Wild Plants

brochure Ardenwood - Wild Plants

Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm and Lake Chabot Regional Park, parts of East Bay Regional Park District. Published by East Bay Regional Park District.

Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm Common Name Version A Photographic Guide Sorted by Form, Color and Family with Habitat Descriptions and Identification Notes Photographs and text by Wilde Legard District Botanist, East Bay Regional Park District New Revised and Expanded Edition - Includes the latest scientific names, habitat descriptions and identification notes Decimal Inches .1 .2 .3 .4 1/8 1/4 .5 .6 1/2 .7 .8 .9 3/4 1 .5 2 .5 3 .5 4 .5 5 .5 6 .5 7 .5 8 .5 9 1 1/2 2 1/2 3 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 6 1/2 7 1/2 8 1/2 9 English Inches Notes: A Photographic Guide to the Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm More than 2,000 species of native and naturalized plants grow wild in the San Francisco Bay Area. Most are very difficult to identify without the help of good illustrations. This is designed to be a simple, color photo guide to help you identify some of these plants. This guide is published electronically in Adobe Acrobat® format so that it can easily be updated as additional photographs become available. You have permission to freely download, distribute and print this guide for individual use. Photographs are © 2014 Wilde Legard, all rights reserved. In this guide, the included plants are sorted first by form (Ferns & Fern-like, Grasses & Grass-like, Herbaceous, Woody), then by most common flower color, and finally by similar looking flowers (grouped by genus within each family). Each photograph has the following information, separated by '-': COMMON NAME (Scientific Name) Origin & Longevity Family Name (Bloom date range) Habitat ID Characteristics Additional notes Revision: 3/2/2014 According to The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California, Second Edition (JM2) and other references (not standardized). According to JM2 and eFlora ( Native, Naturalized, or Waif (not reproducing without human care). Annual, Biennial, Perennial, or a combination. Common family name according to JM2, Period during the year when the plant blooms, according to JM2 and other sources. '-' if plant does not bloom (ie. Ferns). Habitat description according to JM2 and other sources. Plant description with identification characteristics and other notes, based on multiple sources including: Annotated Checklist of the East Bay Flora, Second Edition (2013), JM2, Plants of the San Francisco Bay Region (Revised Edition), and Weeds of California and Other Western States. Occasionally, an additional note may appear (ie. NOXIOUS weed, INVASIVE weed, Fed & Calif. ENDANGERED, etc.). Grass-like - Green/Brown SLENDER WILD OAT (Avena barbata) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Mar–Jun) Disturbed sites - Plants gen 24-32". Spikelets 0.8-1.2" long. Awns 0.8-1.8" long. Lemma tip bristles >= 0.1" long. Seeds EDIBLE whole or ground for flour. INVASIVE weed. Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family WILD OAT (Avena fatua) Naturalized Annual Grass Family - (Apr–Jun) - Disturbed sites Plants 1-5' tall. Spikelets 0.7-1.3" long. Low awn 1-1.6" long. Lemma tip bristles < 0.04" long. Seeds EDIBLE whole or ground for flour. INVASIVE weed. CALIFORNIA BROME (Bromus carinatus var. carinatus) Native Perennial - Grass Family (Apr–Aug) - Coastal prairies, openings in chaparral, plains, open oak and pine woodland -Plant 20-40” tall. Flower cluster 6-16” long. Spikelet 0.8-1.6” long. Lemma 0.5-0.8” long, hairy, awn 0.3-0.6” long. Page 1 RESCUE