanish governor of Florida chartered Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mosé, or Fort Mosé, the first legally free black settlement in North America. The fort was built on the edge of a marsh, two miles north of St. Augustine and the Castillo. In 1740, when British soldiers attacked St. Augustine, Fort Mosé was a bandoned at first, but the brave militiamen of Mosé recaptured their home from the British and forced them to retreat back to Georgia. Fort Matanzas National Monument Fifteen miles south of the city of St. Augustine, there is a small inlet into the Matanzas River. After the attack by the British in 1740, the Spanish realized if they were attacked again, the enemy could block that inlet to keep supplies from reaching the Castillo. To prevent this, the Spanish started building Fort Matanzas in autumn of 1740. Shortly before it was finished in 1742, the British tried to come through the inlet. Fort Matanzas fired two shots, and the British retreated. Become a Junior Ranger at Fort Matanzas as well! 16 Castillo de San Marcos National Monument The Castillo de San Marcos is the oldest masonry fortification in North America. It was constructed between 1672 and 1695 under the Spanish government with labor from the local Timucuan Indians. British forces obtained the fort in 1763 as a result of the French and Indian War, but the Spanish regained control in 1784 at the end of the American Revolution. Florida became a United States territory in 1821, and the Castillo, renamed Fort Marion, was used as a supply depot, a military base, and a Native American prison over the years. The fort was named a National Monument in 1924, and the National Park Service restored its original name, Castillo de San Marcos, in 1942. Today, the Castillo is an immensely popular tourist attraction, and it helps tell the unique story of St. Augustine, the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the United States. Visit us online at www.nps.gov/casa