"Rainbow at Tyuonyi" by U.S. National Park Service , public domain

Bandelier Guide

Summer/Fall/Winter 2010

brochure Bandelier Guide - Summer/Fall/Winter 2010
The Tuff Times (Tuff - consolidated volcanic ash that forms Bandelier’s cliffs and canyons) Summer/Fall/Winter 2010 What’s Old is New Again Updating a Historic CCC Visitor Center Visitor Center circa 1930’s August 25, 2010 marked the grand reopening of the fully rehabilitated historic visitor center at Bandelier National Monument. This building was originally constructed in the 1930’s by members of the Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC). Early exhibits displayed work by a young WPA (Work Projects Administration) artist, Pablita Velarde, from nearby Santa Clara Pueblo. The Visitor Center today building featured beautiful hand-carved visitors with diverse needs and the outdated vigas, polished tuff floors, and ornate 1930’s wiring/heating system has been punched tin light fixtures that stood tribute replaced to meet new safety standards. All to the hard work and dedication of the many of this was done while the integrity of the young men who worked and learned at historic structure was kept intact. Bandelier under the CCC. The construction project alone took almost As the 21st century began it became a year, while the new film was shot over a apparent that the building was five year period so that all four seasons and increasingly unable to meet many of the many different areas of the park could be needs of the visiting public or working staff. represented. Likewise, the exhibits took A long and involved planning process began several years and many revisions as park and now nearly a decade later has staff strove to acknowledge and incorporate culminated in a completely rehabilitated the diverse viewpoints encompassed by the visitor center. The new visitor center has all many people who have or have had strong new museum exhibits done in consultation with the park’s affiliated pueblos ties to Bandelier throughout its history. We hope the new visitor center will remain and a brand new high definition film which relevant in an ever-changing world, for a features Bandelier’s amazing resources throughout the seasons and elevations. The few decades at least. Let us know what you think of the changes. modernized bathrooms are accessible to Be sure to read these stories inside Park Flight Migratory Bird Program Page 5 American Pika in Bandelier Page 7 Table of Contents Park Highlights....................................2 Area Highlights....................................3 Change Comes to Frijoles Canyon......4 Park Flight Migratory Bird Program....5 Visitor Center Rehab ...........................6 American Pika ..................................7 Junior Ranger Program.......................7 Friends of Bandelier..........................8 Western National Parks Association..8 Volunteers....................................8 Park Highlights The Main Loop Trail (Tyuonyi, Long House, Alcove House) along State Road 4. The 1.5 mile loop trail, which involves 3 ladders, takes you to a mesatop village then returns past numerous petroglyphs and carved cliff-side homes. In addition, visitors enjoy expansive views of the surrounding mountains and valleys. Open from 7 AM - 7 PM. A guide book is available for $.50 on site. Cerro Grande Route - Views, Wildlife, and Flowers Ladders and stone stairs allow you to climb140 feet up into Alcove House, a rock shelter that once housed 25 Ancestral Pueblo people. Beginning just behind the visitor center the Main Loop Trail leads to numerous Ancestral Pueblo dwellings and petroglyphs. Just over 1.2 miles round-trip, the trail is paved and the first portion is accessible to wheelchairs. Be sure to buy a trail guide to learn more about the fascinating history of this place. An additional mile round-trip trail takes you to Alcove House - a group of dwellings built in an rock outcrop 140 feet above the canyon floor. You can reach Alcove House by climbing long ladders or view the site from the canyon floor. The ladders at Alcove House may be closed in winter due to icy conditions that make them unsafe. Tsankawi Although a steep climb (1300 ft elevation gain in 2 mi), this hike offers wonderful views from the summit at Cerro Grande (10199 ft) of the Valles Caldera and the surrounding countryside as well as unlimited opportunities to encounter wildlife and to Mariposa lilies are one of the beautiful high elevation wildflowers that grow along the Cerro observe native high elevation Grande Route. wildflowers such as mariposa lilies, Trail, the Falls Trail, Tsankawi, and the CCC harebells, and monument plant in summer and Historic District. Main Loop Trail guides cost $1 wonderful golden fall color in autumn. There is and describe Ancestral Pueblo life at 21 a paved parking lot adjacent to highway 4 at the numbered stops. The Falls Trail guide discusses trailhead. interesting geology and the flora/fauna of the area for $1.50. The guide for Tsankawi also interprets