GRASS (Bromus catharticus var. catharticus) Naturalized Annual-Perennial - Grass Family - (Apr–Nov) - Open, disturbed places Plant 8-48” tall. Flower cluster 3-12” long, ~ open. Spikelet flattened, 0.6-1.2” long. Lemma 0.4-0.7” long, awn < 0.2” long. Revision: 3/2/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 2 RIPGUT GRASS (Bromus diandrus) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) - Open, gen disturbed areas - Plant 6-40" tall. Spikelet 1-2.8" long. Lemma body 0.8-1.2" long, awn > 1.2" long. Barbed seeds can stick in flesh of animals. INVASIVE weed. SOFT CHESS (Bromus hordeaceus) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Jul) - Fields, disturbed areas - Plant 4-26” tall. Leaf hairy. Flower cluster 1-5” long, dense, some stalks > spikelet. Spikelet 0.5-0.9”. Lemma 0.26-0.4”, awn 0.16-0.4”. INVASIVE weed. RED BROME (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Mar–Jun) - Disturbed areas, roadsides - Plant 4-20". Flower cluster condensed, branches obscure, < spikelets. Stem & sheathes hairy. INVASIVE weed. SMOOTH PAMPAS GRASS (Cortaderia selloana) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family (Sep–Mar) - Disturbed sites - Plant 6-13' tall. Leaf blades 0.1-0.5" wide, sheathes smooth. Cultivar, rarely escaped. INVASIVE weed. ORCHARD GRASS (Dactylis glomerata) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family (May–Aug) - Disturbed, often moist sites - Stems 2-5, 12-79”+ tall. Leaf blade 0.12-0.24” wide. Flower cluster 1.6-8” long. Spikelets crowded on 1 side. Lemmas short-awned at tip. INVASIVE weed. BROME FESCUE (Festuca bromoides) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (May–Jun) Uncommon. Dry, disturbed places, coastal-sage scrub, chaparral - Stem < 20". Inflor 0.6-6" tall, dense, lower branches erect. Spikelet 0.2-0.4" long, awn 0.1-0.3" long. RYE GRASS (Festuca perennis) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family - (May–Sep) - Dry to moist disturbed sites, abandoned fields - Stem 20-40" tall. Spikelet 0.2-0.9" long, > glume, awned or awnless. Sterile shoots at base. INVASIVE weed. MEDITERRANEAN BARLEY (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum) Naturalized Annual Grass Family - (Apr–Jun) - Dry to moist, disturbed sites - Stem 4-20". Leaf blades to 32" long, auricles < 0.08". Central lemma awn 0.25-0.7" long. INVASIVE weed. Revision: 3/2/2014 Grass-like - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 3 HARE BARLEY (Hordeum murinum subsp. leporinum) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Feb–May) - Moist, gen disturbed sites. Common - Stem 12-43" tall. Central spikelet stalk ~0.06" long. Central floret << lateral florets. INVASIVE weed. WALL BARLEY (Hordeum murinum subsp. murinum) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family (Feb–May) - Moist, gen disturbed sites - Stem 1-2'. Leaf auricles notable. Central spikelet stalk 0-0.02". Central floret gen = lateral florets. INVASIVE weed. HARDING GRASS (Phalaris aquatica) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family - (Apr–Aug) - Disturbed areas, roadsides - Plant 16-79" tall, tufted. Flower cluster 0.6-6" long, unbranched. Lower florets 1 or or unequal. Glume wing untoothed. INVASIVE weed. ANNUAL BLUE GRASS (Poa annua) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Feb–Sep) - Abundant. Disturbed moist ground - Plant 1-8” tall. Leaf blade 0.04-0.12” wide, soft. Flower cluster 0.4-4” long, triangular. Lemmas 0.1-0.16” long. BULBOUS BLUE GRASS (Poa bulbosa subsp. vivipara) Naturalized Perennial - Grass Family (Mar–Jul) - Disturbed places - Plant 6-24” tall, densely tufted. Leaf blades 0.04-0.08” wide. Flower cluster 1-4” long. Spikelets