Old Town San Diego


brochure Old Town San Diego - Brochure
Old Town San Diego State Historic Park Our Mission The mission of California State Parks is to provide for the health, inspiration and education of the people of California by helping to preserve the state’s extraordinary biological diversity, protecting its most valued natural and cultural resources, and creating opportunities for high-quality outdoor recreation. Today’s plaza— the heart of Old Town— recreates the influences of 19th-century Mexican and American California. California State Parks supports equal access. Prior to arrival, visitors with disabilities who need assistance should contact the park at (619) 220-5422. If you need this publication in an alternate format, contact interp@parks.ca.gov. CALIFORNIA STATE PARKS P.O. Box 942896 Sacramento, CA 94296-0001 For information call: (800) 777-0369 (916) 653-6995, outside the U.S. 711, TTY relay service www.parks.ca.gov Old Town San Diego State Historic Park 4002 Wallace Street San Diego, CA 92110 (619) 220-5422 © 2002 California State Parks (Rev. 2016) O ld Town San Diego State Historic Park pays tribute to the cultural influences that make California special. Restored and reconstructed buildings in Old Town San Diego State Historic Park are now museums, shops, and restaurants that capture the energy of the community between 1821 and 1872. The central plaza is lined with buildings — some dating back to the 1820s — that offer a glimpse of the lifestyles of both ordinary residents and the most wealthy and influential. A BRIEF HISTORY Spanish Settlement In 1769 Spanish colonization of Alta California began in San Diego with construction of a military outpost called El Presidio Reál and of Mission San Diego del Alcalá, the first in a chain of 21 California missions. Directed by the Franciscan padres, mission Indians cultivated crops, manufactured blankets and clothing, provided construction labor, and raised livestock. Despite Spain’s orders severely restricting trade with other countries, the Spanish padres exchanged otter skins, cowhides, and tallow for manufactured goods and luxury items from the United States, Europe, and China. Native Americans The Kumeyaay lived on the San Diego River at a village they called Kosa’aay. For thousands of years, the people migrated between ocean and mountains —gathering seafood, acorns, and the necessities of life. Today a native-plant landscape marks part of the territory of that early settlement before arrival of the Kumeyaay Indians drawn by artist Spaniards. At first, with the 1849 U.S. Boundary Commission expedition the Spanish settlers were welcomed by the Kumeyaay, but challenges to traditional ways increasingly affected their lives. Kumeyaay culture proved resilient, and today many Kumeyaay proudly continue their traditions with modern adaptations. The Mexican Period In 1822 a Mexican military command arrived in San Diego. Mexico had gained its independence from Spain the previous year. Living History participants The small settlement initially consisted of the nearby presidio housing a military garrison, the mission six miles inland with its labor force Old Town San Diego, 1846 of Kumeyaay Indians, and the port where ships stopped to trade for supplies. Spanish soldiers began building residences below Presidio Hill in the early 1820s. Sun-dried adobe brick was their traditional building material, since wood was scarce. Soon five houses belonging to the Carrillo (and later Fitch), Ruiz, Ybañez, Serrano, and Marron families became the nucleus of the community. By 1825, the adobes formed a rough but orderly street pattern around an open plaza. Two of the finest structures, begun in 1827 and still standing today, belonged to José Antonio Estudillo and his brother-inlaw, Juan Bandini. Residents and visitors often enjoyed the customs and festivities of San Diego. The open plaza hosted fiestas, bullfights, games of chance, and other amusements that offered the opportunity for betting. States ended in 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, establishing a new boundary between the two countries. James Marshall’s gold discovery at Coloma in January 1848 lured adventurers from around the world. San Diego became an important stopover for miners en route to the gold fields, and immigrants crowded into The