brochure Wildlife - Birds

Birds at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Florida. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge Bird List Lou P. Kellenberger St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge is on the shores of Apalachee Bay, in northwestern Florida, about 20 miles south of Tallahassee. Established in 1931, the refuge contains about 68,000 acres of salt and brackish marshes, hardwood swamps, pine flatwoods, and pine-oak uplands; parts of which are in Taylor, Jefferson, and Wakulla Counties. An additional 31,700 acres of water in Apalachee Bay are included as part of the refuge through a Presidential Proclamation. St. Marks Refuge provides an extensive wintering habitat for waterfowl and is one of the earliest such areas acquired by the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge This blue goose, designed by J.N. “Ding” Darling, has become a symbol of the National Wildlife Refuge System. Government. The seasons bring about marked changes in both species and abundance of birdlife. Best opportunities for observing the greatest variety and number of birds are during the fall and spring. Waterfowl are most easily seen on the refuge from mid-November through late December. Shore birds are most common during late spring and early fall. Turkey Barred owl Symbols used in this list are defined as follows Sp-Spring - March-May S-Summer - June-August F-Fall - September-November W-Winter - December-February * Nest on Refuge a-abundant a common species which is very numerous c-common certain to be seen or heard in suitable habitat u-uncommon present, but not certain to be seen Nick Baldwin Nick Baldwin USFWS This list is in accordance with the A.O.U. Checklist as amended. Enjoy your visit! Scarlett Tanager o-occasional seen only a few times during a season Nick Baldwin r-rare seen at intervals of 2 to 5 years This folder lists 274 species of birds that are considered part of the Stilt refuge’s fauna. The following are additional species that are of such accidental or rare occurrence on the refuge that they have been recorded only one or a few times and are generally considered out of their normal range: Eared Grebe Cory’s Shearwater American Flamingo Brant Mottled Duck White-winged Scoter White-tailed Kite Short-tailed Hawk Rough-legged Hawk Hudsonian Godwit Buff-breasted Sandpiper Baird’s Sandpiper Bridled Tern Sooty Tern Inca Dove Budgerigar Short-eared Owl Cave Swallow Horned Lark White-breasted Nuthatch Sprague’s Pipit Bell’s Vireo Warbling Vireo Connecticut Warbler Canada Warbler Clay-colored Sparrow Lark Bunting LeConte’s Sparrow Fox Sparrow Lapland Longspur Yellow-headed Blackbird Siskin EveningPine Grosbeak Red-faced Ibis If you observe any accidental or discontinued birds, SP S F please notify a refuge employee. W Loons _____Red-throated Loon r _____Common Loon c u c Grebes _____Pied-billed Grebe* c c a _____Horned Grebe c r u _____Red-necked Grebe r Pelicans and their Allies _____Northern Gannet o _____American White Pelican u r _____Brown Pelican c c _____Double-crested Cormorant* a a _____Anhinga* c c _____Magnificent Frigatebird r Herons, Egrets and their Allies _____American Bittern _____Least Bittern* _____Great Blue Heron* _____Great Egret* _____Snowy Egret* o c c c c a a a a a c r o u c a c o u c a c o u c a a o r c a a _____Little Blue Heron* _____Tricolored Heron* SP a a S a a F a a W a a _____Reddish Egret _____Cattle Egret* _____Green Heron* _____Black-crowned Night-Heron* _____Yellow-crowned Night-Heron* o c c c u u c c u u u c u u r o r u c r Ibises, Spoonbill, Stork _____Glossy Ibis* _____White Ibis* _____Roseate Spoonbill _____Wood Stork u a r u u a r u u c r u c c r Waterfowl _____Fulvous Whistling-Duck r r r _____Tundra Swan r r _____Greater White-fronted Goose r r _____Snow Goose u o _____Canada Goose r r r _____Wood Duck* c c a a _____Green-winged Teal c c c _____American Black Duck u u u _____Mallard u u c _____Northern Pintail c c c _____Blue-winged Teal c u c c _____Cinnamon Teal r r _____Northern Shoveler c r c c _____Gadwall