Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve, part of East Bay Regional Park District. Published by East Bay Regional Park District.
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Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve Common Name Version A Photographic Guide Sorted by Form, Color and Family with Habitat Descriptions and Identification Notes Photographs and text by Wilde Legard District Botanist, East Bay Regional Park District New Revised and Expanded Edition - Includes the latest scientific names, habitat descriptions and identification notes Decimal Inches .1 .2 .3 .4 1/8 1/4 .5 .6 1/2 .7 .8 .9 3/4 1 .5 2 .5 3 .5 4 .5 5 .5 6 .5 7 .5 8 .5 9 1 1/2 2 1/2 3 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 6 1/2 7 1/2 8 1/2 9 English Inches Notes: A Photographic Guide to the Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve More than 2,000 species of native and naturalized plants grow wild in the San Francisco Bay Area. Most are very difficult to identify without the help of good illustrations. This is designed to be a simple, color photo guide to help you identify some of these plants. This guide is published electronically in Adobe Acrobat® format so that it can easily be updated as additional photographs become available. You have permission to freely download, distribute and print this guide for individual use. Photographs are © 2014 Wilde Legard, all rights reserved. In this guide, the included plants are sorted first by form (Ferns & Fern-like, Grasses & Grass-like, Herbaceous, Woody), then by most common flower color, and finally by similar looking flowers (grouped by genus within each family). Each photograph has the following information, separated by '-': COMMON NAME (Scientific Name) Origin & Longevity Family Name (Bloom date range) Habitat ID Characteristics Additional notes Revision: 3/2/2014 According to The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition (JM2) and other references (not standardized). According to JM2 and eFlora (ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html). Native, Naturalized, or Waif (not reproducing without human care). Annual, Biennial, Perennial, or a combination. Common family name according to JM2, Period during the year when the plant blooms, according to JM2 and other sources. '-' if plant does not bloom (ie. Ferns). Habitat description according to JM2 and other sources. Plant description with identification characteristics and other notes, based on multiple sources including: Annotated Checklist of the East Bay Flora, Second Edition (2013), JM2, Plants of the San Francisco Bay Region (Revised Edition), and Weeds of California and Other Western States. Occasionally, an additional note may appear (ie. NOXIOUS weed, INVASIVE weed, Fed & Calif. ENDANGERED, etc.). Fern-like - Green/Brown BRACKEN FERN (Pteridium aquilinum var. pubescens) Native Perennial - Bracken Family - - Pastures, woodland, meadows, hillsides, partial to full sun - Leaf blades widely-triangular, gen 0.5-5' long, gen 3x divided, hairy underneath. Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family GOLDENBACK FERN (Pentagramma triangularis subsp. triangularis) Native Perennial - Brake Fern Family - - - Gen shaded, sometimes rocky or wooded areas - Leaves triangular, 1.2-4" long, undersides either granular green or powdery gold. SMOOTH SCOURING RUSH (Equisetum laevigatum) Native Perennial - Horsetail Family - - Moist, sandy or gravelly areas - Stems 1 kind only, 12-71" tall, unbranched. Sheath w/dark band only at the top. Page 1 POLYPODY FERN (Polypodium calirhiza) Native Perennial - Polypody Family - - - On plants, rocky cliffs or outcrops, roadcuts, often granitic or volcanic, rarely dunes - Leaf blades 4-8" long, often widest above base, deeply lobed. Revision: 3/2/2014 Fern-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 2 COASTAL WOOD FERN (Dryopteris arguta) Native Perennial - Wood Fern Family - - - Locally