Ancestral Pueblo life with a focus on Guided Walks ties to the modern Pueblos. It costs $.50. For Ranger-guided walks along the Main Loop Trail to Tyuonyi Pueblo are offered most days through- just $1 another guide takes you through Bandelier’s Historic CCC District. out the year, once in the morning and once in the afternoon (staffing permitting). The walk follows a path (partly wheelchair accessible) through Frijoles Canyon discussing the lifestyles of the Ancestral Pueblo people. Walks last 45 minutes to 1 hour. School Programs Tsankawi, a large unexcavated Ancestral Pueblo village, is located in a detached portion of the park about two Foot-carved paths at Tsankawi provide access to numerous miles north of White Rock cliff-side dwellings, a small village, and numerous petroglyphs. Park Rangers offer grade-specific programs for school groups visiting Bandelier, and in the classroom. If you would prefer to bring your class on a self-guided visit to Bandelier, you may also request materials from the visitor center. A fee waiver request can be made and a reservation is required. Call (505)672-3861 ext. 534. Only one bus may be accommodated in the parking area at any given time. Trail Guides Bandelier Trading Company Gift Shop and Snack Bar The gift shop features a colorful array of authentic crafts from throughout the Southwest, as well as souvenir items such as hats, shirts, and postcards. They also carry utility items such as film, disposable cameras, rain ponchos, and batteries. The Snack Bar offers a varied menu including local dishes as well as standards, snacks, soft drinks, and bottled water. Printed trail guides are available for the Main Loop Abert’s Squirrels are only one of the interesting creatures that live in Bandelier National Monument. 2 Area Highlights White Rock Overlook Pajarito Environmental Education Center (PEEC) Standing on the observation PEEC, the nature center in Los platform, you can Alamos, offers natural history gaze down at the exhibits and information about the Rio Grande environment of the Pajarito Plateau, flowing by in the from the sun-drenched Rio Grande bottom of White Valley to the deep green coolness Rock Canyon, of the Jemez Mountains. PEEC over 1,000 feet has live animals and interactive Great views of the Rio Grande can be found at White Rock Overlook. deep, or look exhibits on birds, flowers, water; out over the vast trail maps; a demonstration garden, herbarium, panorama of the Jemez and Sangre de Cristo library; and much more. Visit the PEEC website Mountains, the Española Valley, and the Caja del at www.PajaritoEEC.org to learn about special Rio. In White Rock, turn onto Rover Boulevard activities. Find PEEC at 3540 Orange Street, Los (at the Conoco on SR 4), left onto Meadow Lane, Alamos. Tues - Fri 12 - 4, Sat 10 - 1. Free. and left onto Overlook Road. Free admission. Los Alamos Historical Museum/ Art Center The Historical Museum features exhibits on the history of the area, from the eruption of the Jemez Volcano through the Ancestral Coyotes are common in the area. Keep your eyes open and you may spot one as you drive to Pueblo people, the park. homesteaders, and the Los Alamos Boys School, to the Manhattan Project and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neighboring Art Center showcases work of local artists; exhibits change throughout the year, showcasing various styles and media. Both facilities are located next to Fuller Lodge, a historic and distinct log structure originally built for the Boys School, on Central Avenue near Ashley Pond. Mon - Sat 10 - 4, Sun 1 - 4, free. Bradbury Science Museum Named for Norris Bradbury, the second director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory; its exhibits highlight scientific activities in Los Alamos from the earliest days of the Manhattan Project to the present high-tech, cutting edge work of the modern laboratory. Located at the corner of Central Avenue and 15th Street in Los Alamos. Tues - Sat 10 - 5, Sun - Mon 1 - 5, free. Valles Caldera National Preserve In addition to its unique geology, the Valles Caldera is home to a variety of wildlife and offers extraordinary views. Over a million years ago the huge Jemez Volcano erupted covering more than a hundred square miles with deep flows of volcanic ash. The distinctive canyon and mesa landscapes around Bandelier and Los Alamos are the result of this volcanism. The mountain collapsed, creating a caldera more than 16 miles in diameter. Privately owned until 2001, this caldera is now part of the National Preserve. State Road 4 goes through a very beautiful portion of the caldera, the Valle Grande. A small contact station is open most days. For more information on how to access the Preserve, visit their website at www.vallescaldera.gov. Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Pojoaque, Nambe, Tesuque, Santo Domingo (Kewa), San Felipe, Cochiti, Jemez, Santa Ana, and Zia are all within about 80 miles of the park. Remember to be respectful when you are visiting. Follow the rules and regulations of each of the different Pueblos. Dog Trails Pets are not permitted on any of the trails in Bandelier. Don’t leave your best friend tied to a tree in the picnic area. Take them along for a hike on the nearby DOE trails. Check the map below to find out where to go. To protect park wildlife from disease, parasites, and disturbance, pets are not permitted in most areas of Bandelier National Monument. Pets are allowed only in the picnic area, and main parking lot. They must be leashed (leash under 6 feet) at all times. Pets are allowed on Department of Energy (DOE) lands that are posted as open for public use (see map). These areas, including the parking areas, are closed after dark. -Pets may not be left unattended (except within a vehicle) and may not be tied to an object (except when staying in the campground). -Pets left in vehicles must be given enough ventilation to ensure their safety. -It is the responsibility of the person accompanying the pet to clean up after it. All pet excrement must be picked up and disposed of properly. Pueblos In the 1500s, people moved from the Bandelier area to villages along the Rio Grande. Today there are 19 pueblos in New Mexico. Taos, Picuris, Okay Owingeh, 3 Use this map to find hiking areas that permit dogs. Change Comes to Frijoles Canyon By Park Ranger Theresa Ferraro By the time I pack up all my belongings; my Park Service uniform, clothes, books and kitchen items, Frijoles Canyon will be drenched in gold and the sky filled with the noisy chatter of Sandhill Cranes. Every autumn we bear witness to thousands of cranes flying overhead on their long journey to wintering grounds south of Albuquerque. With each flap of their immense wings, courtship rituals and hatchlings will be a distant memory until daylight lengthens over the continent once more. The flight of cranes is my cue that my season at the park is about to end. packing and notice the title, LADY OF THE CANYON; EVELYN CECIL FREY A TRIBUTE. seasons the lodged housed the army and scientists who were brought to Los Alamos to work on a secret project, a project that would forever change the World. The fruits of the Manhattan Project were realized in August 1945 when the atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Richard Frey was among the men at Los Alamos Bomb Laboratory awarded ”outstanding devotion to duty and maintenance of a high standard of discipline.” In 1947 Richard died unexpectedly. Evelyn Frey was a woman who witnessed the complexity of change during the sixty-three years she lived in Frijoles Canyon. In the spring of 1925, thirty–three year old Evelyn, her husband George and ten month-old son, Richard entered the canyon on the backs of mules. Mrs. Frey and her family came to Frijoles Canyon to operate the Lodge of the Ten Elders once home to Judge Abbot who served as an early custodian to the region. The Freys planted 75 Although some of Mrs. fruit trees in a landscape that Frey’s apple trees and a few was once occupied by the pear trees still remain the Ancestral Pueblo and later the peach, apricot, and cherry Montoya family before trees are long gone. Deer becoming a National and bear gather in the Mrs. Frey, her husband George, and their son, Richard arrived in Frijoles Canyon in 1925. They orchard each year to savor Monument. Red Delicious, brought with them hundreds of fruit trees that can Golden Delicious, Grimes the bounty of ripe fruit. Not still be seen in the orchard along the Main Loop Beautiful fall color is one of the constants amidst change at Bandelier. Golden and Jonathan apples: Trail. long ago I watched a bear Elberta and J.H. Hale peaches: standing on two legs Gold and America and Omaha plums, Superb picking apples and wondered whether Mrs. Changing leaf color and the flight of birds are constants in my world. Both, the leaves and apricots; Anjou, Duchess, Keifer and Gold Frey had experienced the same pleasure. Nugget pears; Monterey cherries; and Lately, I wonder what Mrs. Frey would think birds have been my calendar markers since I Cumberland raspberries grew in their irrigated about all the recent changes in Frijoles entered Frijoles Canyon some thirteen years orchard. A garden was planted, chickens Canyon. Would she like the new museum ago. My use of the words “change” and tended and guests were fed. Evelyn found her exhibits? Would she think the new film “constant” in the same sentence gives me new life quite agreeable, although the changes celebrating Bandelier’s landscape and culture reason to pause. The meanings of constancy she would witness while living in Frijoles is worthy of the new auditorium? I will never and change stand in opposition yet operate to Canyon, until her death in 1988, were know Evelyn Frey’s thoughts on these matters. weave a tapestry of knowing into an unimaginable. But I do know that cranes will grace our sky in unknown world. For instance, I think I know November on their southern flight, crickets will what it is like to live in a stone cabin in the Her