c c c _____Eurasian Wigeon r r _____American Wigeon c r c c _____Canvasback u u u _____Redhead u r a a _____Ring-necked Duck c c c _____Greater Scaup u o c c _____Lesser Scaup c o c c _____Long-tailed duck r r _____Black Scoter r r r _____Surf Scoter r r r _____Common Goldeneye u u u _____Bufflehead u c c _____Hooded Merganser c c _____Common Merganser r r _____Red-breasted Merganser c r c c _____Ruddy Duck u r u u Vultures, Hawks and Allies _____Black Vulture* _____Turkey Vulture* _____Osprey* _____Swallow-tailed Kite* u c c u u c c u c c u c c o _____Mississippi Kite* _____Bald Eagle* _____Northern Harrier _____Sharp-shinned Hawk _____Cooper’s Hawk _____Red-shouldered Hawk* _____Broad-winged Hawk* _____Red-tailed Hawk* _____Golden Eagle _____American Kestrel _____Merlin _____Peregrine Falcon SP S F W u u u o u c c r c c r u u r u o c c c c u u u u u c c r r u u u o o o r o o Gallinaceous birds (Quail, Turkey and Allies) _____Wild Turkey* u u _____Northern Bobwhite* u u u u Rails, Gallinules, Coots and Cranes _____Yellow Rail r r _____Black Rail* o o o _____Clapper Rail* c c c _____King Rail* u u u _____Virginia Rail u u _____Sora c c _____Purple Gallinule* u c u _____Common Moorhen* c a a _____American Coot a o a _____Limpkin r r r _____Sandhill Crane r Shorebirds _____Black-bellied Plover c u _____American Golden-Plover r _____Wilson’s Plover* u u _____Semipalmated Plover c u _____Piping Plover r r _____Killdeer* c r _____American Oystercatcher* u u _____Black-necked Stilt* o o _____American Avocet o _____Greater Yellowlegs c u _____Lesser Yellowlegs u u _____Solitary Sandpiper o o _____Willet* c c _____Spotted Sandpiper u u _____Upland Sandpiper r r _____Whimbrel u u _____Long-billed Curlew r _____Marbled Godwit o r _____Ruddy Turnstone c u _____Red Knot o r _____Sanderling u u c r u c r c u o o c u o a u r u r o c o u u u r c u u u r u a r r c u c u u o u u a o u r u u _____Semipalmated Sandpiper _____Western Sandpiper _____Least Sandpiper _____White-rumped Sandpiper _____Pectoral Sandpiper _____Dunlin _____Stilt Sandpiper _____Short-billed Dowitcher _____Long-billed Dowitcher _____Common Snipe _____American Woodcock _____Wilson’s Phalarope _____Laughing Gull* _____Bonaparte’s Gull _____Ring-billed Gull _____Herring Gull _____Great Black-backed Gull _____Gull-billed Tern _____Caspian Tern _____Royal Tern _____Sandwich Tern _____Common Tern _____Forster’s Tern _____Least Tern* _____Black Tern _____Black Skimmer SP S F c u c c c a c c c o r o o a r c o o c c a r r u c u u r r c a c o o a o a c o c r r r r r r r o o o o o o u u u c c c c u u o u o o o o W u c a a r u u o o a c r r o c o Pigeons, Doves _____Rock Pigeon r r r _____Eurasian Collared Dove o o o _____White-winged Dove o _____Mourning Dove* u u c _____Common Ground-Dove* u u u u u Cuckoos _____Black-billed Cuckoo r r r _____Yellow-billed Cuckoo* c c c _____Groove-billed Ani r r Owls _____Barn Owl* _____Eastern Screech-Owl* _____Great Horned Owl* _____Barred Owl* r u u u r u u u r u u u Nightjars _____Common Nighthawk* _____Chuck-will’s-widow* _____Whip-poor-will c c c c c u o o r r u u u r o SP S F u u u u o u Kingfishers _____Belted Kingfisher* c c c c Woodpeckers _____Red-headed Woodpecker* _____Red-bellied Woodpecker* _____Yellow-bellied Sapsucker _____Downy Woodpecker* _____Hairy Woodpecker* _____Red-cockaded Woodpecker* _____Northern Flicker* _____Pileated Woodpecker* o o c c u u u o o u u c u u u o c u u o u c u o c u u o u c u Flycatchers _____Eastern Wood-Pewee* _____Acadian Flycatcher* _____Eastern Phoebe _____Vermilion Flycatcher _____Great Crested Flycatcher* _____Western Kingbird _____Eastern Kingbird* _____Gray Kingbird* _____Scissor-tailed Flycatcher u u c c u r c c r c c c c r u u c o o o c u r Swifts, Hummingbirds _____Chimney Swift* _____Ruby-throated _____Hummingbird* Martins and Swallows _____Purple Martin* c c u _____Tree Swallow a u a _____Northern Rough-winged Swallow c u u _____Bank Swallow o o o _____Cliff Swallow r _____Barn Swallow c c c W c o u a r r Jays and Crows _____Blue Jay* _____American Crow* _____Fish