common. Open, wooded slopes, caves - Leaf 12-24” long,5-12” wide, divided 1-2 times. Segments generally with spine-tipped teeth. SILVER HAIR GRASS (Aira caryophyllea) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jun) Sandy soils, open or disturbed sites - Flower cluster > 0.6" wide, diffuse with long slender branches. Spikelets about 0.1" long with 2 extended awns. SLENDER WILD OAT (Avena barbata) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Mar–Jun) Disturbed sites - Plants gen 24-32". Spikelets 0.8-1.2" long. Awns 0.8-1.8" long. Lemma tip bristles >= 0.1" long. Seeds EDIBLE whole or ground for flour. INVASIVE weed. LITTLE QUAKING GRASS (Briza minor) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) Shaded or moist, open sites - Stem 3-20” tall. Spikelets 0.1-0.2” long, resemble tiny rattlesnake rattles. CALIFORNIA BROME (Bromus carinatus var. carinatus) Native Perennial - Grass Family (Apr–Aug) - Coastal prairies, openings in chaparral, plains, open oak and pine woodland -Plant 20-40” tall. Flower cluster 6-16” long. Spikelet 0.8-1.6” long. Lemma 0.5-0.8” long, hairy, awn 0.3-0.6” long. RIPGUT GRASS (Bromus diandrus) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) - Open, gen disturbed areas - Plant 6-40" tall. Spikelet 1-2.8" long. Lemma body 0.8-1.2" long, awn > 1.2" long. Barbed seeds can stick in flesh of animals. INVASIVE weed. SOFT CHESS (Bromus hordeaceus) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) - Fields, disturbed areas - Plant 4-26” tall. Leaf hairy. Flower cluster 1-5” long, dense, some stalks > spikelet. Spikelet 0.5-0.9”. Lemma 0.26-0.4”, awn 0.16-0.4”. INVASIVE weed. FOXTAIL CHESS (Bromus madritensis subsp. madritensis) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Apr–Jan) - Disturbed areas, roadsides - Plants 4-20" tall. Stem and sheathes smooth. Flower cluster branches visible, lower spikelets erect, > stalk. Revision: 3/2/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 3 BRISTLY DOGTAIL GRASS (Cynosurus echinatus) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (May–Jul) - Open, disturbed sites - Tufted. Stem 4-28” long. Leaf blade 0.1-0.6” wide. Flower cluster 0.4-1.6” long, 1-sided. Fertile and sterile spikelets. INVASIVE weed. WESTERN WILD-RYE (Elymus glaucus subsp. glaucus) Native Perennial - Grass Family (Jun–Aug) - Open areas, chaparral, woodland, forest - Tufted. Stem 12-55" tall. Leaf 0.2-0.5" wide, flat. Spikelets0.3-0.6" long, 2-4 per node. Lemma awn 0.4-1.2" long. BROME FESCUE (Festuca bromoides) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (May–Jun) Uncommon. Dry, disturbed places, coastal-sage scrub, chaparral - Stem < 20". Inflor 0.6-6" tall, dense, lower branches erect. Spikelet 0.2-0.4" long, awn 0.1-0.3" long. RYE GRASS (Festuca perennis) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family - (May–Sep) - Dry to moist disturbed sites, abandoned fields - Stem 20-40" tall. Spikelet 0.2-0.9" long, > glume, awned or awnless. Sterile shoots at base. INVASIVE weed. NORTHERN BARLEY (Hordeum brachyantherum subsp. brachyantherum) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (May–Aug) Meadows, pastures, streambanks - Stem 1-3' tall, gen robust. Leaf sheaths gen smooth, blade < 7.5" long. Lemma awn < 0.25". MEDITERRANEAN BARLEY (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum) Naturalized Annual Grass Family - (Apr–Jun) - Dry to moist, disturbed sites - Stem 4-20". Leaf blades to 32" long, auricles < 0.08". Central lemma awn 0.25-0.7" long. INVASIVE weed. HARE BARLEY (Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Feb–May) - Moist, gen disturbed sites. Common - Stem 12-43" tall. Central spikelet stalk ~0.06" long. Central floret << lateral florets. INVASIVE weed. WALL BARLEY (Hordeum murinum subsp. murinum) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Feb–May) - Moist, gen disturbed sites - Stem 1-2'. Leaf auricles notable. Central spikelet stalk 0-0.02". Central floret gen = lateral