husband, George, abandoned their reclaim the sound of summer and bear will find heart of this canyon. With each day tumbling marriage and her beloved son Richard died their way to the orchard in the fall. towards the chill of winter the sounds of at the age 23. The home insects, once robust, become fainter. Evelyn loved so dearly was Soon the crickets and cicadas will razed and new lodge built be silent. The plaintive whistle-like in 1939 by the Civilian call of the Townsend’s Solitaire has Conservation Corp. Along begun to punctuate the stillness with the new lodge came a of morning. The Solitaires like the road paved into the Juncos have spent their summer canyon. Perhaps the in higher elevation. Now Juncos, biggest change of all came Chickadees, and Nuthatches begin in 1941 when the United to form winter flocks. A morning States entered World War stroll along the Main Loop Trail will II. In December of 1942 the surprise birds out from the cover of army took over Los shrubs where they peck at the spoils Alamos and soon there of summer. The Solitaire, the insects, after requested the right Juncos and Cranes are my Mrs. Frey was an early concessionaire and constants within change. I toss lived here in Frijoles Canyon until her death of entry to the lodge that Black bears are residents in Bandelier that are encountered infrequently. Evelyn leased. For two another book into the box that I am in 1988. 4 The Park Flight Migratory Bird Program at Bandelier National Monument Saving Migratory Birds is an International Effort Birds are a fundamental part of our American heritage. They are beautiful. Their songs inspire artists and poets. Their seasonal movements symbolize freedom. Their health reflects the health of our environment. Perhaps most significantly, all cultures have stories, traditions, and beliefs that use birds to show the meaning and connections of our lives. The U.S. National Park System provides critical habitat for many species of birds. Of these, the migratory birds are continental assets shared across international borders. Because these species use parks on a seasonal basis, sometimes less than 5 months each year, their protection cannot be assured by focusing just on habitats within the parks. The Park Flight Program uses science, education, and international working relationships to protect breeding, migration, and wintering habitats of these ecologically and culturally important species. Bandelier’s Efforts Include an International Focus By Wildlife Biologist Stephen Fettig the declines are due to problems on the breeding grounds, on the wintering grounds, or during migration. To get the where and when information needed by park managers, Bandelier’s Park Flight Program bands birds to learn about the number of young produced each year as well as the survival of birds from one year to the next. These life-history rates provide information critical for management. The indirect relationship between environment conditions and population size decreases our ability to interpret cause and Golden-crowned Kinglets are very small birds that breed in the highestelevation forests at Bandelier. They often feed while hanging upside down on tree branches. be re-captured and identified year after year as they return to their summer breeding areas. That re-capture information tells us if changes in bird populations are the result of conditions of the wintering ground, in the breeding areas, or both. Thus, bird banding can provide valuable insights into the cause and effect relationships that control overall bird numbers. Bandelier’s Park Flight program Migratory Birds are focuses on Declining in Numbers monitoring songThe 2010 State of the Birds report, a birds, while collaborative effort between federal educating local and state wildlife agencies, found students and that nearly a third of the nation’s 800 young Latin At Bandelier, Black-throated Gray Warblers are found breeding within bird species are endangered, American piñon-juniper woodlands. They winter in southwestern Mexico. threatened or in significant decline. professionals. Equally worrisome was a 2009 report from the Each year, young teachers and scientists come Institute for Bird Populations (IBP) that used 15to Bandelier to learn and teach about migratory years of bird banding information from more than birds. They learn to band and to document the 650 stations from across North America. The IBP physical heath and age of birds. These young report found that the total number of adult birds professionals also give field trips and classroom likely declined by more than a 20% over the 15 presentations about birds to local students. The years when considering 192 species. At skills that the Park Flight Program teaches these Bandelier, worry is beginning to focus on the visitors from Latin America is building a cadre Grace’s Warbler which data suggests has of bird conservation leaders beyond the United declined in the southwestern United States by States who are essential to keeping our parks 