American Period available housing. Adobes were San Diego’s Mexican era ended remodeled, and new structures abruptly in 1846, when the United were built. In 1851 prefabricated Commodore States declared war on Mexico. wood-frame buildings, brought by Robert F. Stockton Initially the residents made little ship from New England around Cape resistance to American occupation, but Horn, were assembled in San Diego. the situation eventually turned San Diego Following the Mexican War, California families against one another. Some remained experienced a major political transformation — loyal to Mexico, while others supported a new State Constitution written in 1849 and the United States. The town was occupied statehood in 1850. San Diego was incorporated and won back several times — one major as a city, and new American laws governed battle took place in nearby San Pasqual San Diego. Valley. In 1846 U.S. Navy Commodore The decline of the military presence and Robert F. Stockton captured San Diego. the loss of business related to gold mining The war between Mexico and the United soon turned San Diego into a small, insular community. In the U.S. census of 1860, only seven individuals identified themselves as merchants. Fire was a constant threat, and in the 1860s one misfortune after another struck. The storms of 1861-62 brought high tides and flooding. In May of 1862, a severe earthquake was followed by a smallpox epidemic. Several years of drought devastated Southern California’s ranchos and its cattle industry. In 1867 San Franciscan Alonzo Horton arrived in San Diego to begin building nearby New Town. Old Town enjoyed a slight resurgence in Reproduction of Seeley line mudwagon at the Seeley Stables Museum 1868 when the San Diego Union newspaper began publication there. From 1868 to 1874, Albert Seeley operated a thriving stagecoach line between San Diego and Los Angeles. Gold was discovered in nearby Julian in 1869, creating a need for supplies, services, and housing —  a boon to San Diego’s economy. However, New Town quickly eclipsed the older settlement. Government offices moved to the new community, taking along much of Old Town’s economic base. Hope for Old Town’s revitalization died in the spring of 1872 when fire destroyed seven buildings, including the old courthouse. as “Ramona’s Marriage Place.” Its success at attracting visitors led to the restoration of other buildings, which helped renew interest in San Diego’s Spanish and Mexican roots. Auto touring brought still more visitors, and several buildings were constructed to enhance the old section’s appearance as a “Spanish village” in the 1930s. Old Town San Diego became a State Historic Park in 1968; the process of rediscovering and preserving the historic town began anew. CLIMATE San Diego’s mild temperatures offer ideal visiting conditions year-round. With an average of only ten days of annual rainfall, temperatures vary from the high 60s to the low 80s throughout the year. Coastal fog usually burns off in the afternoons. LIVING HISTORY The history of Old Town San Diego comes to life through its museums, period demonstrations, entertainment, programs, and other activities. Guided walks reveal Old Town’s story, and living history interpreters give faces and voices to the people who shaped the town. Visit some of the oldest buildings and historic sites in California. Restoration In 1907 sugar magnate John D. Spreckels purchased the remains of Casa de Estudillo and began the first efforts to revive Old Town. Public fascination with Helen Hunt Jackson’s romantic novel, Ramona, led to the restoration of Casa de Estudillo, advertised Top: Casa de Estudillo; Bottom: Auto touring, ca.1920s NEARBY STATE PARKS • Torrey Pines State Natural Reserve and State Beach 12600 North Torrey Pines Road San Diego 92037 (858) 755-2063 • Silver Strand State Beach 5000 Highway 75, Coronado 92118 (619) 435-5184 • Tijuana Estuary Natural Preserve / Border Field State Park 301 Caspian Way, Imperial Beach 91932 (619) 575-3613 • San Pasqual Battlefield SHP 15808 San Pasqual Valley Road Escondido 92027 (760) 737-2201 Living History: an educational tour listens to a school teacher from 1865 Today’s plaza remains the heart of Old Town, allowing visitors to discover the lives of those who came before them and to better understand California’s