Don Edwards San Francisco Bay
Birds at Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in California. Published by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS).
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U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge Bird List Waves of migrating birds pulse through the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge during the spring and fall migrations. From tidal salt marsh to salt ponds, from seasonal vernal pools to upland habitat, the refuge offers wildlife viewing year-round. American Avocets © Greg Block Introduction A major stop on the Pacific Flyway Great Blue Heron San Francisco Bay is the largest estuary on the west coast of the United States. Its 30,000 acres of wetlands, open water, and upland habitats are home to at least 800,000 birds at any given time and to millions during peak migration. Some of these birds are permanent residents and a few come here only to breed. Most, however, use the bay as a resting and feeding stop on their long migrations. Seventy percent of the birds that migrate along the Pacific Flyway spend some time each year at San Francisco Bay. This list, which includes 234 species, includes all avian species found on refuge lands in Alameda, San Mateo, and Santa Clara Counties. The relative abundances in the checklist indicate how frequently you might expect to see a bird in its favored habitat. The refuge is undergoing a large wetland restoration project. The restoration, coupled with changing climates, will alter species abundance and richness over time. It is expected that this list will need revisions in the next few years. We welcome your input. Bird List Key Abbreviations and Symbols Sp - Spring, March through May S - Summer, June through August F - Fall, September through November W - Winter, December through February Abundance Symbols a - abundant - a common species which is very numerous c - common - certain to be seen in suitable habitat u - uncommon - present, but not certain to be seen o - occasional - seen only a few times during a season r - rare - known to be present, but not every year * - birds known to nest locally Threatened & Endangered Species NRefuge - species found in northern range of the refuge SRefuge - species found in southern range of the refuge Consult field guides or reference books to learn the specific habitats in which a particular species can be found. Also check with ebird.org for latest sightings. This list generally follows the A.O.S. checklist of North American Birds, 7th edition. It deviates slightly by grouping some families together that use similar habitats for easier reference. California Clapper Rail © Bill Purcell Common Name Sp S F W Common Name Waterfowl Greater White-fronted Goose r o Snow Goose r Ross’s Goose r Brant r r Cackling Goose o o *Canada Goose c c c Tundra Swan r *Gadwall c c c Eurasian Wigeon r o American Wigeon c r a *Mallard c c c Blue-winged Teal o o *Cinnamon Teal c u c *Northern Shoveler c u a *Northern Pintail c u c Green-winged Teal u r c *Canvasback c r c Redhead S Refuge r u Ring-necked Duck r r Tufted Duck r r Greater Scaup c r c *Lesser Scaup c u a Surf Scoter u c White-winged Scoter r r Black Scoter r r Long-tailed Duck r r Bufflehead c r c Common Goldeneye u u Barrow’s Goldeneye r r Hooded Merganser r o Common Merganser r r Red-breasted Merganser S Refuge u u *Ruddy Duck c u a Northern Pintails o r r r o c r c o a c o c a