florets. INVASIVE weed. Revision: 3/2/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 4 CALIFORNIA MELIC (Melica californica) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Apr–May) - Open or rocky hillsides, oak woodland, conifer forest Stem 16-55". Leaf 0.06-0.2" wide. Spiklet 0.2-0.6" long, w/3-7 fertile florets; sterile tip widest above middle, tip squared. TORREY'S MELIC (Melica torreyana) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Mar–Jun) - Chaparral, conifer forest - Stem 12-40" tall. Leaf blade 0.04-0.1" wide. Spikelet 0.14-0.28" long w/1-2 florets; sterile tip widest above middle to 0.06", short-hairy lemmas. ANNUAL BLUE GRASS (Poa annua) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Feb–Sep) - Abundant. Disturbed moist ground - Plant 1-8” tall. Leaf blade 0.04-0.12” wide, soft. Flower cluster 0.4-4” long, triangular. Lemmas 0.1-0.16” long. ONE-SIDED BLUE GRASS (Poa secunda subsp. secunda) Native Perennial - Grass Family (Mar–Aug) - Common. Dry slopes to saline/alkaline meadows to alpine - Plant 6-40” tall, densely tufted. Flower clusters congested. Spikelets gen 0.3-0.4” long. Lemmas 0.16-0.2” long, backs rounded. PURPLE NEEDLE GRASS (Stipa pulchra) Native Perennial - Grass Family - (Mar–Jun) - Oak woodland, chaparral, grassland - Stem 14-39" long. Leaf blade 4-8" long. Glumes 0.5-0.8" long, ~equal. Awn 1.6-4" long, last segment straight. CLUSTERED TOAD RUSH (Juncus bufonius var. congestus) Native Annual - Rush Family (Apr–Aug) - Drying pools, shores, disturbed ground, gen saline - Stem 1-4" tall, gen brached from base, ~0.04" wide. Flower cluster crowded. Flowers 0.2-0.3" long. SPREADING RUSH (Juncus patens) Native Perennial - Rush Family - (Jun–Oct) - Marshy places, creeks, seeps - Plant 12-41" tall, densely tufted. Stems blue-gray-green & distinctly grooved when fresh. Stamens 6. COMMON SPIKERUSH (Eleocharis macrostachya) Native Perennial - Sedge Family (Spring–summer) - Common. Fresh to brackish wetland - Stem 8-39" tall, 0.06-0.1" wide. Spikelet 0.2-1.6" long, 0.08-0.2" wide, style 2-branched. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 5 GRAND HOUND'S TONGUE (Cynoglossum grande) Native Perennial - Borage Family (Feb–May) - Chaparral, woodland - Stem 1-3'. Leaf stalk 3-6". Leaf blade 3-6" cm long, broadly oval. Flowers bright blue w/inner white teeth. CALIFORNIA PHACELIA (Phacelia californica) Native Perennial - Borage Family - (Mar–Sep) Bluffs, open slopes, road cuts, chaparral, woodland - Plant tufted, stiff-hairy. Leaves gen pinnate w/big terminal leaflet. Flowers 0.16-0.28" long, lavender. BLUE DICKS (Dichelostemma capitatum subsp. capitatum) Native Perennial - Brodiaea Family (Mar–Jun) - Open woodland, scrub, desert, grassland - Plant 2-28" tall. Flowers blue-purple, not narrowed in the middle. Stamens 6. Early spring bloomer. ITHURIEL'S SPEAR (Triteleia laxa) Native Perennial - Brodiaea Family - (Apr–Jun) Common. Open forest, conifer or foothill woodland, grassland on clay soil - Flower stem 4-28". Leaves 8-16", 0.16-1" wide. Flowers blue, blue-purple or white, 0.7-1.9" long. MEDITERRANEAN LINSEED (Bellardia trixago) Naturalized Annual - Broom-rape Family (Apr–Jun) - Disturbed grassland. - Plant sticky-hairy. Stem 6-32" tall. Leaves lance-shaped, toothed. Flowers 0.8-1" long, 2-lipped: upper lip pink, lower lip white. INVASIVE. PURPLE OWL'S-CLOVER (Castilleja exserta subsp. exserta) Native Annual - Broom-rape Family - (Mar–May) - Open fields, grassland Plant sticky, short-hairy. Flower cluster tipped white, pale yellow or rose. Flower upper lip hooked, fuzzy. GIANT TRILLIUM (Trillium chloropetalum) Native Perennial - Bunchflower Family - (Apr–May) Edges of redwood forest, chaparral, gen moist slopes, canyon banks in alluvial soils - Flowers dark purple to white, sessile. Petals 2.6-4" long, odor rose-like or spicy. PURPLE SANICLE (Sanicula bipinnatifida) Native Perennial - Carrot Family - (Mar–May) Open grassland, gen on serpentine, or pine/oak woodland - Plant 5-24" tall. Leaves 1.6-7.5" long, 1-2x divided on a winged central axis. Flowers dark purple. Fruits prickly. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 6 FOUR-SPOT (Clarkia purpurea subsp. quadrivulnera) Native Annual - Evening Primrose Family - (Apr–Aug) - Common. Open, grassy or shrubby places - Buds erect. Petals < 0.6", lavender to dark red. Ovary 8-grooved. Sepals 1's or 2's. COMMON WILLOWHERB (Epilobium ciliatum subsp. ciliatum) Native Perennial - Evening Primrose Family - (Jun–Oct) - Common. Disturbed places, moist meadows, streambanks, roadsides - Plant 20-48" tall, smooth or short-hairy. Petals 2-6 mm, white to pink. LONG-BEAKED FILAREE (Erodium botrys) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Mar–Jul) - Dry, open or disturbed sites - Stem 4-35" tall, coarse-hairy. Leaves lobed. Petals pink, 0.3-0.5" long. Sepals w/reddish tip. Fruit beak 2-4.7" long. REDSTEM FILAREE (Erodium cicutarium) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Feb–Sep) - Open, disturbed sites, grassland, scrub - Stem 4-20". Leaves compound, leaflets dissected. Sepal tip bristly. Petal pink to purple. Fruit beak 0.8-2". INVASIVE. GREENSTEM FILAREE (Erodium moschatum) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Feb–Sep) - Open, disturbed sites - Stem 4-24", short-hairy. Leaves compound, leaflets toothed. Sepal tip glabrous. Petals 0.4-0.6" long, pink. Fruit beak 0.8-1.6" long. CUT-LEAVED GERANIUM (Geranium dissectum) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family - (Mar–Jul) - Open, disturbed sites - Stem 3-28" tall, rough-hairy. Leaf blades deeply divided. Petals violet-red, 0.1-0.25" long w/notched tips. Flower stalk sticky. INVASIVE. HAIRY DOVE'S FOOT GERANIUM (Geranium molle) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Feb–Aug) - Open to shaded sites, disturbed ground - Stem 4-17" tall. Petals red-purple, 0.1-0.4" long, notched. Sepals awnless. Fruit smooth, wrinkled. WESTERN BLUE-EYED-GRASS (Sisyrinchium bellum) Native Perennial - Iris Family (Mar–May) - Common. Open, gen moist, grassy areas, woodland - Stem < 25" tall. Leaves iris-like. Petals 6, blue-purple with dark veins, 0.4-0.7" long. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 7 CALIFORNIA LOOSESTRIFE (Lythrum californicum) Native Perennial - Loosestrife Family - (Apr–Sep) - Marshes, pond and stream margins - Stem 8-24" tall. Leaves 0.4-2.8" long, gray-smooth, linear. Petals purple, 0.2-0.3" long; 2 style forms. BULL MALLOW (Malva nicaeensis) Naturalized Annual - Mallow Family - (Mar–Jun) - Disturbed places - Stem 0.7-2'. Leaf blade 1.2-4.7" wide, 5-7 shallow lobes. Bractlets egg-shaped,0.16-0.2" long. Petals pink to blue-violet, 0.2-0.5" long. COYOTE-MINT (Monardella villosa subsp. villosa) Native Perennial - Mint Family (May–Aug) - Dry rocky slopes, oak woods, chaparral - Plant < 20" tall. Leaves ovate, 0.4-0.9" mm long. Flower head 0.4-1.2" wide. Flowers pink to purple. CHIA (Salvia columbariae) Native Annual - Mint Family - (Mar–Jun) - Dry, disturbed sites, chaparral, coastal-sage scrub - Plant 4-20" tall. Leaf 0.8-4" long, many 2x divided. Flower cluster head-like, 1-2 on bare stem. Flowers blue, tubes 6-8 mm long. PACIFIC PEA (Lathyrus vestitus var. vestitus) Native Perennial - Pea Family - (Feb–Jul) - North: Conifer forest. South: chaparral & oak woodland Stem wings to 0.02" wide. Leaves gen elliptic. Flowers 0.5-0.7" long, pale lavender to purple. MINIATURE LUPINE (Lupinus bicolor) Native Annual - Pea Family - (Mar–Jun) - Abundant. Open or disturbed areas - Plant 4-16", hairy. Flower 0.16-0.4" long, banner longer than wide, upper keel ciliate near tip, pedicel < 0.12". Fruit 0.12-0.24" wide. CHICK LUPINE (Lupinus microcarpus var. microcarpus) Native Annual - Pea Family (Mar–Jun) - Abundant. Open or disturbed areas, occ seeded on roadbanks - Plant 4-32", hairy. Leaves smooth above. Flowers gen pink to purple. Flower bracts shaggy. PINPOINT CLOVER (Trifolium gracilentum) Native Annual - Pea Family - (Mar–Jun) - Open, disturbed places, occas serpentine - Leaflet tips not deep-notched. Reflexed pink-purple flowers w/point. Flower bracts completely smooth. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 8 ROSE CLOVER (Trifolium hirtum) Naturalized Annual - Pea Family - (Apr–May) - Disturbed areas, roadsides - Head with 1-2 bract-like leaves immed below. Flowers pink, 0.4-0.6" long, densely-bristly in fruit. INVASIVE weed. TOMCAT CLOVER (Trifolium willdenovii) Native Annual - Pea Family - (Mar–Jun) - Abundant. Disturbed, gen spring-moist, heavy soils, occas serpentine - Head bract wheel-shaped, sharp-lobed. Leaf narrow. Flowers purple w/white tip, 0.3-0.6" long. SPRING VETCH (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa) Naturalized Annual - Pea Family - (Mar–Jun) Roadsides, disturbed areas, grassland, open areas in oak and riparian woodlands - Flowers 1-2 at leaf bases, pink-purple to white, 0.7-1.2" long. Leaflets 0.16-0.4" wide. CALIFORNIA GILIA (Gilia achilleifolia subsp. achilleifolia) Native Annual - Phlox Family (Mar–Jun) - Open or shaded, gen grassy places, sandy or rocky soil - Leaves linear-lobed. Flowers lavender, 0.4-0.8" long, throat > tube, 8-25 in hemispheric head. BIRD'S-EYE GILIA (Gilia tricolor subsp. tricolor) Native Annual - Phlox Family - (Mar–May) Open, grassland, hills, valleys - Stem 3-15" tall, many branched. Flowers not in heads. Petals 0.4-0.75" long, throat yellow w/purple spots merged into ring. WATER SPEEDWELL (Veronica anagallis-aquatica) Naturalized Perennial Plantain Family - (May–Sep) - Wet meadows, streambanks, slow streams - Stem 4-24" long. Leaves 0.8-3.1" long, gen stemless. Petals lavender to blue, violet-lined,0.2-0.4" long. PADRE SHOOTING STAR (Dodecatheon clevelandii subsp. patulum) Native Perennial Primrose Family - (Mar–May) - Moist places, often on serpentine or in ± alkaline sites - Leaf blade length >2x width. Flowers often white. Filiment tube w/light spots below anthers. MOSQUITOBILLS SHOOTING STAR (Dodecatheon hendersonii) Native Perennial Primrose Family - (Mar–Jul) - Gen in shady sites - Leaf blade length generally <2x width. Flower parts 4s or 5s. Filament tube solid black. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 9 ITALIAN THISTLE (Carduus pycnocephalus subsp. pycnocephalus) Naturalized Annual Sunflower Family - (Mar–Jul) - Roadsides, pastures, disturbed areas - Stems 8-79", narrow spiny-wings. Lower leaves 4-10 lobed, heads 2-5, flower bracts woolly. NOXIOUS. BULL THISTLE (Cirsium vulgare) Naturalized Biennial - Sunflower Family - (May–Oct) Common. Disturbed areas - Plant 12-79" tall. Top of leaves bristly; leaf base forming decurrent wings on stem. Flowers purple, gen 1-2" wide. NOXIOUS weed. ARTICHOKE THISTLE (Cynara cardunculus subsp. flavescens) Naturalized Perennial Sunflower Family - (Apr–Jul) - Disturbed places Plant 1.6-8' tall. Artichoke head 1.6-6" diam, spine-tipped. Flowers blue or purple, 1.2-2" long. NOXIOUS weed. MILK THISTLE (Silybum marianum) Naturalized Annual-Biennial - Sunflower Family - (Feb–Jun) Roadsides, pastures, disturbed areas - Stem 1-10', stout. Leaves spiny, shiny green w/white veins and spots. Flowers red-purple. INVASIVE weed. CURLY DOCK (Rumex crispus) Naturalized Perennial - Buckwheat Family - (All year) Abundant. Disturbed places - Stem 16-39" tall. Flower cluster dense, valves 0.2-0.24", winged around tubercles, smooth edged. 1 tubercle enlarged. INVASIVE. FIDDLE DOCK (Rumex pulcher) Naturalized Perennial - Buckwheat Family - (May–Sep) Disturbed places, meadows, moist or dry habitats - Stem 8-24" long, branches widely spreading. Leaf blades 1.6-4" long, 1.2-2" wide. Valves w/2-5 teeth. HOARY NETTLE (Urtica dioica subsp. holosericea) Native Perennial - Nettle Family (Jun–Sep) - Meadows, seeps, springs, margins of marshes, streams, lakes, moist areas in chaparral, coastal scrub - Plant 3.3-9.8' tall, grayish, covered with stinging hairs. MUGWORT (Artemisia douglasiana) Native Perennial - Sunflower Family - (May–Nov) Common. Open to shady areas, often in drainages - Plant 20-60" tall. Leaves gen 0.4-4" long, densely hairy below, some 3-5 lobed. Flower bracts hairy. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Red/Orange Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 10 COMMON FIDDLENECK (Amsinckia intermedia) Native Annual - Borage Family - (Mar–Jun) Abundant. Open, generally disturbed places Plant 0.5-3' tall. Flowers orange with 5 red spots, 0.3-0.4" long, 0.2-0.4" wide, tube straight. COMMON INDIAN PAINTBRUSH (Castilleja affinis subsp. affinis) Native Perennial Broom-rape Family - (Mar–Jun) - Chaparral, coastal scrub - Plants 6-24" tall, gen bristly, non-sticky. Leaves 1-3", lance-shaped, 0-5 lobes. Flower cluster open, red to orange-red. SHEEP SORREL (Rumex acetosella) Naturalized Perennial - Buckwheat Family - (Apr–Jul) - ± Disturbed, often acidic places - Stem < 16". Leaf gen basal, blade 0.8-2.4" long, lower arrowhead-shaped w/2 lobes. Flowers yellowish, turn reddish. INVASIVE. CRIMSON COLUMBINE (Aquilegia formosa) Native Perennial - Buttercup Family - (Apr–Sep) Streambanks, seeps, moist places, chaparral, oak woodland, mixed-evergreen or conifer forests - Flowers about 2" long, yellow with red sepals & spurs. CALIFORNIA FUCHSIA (Epilobium canum subsp. canum) Native Perennial - Evening Primrose Family - (Jun–Dec) - Dry slopes, ridges - Plant hairy, gen sticky with a woody base. Leaf 0.3-2.8" long, gray to green. Flowers red-orange, floral tube 0.8-1.2" long. SCARLET PIMPERNEL (Anagallis arvensis) Naturalized Annual - Myrsine Family - (Mar–May) - Common. Disturbed places, ocean beaches Plants 2-16" tall. Flowers 0.2-0.3" long, salmon or occasionally blue. Leaves TOXIC, can cause dermititis. CALIFORNIA POPPY (Eschscholzia californica) Native Perennial - Poppy Family - (Feb–Sep) Grassy, open areas - Plant 2-24" tall. Flower w/spreading rim <= 0.2". Petals 0.8-2.4" long, early spring = large and orange, fall = smaller and yellow. CALIFORNIA FIGWORT (Scrophularia californica) Native Perennial - Snapdragon Family - (Mar–Jul) - Common; damp places, chaparral, roadsides - Stem 2.6-4' tall, square x-section. Leaves opposite, to 7" long, triangular, toothed. Flowers 0.3-0.5" long, upper lips red to maroon, lower paler or yellowish. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - White Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 11 VARIABLE-LEAF NEMOPHILA (Nemophila heterophylla) Native Annual - Borage Family (Feb–Jun) - Common. Forest, chaparral, roadsides, streambanks - Flower 0.1-0.4" long, unspotted, bract appendages < 0.04" long in fruit. COMMON PHACELIA (Phacelia distans) Native Annual - Borage Family - (Mar–May) - Common. Clay to rocky soils, slopes - Plant 6-32" tall. Leaves divided. Flowers 0.24-0.35" long, dirty white. Seeds 2-4. BUR-CHERVIL (Anthriscus caucalis) Naturalized Annual - Carrot Family - (Apr–Jun) - Generally shady places - Plant 18-40" tall. Flowers white; flower stalk >= fruit length. Fruits 0.1-0.2" long with curved "velcro" bristles. Leaves fern-like, triangular outline. POISON HEMLOCK (Conium maculatum) Naturalized Biennial - Carrot Family - (Apr–Jul) Common. Moist, esp disturbed places - Plants 2-10' tall. Stems purple-spotted. Leaves fern-like, gen 2x divided. Flowers white. TOXIC. INVASIVE weed. COW PARSNIP (Heracleum maximum) Native Perennial - Carrot Family - (Apr–Jul) - Moist places, wooded or open - Plants 1-3 m tall, woolly-hairy. Leaflets 3, maple-lobed, 4-16" wide. Petals white, outermost longest. Juice causes dermatitis. SWEET-CICELY (Osmorhiza berteroi) Perennial - Carrot Family - (Apr–Jul) forest, woodland, disturbed areas - Plant Leaflets in 3s, serrate to irreg lobed. white. Fruit 0.5-1", upward pointing splitting apart below. VENUS' NEEDLE (Scandix pecten-veneris) Naturalized Annual - Carrot Family - (Apr–Jun) Grassy slopes, roadsides - Plant 6-20" tall. Leaf segments finely