beginnings. This park is supported in part through a nonprofit organization. For more information contact: Boosters of Old Town San Diego State Historic Park, 4002 Wallace Street, San Diego, CA 92110-2743 www.boostersofoldtown.com PLEASE REMEMBER • All natural and cultural features of the park are protected by law and may not be disturbed or removed. • Except for service animals, dogs are not permitted in park buildings. All dogs must be on a six-foot-maximum leash. • Riding bicycles and skateboards is not allowed within the park. • When parking in the area, lock your vehicle and take any valuables with you. • Open containers of alcohol are not permitted in the park. Ja to 8 , San Diego de Alcala Mission (6 miles) n et ee t et re re St St State Historic Park so Old Town San Diego an ck La Casa de Carrillo Ju et Ta y lo rS tr Presidio Hills Golf Course re St re et Lot E 5 O Colorado House (Museum) St Lot D Ju re Corral an St re et 15 Garden 14 7 13 San Diego Union Building (Museum) 9 11 TrimmerDodson Building Sa 12 n hw ic H ig 22 Co ng Di eg o to El Campo Santo Cemetery re ss St re Av en ue Whaley House Museum Lot B et M as on St re et ay Transit Lot et ith P ac if Sm Dodson Law Office 10 Garden re La Casa de Machado y Stewart (Museum) St AY ey W rn E on E Ha St re et 8 as FR Seeley Stable (Museum) PedrorenaAltamirano House M O et G 16 La Casa de Estudillo (Museum) Jail Mason Street School (Museum) re IE La Casa de Bandini/ Cosmopolitan Hotel 6 Pedestrian Underpass D St N Historic Tustin Carriages Windmill (Exhibit) Historic Carriages (Exhibit) Johnson Building ATM First San Diego Courthouse (Museum) Lot A A et St Be ld 4 Blackhawk Livery Stable 17 Flag Cannon Pole La Casa de Machado y Silvas/Commercial Restaurant (Museum) La Casa de Rodriguez/ Racine and Laramie S 19 re gs 3 U. S. House 5 St ig 2 Gardens et Tw ad Ro h ac 1 re re n on 18 ou Plaza de las Armas/ Wa s h i n g t o n S q u a r e San Diego House St as ce la lh al La Casa de Machado y Wrightington et ss St re to Los Angeles Ca W Co ng re Transit Lot Parking and outdoor restrooms are accessible. The park’s seven city blocks have generally accessible pedestrian passages that are closed to private vehicles. Call (619) 220-5422 well in advance to arrange accessible tours. For updates, visit http://access.parks.ca.gov. et et Robinson Rose House (Visitor Information Center) an M re et St Ju La Casa de Alvarado Alvarado Saloon 21 re en et ACCESSIBLE FEATURES 20 Silvas Site St rd re M to Presidio Park and Junipero Serra Museum Transit Center Ga St et re et as St ce St ns la n Lot F McCoy House (Museum) on et St re et ou al Native Landscaping lh W Ca Ta yl or Su 25 50 75 re 300 Feet 100 Meters ig Freeway Streets 6 Cousin’s Candy 7 Threads of the Past: Living History Activity Center 19 RUST General Store 8 Toby’s Candles & Soap 9 El Centro Artesano 20 Fiesta de Reyes Shops & Restaurants Tijuana Estuary NP Border Field SP 11 Gum Saan (Dodson Law Office) (La Casa de Alvarado) 21 Barra Barra Saloon 22 Wallach & Goldman Square Shops & Restaurants to Downtown San Diego ffe re Je Parking et (Trimmer-Dodson Building) Other Building © 2007 California State Parks (Rev. 2016) (Alvarado Saloon) 12 Proper Wellness Emporium 1821-1872 Historic or Reconstructed Building Restrooms (Johnson Building) 18 California Indian Market & Jewelry rs St CA Tijuana MEX 10 Captain Fitch’s Mercantile (La Casa de Bandini) 17 Johnson House on e 805 (Colorado House) 16 Cosmopolitan Hotel & Restaurant St re nd Old Town San Diego SHP Adobe Wall (La Casa de Rodriquez) et Co Cleveland NF Parking Lot Boundary AY 8 Fence W 79 Silver Strand SB Imperial Beach Cuyamaca Rancho SP EE La Jolla San Diego Ramona 67 Rail Line FR 15 Miramar NAS Accessible Pedestrian Path 78 Julian O Torrey Pines SNR San Pasqual Battlefield SHP (Pedrorena-Altamirano House) 15 Old Town Theatre Wells Fargo History Museum G Del Mar 30 Km (San Diego House) 5 IE 5 20 14 Toler’s Leather D Encinitas 10 San Diego House Coffee & Tea Racine & Laramie Tobacco N Pacific Ocean 0 Escondido Cleveland NF 2 Tinsmith (U.S. House) SA 78 20 Mi 13 Miner’s Gems & Minerals (La Casa de Machado y Wrightington) 4 Tw Oceanside 10 Tafoya & Sons 3 Legend 0 (Historical name in parenthesis) 1 gs 0 200 St 5 100 et Concession-Operated Buildings 0 Old Adobe Chapel

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