54% over the last 40 years filled with the colors (1965-2005). This decline and sounds of summer seems to be widespread songbirds. with the steepest declines Bird Banding is a in New Mexico. In most Powerful cases of declining bird Research Tool populations, land managers Bird banding is one of have no clear idea of the the most causes of the declines or powerful tool in the what actions to take to study of wild birds. It reverse the declines. is a richly valuable tool Where and When because it provides a Information is Needed great deal of For conservation to be information using a Three-toed Woodpeckers are a rare breeding species at Bandelier. The speeffective, park managers very low-tech cies specializes in feeding on insects found in recently burned forest areas. need to know where and approach. Birds are when to focus their efforts. Counting birds in the caught using fine-mesh nets and individually same way every year can show long-term trends fit with a lightweight ankle bracelet. Using the in bird populations, but such counts don’t tell us if numbers on these bands, individual birds can 5 Townsend’s Warblers only pass through Bandelier, mostly in the fall. The species breeds in the Pacific Northwest and western Canada and winters California and Mexico. effect relationships that control overall bird numbers, while the direct link between environmental conditions and survival and reproduction rates provides us with a clearer view of those relationships. Without reproduction and survival information we cannot achieve a clear understanding of population trends. “The future of migratory birds is uncertain,” may be an understatement. Optimism, however, is justified based on the Park Flight Program’s ability to provide valuable information to park managers, as well as providing research and education skills to our Latin American conservation colleagues. The movements of birds transcend any man made borders; to be good stewards of our internationally shared bird species, our efforts must transcend those same borders. For more information, consider visiting these web sites http://www.nps.gov/oia/topics/flight/flight.htm http://www.stateofthebirds.org/ http://www.birdpop.org/ For the Web-disinclined, consider asking for these bird books at your local public library: “Silence of the Songbirds” by Bridget Stutchbury, 2007 “No Way Home, the Decline of the World’s Great Animal Migrations” by David Wilcove, 2008 “101 Ways to Help Birds” by Laura Erickson, 2006 Living in Interesting Times: Big Changes at Bandelier The Problem: A beautiful historic building that lack the proper accessibility, had asbestos in the heating system, an electrical system designed for the 1930’s, and out-dated interpretive exhibits. The Work: The planning process began almost 10 years ago. Demolition, followed by construction, in the visitor center started in early September 2009. The Solution: Today the visitor center has an accessible theater, exhibits, and restrooms. The new theater offers a intriguing view of the diverse resources within the park. A space that was once the theater now offers many more titles and educational merchandise from Western National Parks Association. Brand new exhibits reflect new information gathered from in-depth research programs and broader consultation with affiliated pueblos. 6 Pika: The Rabbit that Squeaks By Park Ranger Sally King Pika in Bandelier? If a contest was ever held to determine which animal in the animal kingdom was the cutest, the American Pika would definitely be amongst the qualifiers. You might not expect to find this small ball of fur with legs in Bandelier National Monument. Pika are alpine residents and are intolerant of even short term hot temperatures. In this park, pika are found in small isolated colonies only at the highest elevations. They live in volcanic boulder fields where they retreat to cool tunnels under the rocks for protection from the heat on long summer days. hind legs are only slightly longer than their front legs. Unlike rabbits, pika run and don’t hop. Pika emit a variety of sounds which are also very different from their very quiet cousins. Pika are active mostly during the day. They will often venture off their rockpile homes to eat or collect plants for later consumption. Pika eat green plant material that they collect and dry to store for consumption during the cold winter months. The Cold of Winter Pika do not hibernate but stay active all winter long traveling in tunnels under the rocks and snow. In fact, a deep blanket of snow is important for the pika’s survival. If the snow is deep enough it provides insulation for the pikas living below. Too little snow and the pika risk freezing to death. The pika stay alive during the long cold winter by eating dried plants cached earlier in the year and by traveling out to vegetated areas nearby to collect more plant materials. elevations, these Bandelier pika will have no where to go. Last year the US Fish and Wildlife Service considered whether to classify the