Crow* c c c c c c c c c c c u Chickadees and Titmice _____Carolina Chickadee* _____Tufted Titmouse* c c c c c c c c Nuthatches _____Red-breasted Nuthatch r F u W u Creepers _____Brown Creeper r r r Wrens _____Carolina Wren* _____House Wren _____Winter Wren _____Sedge Wren _____Marsh Wren* c c u u u c c c c u c c c u u c c Kinglets and Gnatcatchers _____Golden-crowned Kinglet _____Ruby-crowned Kinglet _____Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* u u c c c c c u c u Bluebirds, Thrushes and Robin _____Eastern Bluebird* _____Veery _____Gray-cheeked Thrush _____Swainson’s Thrush _____Hermit Thrush _____Wood Thrush _____American Robin u r o o o o o a u u u u u u c u a Thrashers _____Gray Catbird _____Northern Mockingbird* _____Brown Thrasher* c c c c c a c a c c c Pipits _____American Pipit u u u Waxwings _____Cedar Waxwing u u u Starling _____Starling* u u u c Shrike _____Loggerhead Shrike* u u u u Vireos _____White-eyed Vireo* _____Blue-headed Vireo _____Yellow-throated Vireo* _____Red-eyed Vireo* c c u u u c u c u u c u u _____Brown-headed Nuthatch* Warblers SP u S u u SP S F _____Blue-winged Warbler r r r _____Golden-winged Warbler r r _____Tennessee Warbler r u _____Orange-crowned Warbler u u _____Northern Parula* c c u _____Yellow Warbler o c c _____Chestnut-sided Warbler r o _____Magnolia Warbler r u _____Cape May Warbler u _____Black-throated Blue Warbler r r _____Yellow-rumped Warbler a a _____Black-throated Green Warbler r r _____Blackburnian Warbler r r _____Yellow-throated Warbler* c c u _____Pine Warbler* c c c _____Prairie Warbler c c c _____Palm Warbler c c _____Blackpoll Warbler u _____Cerulean Warbler r r _____Black-and-white Warbler u u u _____American Redstart o r o _____Prothonotary Warbler* c c u _____Worm-eating Warbler r r r _____Swainson’s Warbler* r r r _____Ovenbird r r _____Northern Waterthrush r r r _____Louisiana Waterthrush r r r _____Kentucky Warbler* u u r _____Common Yellowthroat* c c c _____Hooded Warbler* u u u _____Wilson’s Warbler r _____Yellow-breasted Chat* c c r W u a o c r r u c r r Tanagers _____Summer Tanager* _____Scarlet Tanager c c r c o New World Finches _____Northern Cardinal* _____Rose-breasted Grosbeak _____Blue Grosbeak* _____Indigo Bunting* _____Painted Bunting _____Dickcissel c c r u u c u r r c o u c r r c Sparrows _____Eastern Towhee* _____Bachman’s Sparrow* _____Chipping Sparrow _____Field Sparrow _____Vesper Sparrow a a u u u u u a u u u u a u u u u SP S F W _____Savannah Sparrow u u u _____Henslow’s Sparrow r _____Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow u u u _____Nelson’s Sharp-tailed Sparrow u u u _____Song Sparrow c c c _____Swamp Sparrow c c c _____White-throated Sparrow c c c _____White-crowned Sparrow r _____Dark-eyed Junco r o o _____Grasshopper Sparrow r r _____Seaside Sparrow u u u _____Lark Sparrow r Blackbirds, Grackles, Cowbirds and Orioles _____Bobolink c _____Red-winged Blackbird* a a _____Eastern Meadowlark* c u _____Rusty Blackbird u _____Boat-tailed Grackle* a a _____Common Grackle* c c _____Shiny Cowbird r r _____Brown-headed Cowbird c u _____Orchard Oriole* c u _____Baltimore Oriole r Old World Finches _____Purple Finch _____American Goldfinch Weaver Finches Sighting Notes Date Time Weather No. of species Route or area Observers Remarks Route or area u a c u a c a c u a c u o u u r r c c u c St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge P. O. Box 68 St. Marks, Florida 32355 850/925 6121 fw4_rw_st_marks@fws.gov U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 1 800/344 WILD http://www.fws.gov/saintmarks August 2007 _____House Sparrow r r r r Ethics for Birdwatching Take care not to disturb nesting birds, exposing eggs and young to extreme temperatures and predation. Disturb wintering wildlife as little as possible, particularly during critical feeding and resting periods. They need all of their energy reserves to withstand the stresses of harsh weather and migration. Do not litter! Many birds die when they become entangled

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