c c a u r r a a c r r r a c r o r c a Sp S F W *Pied-billed Grebe Horned Grebe Red-necked Grebe *Eared Grebe Western Grebe Clark’s Grebe c u c u u r r a o c c o c c o c c u r a c c Rails Black Rail *Ridgway’s Rail Virginia Rail Sora *Common Moorhen *American Coot r r u u u u u u c c r u c c u a r u u u u a *Black-necked Stilt *American Avocet c c c c a a a a Plovers Black-bellied Plover Pacific Golden-Plover *Snowy Plover Semipalmated Plover *Killdeer c r o c c u r o u c a r u c c c Whimbrel o o Long-billed Curlew c u Marbled Godwit a c Ruddy Turnstone o r Black Turnstone o r Red Knot u r Ruff r Stilt Sandpiper Sanderling u r Dunlin a r Baird’s Sandpiper r r Least Sandpiper c u Pectoral Sandpiper r r Semipalmated Sandpiper r Western Sandpiper a c u c a o o u r r u a r c o r a Grebes Stilts and Avocets u u c Sandpipers and Phalaropes u c a o o o r u a c a Sandpipers & Phalaropes continued next page Common Name Sp S F W c u a a u a u u o o r r o o u c u a c u c o a u c a a r r c a u r Sandpipers & Phalaropes continued Short-billed Dowitcher Long-billed Dowitcher Wilson’s Snipe Spotted Sandpiper Wandering Tattler Lesser Yellowlegs Willet Greater Yellowlegs Wilson’s Phalarope Red-necked Phalarope Red Phalarope Jaegers Parasitic Jaeger r Auks and Puffins Common Murre o o o a c r r r Gulls and Terns Sabine’s Gull r Bonaparte’s Gull c o c Franklin’s Gull r r r Heermann’s Gull r Mew Gull u u Ring-billed Gull c u a *Western Gull c u c *California Gull a a a Herring Gull a r a Thayer’s Gull u u Glaucous-winged Gull u o c Glaucous Gull r Least Tern u u r *Caspian Tern c c c Black Tern r r Common Tern r o *Forster’s Tern a a c Elegant Tern r u *Black Skimmer u u o Loons Red-throated Loon Pacific Loon Common Loon o o r r o o c c a c a a u c o u o o r o Common Name Cormorants Brandt’s Cormorant *Double-crested Cormorant Pelagic Cormorant Sp S F W r c r r c r r a r r c r u r u u c c c o Bitterns, Herons and Egrets American Bittern r Least Bittern *Great Blue Heron c *Great Egret c *Snowy Egret c *Little Blue Heron r *Cattle Egret r Green Heron o *Black-crowned Night-Heron c r r c c c r r o c r r c c c r r o c r Pelicans American White Pelican Brown Pelican c c c r r c Ibises and Spoonbills *White-faced Ibis r r Gallinaceous Birds California Quail r r *Ring-necked Pheasant u u Wild Turkey r u r r u r Pigeons and Doves Rock Pigeon *Mourning Dove Eurasian Collared-dove u c u u c u u c u u c u New World Vultures Turkey Vulture c c c c u r c o r r c c o u r o o u o r c u u u u c r c o u o Osprey, Kites, Hawks and Eagles Osprey *White-tailed Kite Bald Eagle *Northern Harrier Sharp-shinned Hawk Cooper’s Hawk Red-shouldered Hawk Osprey, Kites, etc. continued next page Common Name Sp S F W c r r o Sp S F c r r o Pacific-slope Flycatcher u *Black Phoebe u u u Say’s Phoebe o o Ash-throated Flycatcher r Western Kingbird o r r u *Loggerhead Shrike o u o Hutton’s Vireo Warbling Vireo Osprey, Kites, etc. continued *Red-tailed Hawk c c Ferruginous Hawk Rough-legged Hawk r Golden Eagle r r Common Name W u o Shrikes Barn Owls *Barn Owl u Typical Owls Great Horned Owl *Burrowing Owl *Short-eared Owl u u u u u r o o c u c c u c c u c c u c o o o o Vireos o u r o u r o u r o Crows, Jays and Magpies *California Scrub-Jay American Crow *Common Raven c r r c *Horned Lark o o Woodpeckers Red-breasted Sapsucker r Nuttall’s Woodpecker o o o Downy Woodpecker o o Northern Flicker o o o o o Swallows Purple Martin *Tree Swallow u u Violet-green