American Pika as an endangered or threatened species but decided that as a whole, the American Pika doesn’t not meet the criteria at this time. They also suggested that further study was needed. In Danger? At Bandelier Pika are found only at the highest elevations in boulder fields where they find shelter from the heat of summer days. Rabbits, not Rats Pika are closely related to rabbits and hares. Pika have shorter, rounder ears and their If the cute contest isn’t held soon, the American Pika may not be around to attend. As climate trends change globally the pika may face extinction or extirpation, especially isolated colonies in places such as Bandelier. As the population as a whole moves ever northward and to higher Pika keep watch for predators such as weasels and emit high pitched squeaks as a warning of danger. Become a Bandelier Junior or Deputy Ranger You’re Never Too Old Bandelier’s Junior and Deputy Ranger programs are free to any visitors (as long as you can read, write, or draw) who wish to participate. The requirements include completing hands-on activities about a variety of subjects that are important at Bandelier National Monument, including Ancestral Pueblo people, geology, plants, and wildlife. Bandelier’s program is broken into 4 categories: PreK to 1st Grade, 2nd Grade to 3rd Grade, 4th Grade to 6th Grade, and 7th Grade and Up (Deputy Ranger). The booklets can be downloaded on-line from the park’s website, www.nps. gov/band, or are available at the park visitor center. The junior/deputy ranger program offers children and adults the chance to do field observations, crossword puzzles, write poetry, draw pictures, or think like a squirrel. It’s fun and educational for all ages. Participants earn a free patch upon completion of the Junior/Deputy Ranger Challenge booklet. Inquire for more information at the park visitor center. Bandelier’s patches The Junior Ranger program is fun for kids of all ages. 7 Friends of Bandelier Who are we? The Friends of Bandelier are private citizens who love the monument. A Board of Trustees governs the activities under a formal Memorandum of Agreement with the National Park Service. Park rangers request help on special projects and the Friends group tries to meet the park’s needs. The membership stays informed of Friends’ activities, and of key issues affecting the Monument, through letters, field trips, and announcements in the local newspapers. the mission of the Friends of Bandelier is to provide assistance to Bandelier National Monument. You are invited to join the Friends. Dues start at $15 per year (and more is greatly accepted). Send to P.O. Box 1282, Los Alamos, NM 87544. The Friends of Bandelier provide support for: ♥Handicapped Access ♥Traditional Crafts ♥Education ♥Special projects such as trail maintenance ♥Archeology ♥Visitor amenities such as water fountains ♥Scientific research ♥Publications, including this newspaper Join the Friends of Bandelier by sending this information with your membership fee or donation to: Friends of Bandelier P.O. Box 1282 Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 annual $15______ contributing $30 _____ sponsor $100 _____ senior/student $5 ______ special gift $________ Name_____________________________ Address___________________________ __________________________________ Further details concerning the Friends of Bandelier can be found at www.friendsofbandelier.org. Western National Parks Association Volunteers The National Park Service Volunteers-In-Parks Program (VIP) was authorized by Public Law 91-357 enacted in 1970. The primary purpose of the VIP program is to provide a vehicle through which the National Park Service can accept voluntary help and services from the public. The major objective of the program is Volunteers help the park by performing a wide variety to coordinate this voluntary help of duties. so as to be mutually beneficial to the National Park Service and the volunteer. In FY 2008 186 volunteers donated 21,213.5 hours to Bandelier and many special projects were accomplished. If you’d like to help, you can join us too. For more information, visit http://www.nps.gov/volunteer or call 505-672-3861 x 517 and ask for the park volunteer coordinators. Western National Parks Association (WNPA) was founded in 1938 to aid and promote the educational and scientific activities of the National Park Service. As a non-profit organization authorized by Congress, it makes interpretive materials available to park visitors by sale or free distribution. All net proceeds support the interpretive and research programs of the NPS. For more information about WNPA or memberships, log onto www.wnpa.org. Join WNPA and support the preservation of our national heritage. Western National Parks Association offers publications on a wide variety of topics including the Ancestral Pueblo people, geology, and wildlife. Abert’s squirrels are year-round residents in Bandelier and can be seen in Frijoles Canyon. 8

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