divided, linear. Flowers white, outer petals larger. Fruit 0.2-1" long with a beak 0.8-2.8" long. WAVYLEAF SOAP PLANT (Chlorogalum pomeridianum var. pomeridianum) Native Perennial - Century Plant Family - (May–Aug) Common. Open grassland, chaparral, woodland Plant 1-8' tall, flowers at night. Bulb juices lather in water. Native Conifer 12-47". Flower barbs, Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - White Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 12 CALIFORNIA MAN-ROOT (Marah fabacea) Native Perennial - Gourd Family - (Feb–Apr) Streamsides, washes, shrubby open areas - Vine 6-20' long. Leaves moderately lobed. Flowers cream or white, < 0.3" wide. Fruit spiny all over. GOOSE GRASS (Galium aparine) Native Annual - Madder Family - (Apr–Jun) - Grassy, ± shady places - Stem 12-35" long, weak, brittle. Leaves 0.5-1.6" long, in whorls of 6-8. Flowers white, 4-lobed. Fruits covered w/short, hooked hairs. COMMON PALE CLAYTONIA (Claytonia exigua subsp. exigua) Native Annual - Miner's Lettuce Family - (Apr–Jul) - Dry or moist, disturbed bare clay to sandy soils, often serpentine - Stem leaf free or fused. Petals 0.1-0.2", white or pink. Seeds dull w/appendage. SHORTSTEM MORNING-GLORY (Calystegia subacaulis subsp. subacaulis) Native Perennial Morning-glory Family - (Apr–Jun) - Dry, open scrub or woodland - Stem gen ~0.8" long. Flowers 1.3-2.4" long, white or cream. Bractlets concealing flower bracts. MILK MAIDS (Cardamine californica) Native Perennial - Mustard Family - (Jan–May) - Gen shaded sites, canyons, woodland. One of first spring flowers - Stem 10-24" long. Leaves lobed to compound w/sharp teeth. Petals white or pale rose, 0.3-0.5" long. WATER CRESS (Nasturtium officinale) Native Perennial - Mustard Family - (Mar–Nov) Streams, springs, marshes, lake margins, swamps - Stem 4-43" long. Leaflets 3-9, 0.3-1" wide. Petals white, 0.12-0.18" long. EDIBLE leaves. CALIFORNIA TEA (Rupertia physodes) Native Perennial - Pea Family - (May–Sep) - Woodland Stem ~1.6'. Leaflets 3, triangular to lance-shaped, 1.4-2.8" long, sticky. Flower bracts not hairy, lobes =. Flowers white or yellow, banner 0.4-0.55" long. SUBTERRANEAN CLOVER (Trifolium subterraneum) Naturalized Annual - Pea Family (Mar–Apr) - Meadows, roadsides, disturbed areas - Plant hairy, creeping. Leaflets 0.4-0.6" long. Head 0.4" wide. Flowers white, 0.3-0.55" long, fruit in a bur. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - White Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 13 BICOLOR LEPTOSIPHON (Leptosiphon bicolor) Native Annual - Phlox Family - (Mar–Jun) Common. Open, grassy areas, chaparral, woodland - Plant 0.8-8.3" tall, hairy. Flower lobes ~0.1" long, pink or white; tube red; stigma <=0.02" long. STICKY MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED (Cerastium glomeratum) Naturalized Annual - Pink Family (Spring) - Dry hillsides, grassland, chaparral, disturbed areas - Flowers 0.1-02" long, white, sticky-hairy. Flower bract hairs extend beyond tip; bracts herbaceous. SMALL-FLOWER CATCHFLY (Silene gallica) Naturalized Annual - Pink Family - (Spring–early summer) - Fields, disturbed areas - Plant 4-16". Leaves < 1.4" long. Flower cluster short-hairy, bracts sticky-hairy, petal blade 0.2-0.5" long, smooth to notched, white to pink. COMMON CHICKWEED (Stellaria media) Naturalized Annual - Pink Family - (Feb–Sep) Oak woodland, meadows, disturbed areas - Plant 2.8-20" tall. Stem w/line of hairs on 1 side. Sepals 0.12-0.18" long. Petals white, 2-lobed, 0.7-0.9x sepals. STICKY CINQUEFOIL (Drymocallis glandulosa var. wrangelliana) Native Perennial - Rose Family - (May–Jul) - Gen ± shady or moist areas - Stem 8-28". Flower 0.2-0.25" long, pale yellow to cream. Terminal leaflet distinct, unlobed. WOODLAND STAR (Lithophragma affine) Native Perennial - Saxifrage Family - (Mar–Apr) - Open, grassy slopes - Plant 4-24" tall. Leaves w/3-5 sharp-toothed shallow lobes, stem leaves alternate. Petals 0.2-0.5" long, white. Hypanthium funnel-shaped. CALIFORNIA SAXIFRAGE (Micranthes californica) Native Perennial - Saxifrage Family (Feb–May(Jun)) - Moist, shady places - Plant 6-14" tall. Leaves 1.6-4" long, at base, egg-shaped, >= 0.08" wide, toothed. Petals white, 0.1-0.18" long. YARROW (Achillea millefolium) Native Perennial - Sunflower Family - (Apr–Sep) - Many habitats Plant 4"-7' tall. Stem white-hairy. Leaves finely dissected. Flower cluster flat-topped. Flowers white to pink. Widely used in folk medicine. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - White Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 14 COMMON CALIFORNIA-ASTER (Corethrogyne filaginifolia) Native Perennial - Sunflower Family (Jul–Nov) - Coastal scrub, chaparral, grassland, foothill woodland, forest - Heads 3-20+, calyx length 2x width. Rays white to pink-purple. PHILADELPHIA FLEABANE (Erigeron philadelphicus var. philadelphicus) Native Biennial-Perennial - Sunflower Family (May–Jun) - Streamsides, other moist habitats Plant 10-32" tall. Disk yellow. Rays 150-400, narrow, white to pink. Leaves clasping. CALIFORNIA BUTTERCUP (Ranunculus californicus var. californicus) Native Perennial Buttercup Family - (Mar–Aug) - Grassland, open woodland - Petals 9-17, 0.28-0.55" long, often > 2x width. Fruit body 0.07-0.13" long, 0.05-0.09" wide, smooth. FOOTHILL MEADOW-RUE (Thalictrum fendleri var. polycarpum) Native Perennial - Buttercup Family - (Mar–Jun) - Moist, open to shaded places, woodland, forest - Plant 2-6'+ tall, male or female. Leaf 1-4x divided, 3-18" long, segments 0.3-0.8" long. No petals. BLADDER PARSNIP (Lomatium utriculatum) Native Perennial - Carrot Family - (Feb–May) Open grassy slopes, meadows, woodland - Plant 4-20" tall, leafy stem. Leaf lobes linear, bases broad. Flowers bright yellow above unfused, round bractlets. Fruit winged. PACIFIC WOODLAND SANICLE (Sanicula crassicaulis) Native Perennial - Carrot Family (Mar–May) - Open slopes, ravines, woodland Plants stout, 9-47". Leaves 1-5" across with 3-5 deep, palmate lobes and serrate edges. Flowers yellow. GOLDEN MONKEYFLOWER (Mimulus guttatus) Native Perennial - Lopseed Family - (Mar–Aug) Common. Wet places, gen terrestrial, occ emergent or floating in mats - Plant 0.8-60". Flower yellow, gen > 0.8" long; mature bracts flattened sideways, inflated in fruit. CLIMBING BEDSTRAW (Galium porrigens var. porrigens) Native Perennial - Madder Family (May–Aug) - Among shrubs in chaparral, forest Stem 4-59" long. Leaves 0.1-0.7" long, oval to egg-shaped, in whorls of 4. Flowers yellow to red, 4-lobed. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Yellow Wild Plants of Mission Peak Regional Preserve - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 15 ERECT-POD WINTER CRESS (Barbarea orthoceras) Native Perennial - Mustard Family (Mar–Jul) - Meadows, streambanks, moist woodland, grassland - Stem 8-24". Lower leaves w/large terminal lobe, upper clasping stem. Petals bright yellow, 0.2-0.3" long. BLACK MUSTARD (Brassica nigra) Naturalized Annual - Mustard Family - (Apr–Sep) - Common. Disturbed areas, fields - Plant 1-6' tall. Petals bright yellow, 0.3-0.4" long. Fruit upright, pressed against stem. INVASIVE weed. SHORTPOD MUSTARD (Hirschfeldia incana) Naturalized Biennial-Perennial - Mustard Family (Apr–Oct) - Disturbed areas - Stem 16-60". Longest leaves 1.6-4" long, dense-hairy. Petals pale yellow, ~0.2" long. Fruit appressed. Fall-blooming. INVASIVE. CHARLOCK (Sinapis arvensis) Naturalized Annual - Mustard Family - (Mar–Sep) - Disturbed areas - Stem 8-39", no rosette. Leaves coarse. Petals 0.35-0.47" long, yellow. Fruit 0.8-1.8", ascending, beak 0.24-0.47" long w/fat base. 3-7 valve veins. INVASIVE weed. HEDGE MUSTARD (Sisymbrium officinale) Naturalized Annual - Mustard Family - (Apr–Sep) - Disturbed areas, fields, pastures - Stem 10-22" tall, thin, wiry. Petals 0.1-0.16" long, pale yellow. Fruit 0.4-0.55" long, awl-shaped, appressed. BERMUDA BUTTERCUP (Oxalis pes-caprae) Natu