Swallow u Northern Rough-winged Swallow u o Bank Swallow r r *Cliff Swallow a a *Barn Swallow a a Swifts Vaux’s Swift White-throated Swift o o o Hummingbirds *Anna’s Hummingbird c c Rufous Hummingbird r Allen’s Hummingbird Kingfishers Belted Kingfisher o o u u Larks Falcons *American Kestrel u u u u Merlin o u u *Peregrine Falcon u u u u Prairie Falcon r r Tyrant Flycatchers Western Wood-Pewee o Willow Flycatcher o Scaup u r u o c o u r u c r Titmice and Chickadees Chestnut-backed Chickadee o o o Oak Titmouse o r Bushtits *Bushtit c c c c Wrens Rock Wren House Wren *Marsh Wren *Bewick’s Wren r r r c c u u r o c u r r c u Gnatcatchers Blue-gray Gnatcatcher r r Common Name Sp S F W Kinglets Golden-crowned Kinglet Ruby-crowned Kinglet r o u u r u r r Wrentits Wrentit r r Thrushes Western Bluebird o o Swainson’s Thrush o r Hermit Thrush u u American Robin o o o Varied Thrush r o u u r Mimic Thrushes c Starlings *European Starling c c o o u u u u c c c Waxwings Cedar Waxwing c r Old World Sparrows *House Sparrow Wagtails and Pipits American Pipit Finches *House Finch Lesser Goldfinch *American Goldfinch Purple Finch a u u r u a u u r a u u r W Swamp Sparrow r White-throated Sparrow r r White-crowned Sparrow c c Golden-crowned Sparrow c c Dark-eyed Junco r r o r r c c o Blackbirds and Orioles California Thrasher Sage Thrasher r r *Northern Mockingbird c c c c Common Name Sp S F a u u r *Western Meadowlark Hooded Oriole *Bullock’s Oriole *Red-winged Blackbird Tricolored Blackbird Brown-headed Cowbird Brewer’s Blackbird Great-tailed Grackle S Refuge u u o o o o c c o u u u u r r c c r c u u u r c o o u r Wood Warblers Northern Waterthrush r Orange-crowned Warbler o u Nashville Warbler r r *Common Yellowthroat c c c Yellow Warbler o u Blackpoll Warbler r Palm Warbler r Yellow-rumped Warbler c c Townsend’s Warbler r r Wilson’s Warbler u u r r c r c r Tanagers Western Tanager o o Cardinals, Grosbeaks and Allies Black-headed Grosbeak Lazuli Bunting u u r r r Sparrows and Towhees Spotted Towhee o *California Towhee c c c c *Savannah Sparrow c c c c Nelson’s Sparrow r r Fox Sparrow u c u *Song Sparrow a a a a Lincoln’s Sparrow u u u Canada Goose Accidental Species Red-tailed Hawk Yellow Rail Magnificent Frigatebird Sandhill Crane Black Oystercatcher Hudsonian Godwit Bar-tailed Godwit Surfbird Sharp-tailed Sandpiper Curlew Sandpiper Little Stint Buff-breasted Sandpiper Solitary Sandpiper Pigeon Guillemot Ancient Murrelet Black-headed Gull Little Gull Lesser Black-backed Gull Slaty-backed Gull Arctic Tern Brown Booby Glossy Ibis Band-tailed Pigeon Chimney Swift Black-chinned Hummingbird Least Flycatcher Hammond’s Flycatcher Dusky Flycatcher Tropical Kingbird Cassin’s Kingbird Solitary Vireo White Wagtail Yellow-breasted Chat Pine Siskin Chestnut-collared Longspur Chipping Sparrow Clay-colored Sparrow Brewer’s Sparrow Vesper Sparrow Lark Sparrow Bell’s Sparrow American Redstart Magnolia Warbler Black-throated Gray Warbler Notes Snowy Egret © Larry Wade Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge 1 Marshlands Road Fremont, California 94555 510/792 0222 http://www.fws.gov/refuge/don_edwards_san_francisco_bay Follow us on Facebook. http://facebook.com/SanFranciscoBayNWRComplex U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service http://www.fws.gov Refuge Information 1 800/344 WILD September 2017 Printed on 100% recycled paper with a minimum 50% post-consumer fiber content. Black-necked Stilt © Bill Purcell