replaced wtih leafy bulblets. RABBITFOOT GRASS (Polypogon monspeliensis) Naturalized Annual - Grass Family - (Apr–Aug) - Moist places, along streams - Stem 8-39". Leaf 0.4-8" long, 0.16-0.24" wide. Flower cluster 0.4-6.7" long, plume-like. Glume awn > 0.14". Lemma awn gen < 0.1". INVASIVE. BALTIC RUSH (Juncus balticus subsp. ater) Native Perennial - Rush Family - (Jul–Nov) Moist to ± dry sites - Stem 14-43" tall, round, not twisted. No leaf blade. Flowers generally 0.1-0.2" long. TOAD RUSH (Juncus bufonius var. bufonius) Native Annual - Rush Family - (May–Sep) - Damp sunny ground, gen disturbed - Stem gen 1-4" tall, gen brached from base, ~0.04" wide. Flower cluster open. Flowers 0.16-0.3" long. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 4 REDSTEM FILAREE (Erodium cicutarium) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Feb–Sep) - Open, disturbed sites, grassland, scrub - Stem 4-20". Leaves compound, leaflets dissected. Sepal tip bristly. Petal pink to purple. Fruit beak 0.8-2". INVASIVE. GREENSTEM FILAREE (Erodium moschatum) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family (Feb–Sep) - Open, disturbed sites - Stem 4-24", short-hairy. Leaves compound, leaflets toothed. Sepal tip glabrous. Petals 0.4-0.6" long, pink. Fruit beak 0.8-1.6" long. CUT-LEAVED GERANIUM (Geranium dissectum) Naturalized Annual - Geranium Family - (Mar–Jul) - Open, disturbed sites - Stem 3-28" tall, rough-hairy. Leaf blades deeply divided. Petals violet-red, 0.1-0.25" long w/notched tips. Flower stalk sticky. INVASIVE. GRASS-POLY (Lythrum hyssopifolia) Naturalized Annual-Perennial - Loosestrife Family - (Apr–Oct) - Marshes, drying pond margins, disturbed ground - Stem 4-24". Leaves 0.2-1.2" long, ~ elliptical. Petals pink, 0.1-0.2" long. 2 awl-like appendages. INVASIVE weed. BULL MALLOW (Malva nicaeensis) Naturalized Annual - Mallow Family - (Mar–Jun) - Disturbed places - Stem 0.7-2'. Leaf blade 1.2-4.7" wide, 5-7 shallow lobes. Bractlets egg-shaped,0.16-0.2" long. Petals pink to blue-violet, 0.2-0.5" long. RADISH (Raphanus sativus) Naturalized Annual Mustard Family - (May–Jul) - Disturbed areas, fields - Stem 16-51" long. Petals 0.6-1" long, white to purple. Fruit a fat cylinder w/constrictions between seeds. INVASIVE weed. SPRING VETCH (Vicia sativa subsp. sativa) Naturalized Annual - Pea Family - (Mar–Jun) Roadsides, disturbed areas, grassland, open areas in oak and riparian woodlands - Flowers 1-2 at leaf bases, pink-purple to white, 0.7-1.2" long. Leaflets 0.16-0.4" wide. SPARSELY HAIRY VETCH (Vicia villosa subsp. varia) Naturalized Annual-Biennial - Pea Family (Mar–Jun) - Grassland, roadside, disturbed areas - Stems w/few hairs. Flowers 10-20, blue-purple to white, 0.4-0.55" long. Lower bract lobes 0.04-0.1" long. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 5 PINKLOBE LEPTOSIPHON (Leptosiphon androsaceus) Native Annual - Phlox Family (Apr–Jun) - Open or shaded areas in woodland, chaparral - Plant 2-18", hairy. Flowers pink, bracted group, tube 0.4-1.3" long, lobes gen > 0.3" long. RED SAND-SPURRY (Spergularia rubra) Naturalized Annual-Perennial - Pink Family (Spring–fall) - Forest, meadows, mud flats, disturbed - Plant 1.6-10". Leaf non-fleshy, whorls w/large white bracts. Petals pink. Stamens 6-10. Sepals < 0.16". PERSIAN SPEEDWELL (Veronica persica) Naturalized Annual - Plantain Family - (Feb–May) - Wet, disturbed areas, fields - Stem 2-24" long, crawling. Flowers on 0.6-1.2" long stalks. Flowers blue, purple-lined with a white center. ITALIAN THISTLE (Carduus pycnocephalus subsp. pycnocephalus) Naturalized Annual Sunflower Family - (Mar–Jul) - Roadsides, pastures, disturbed areas - Stems 8-79", narrow spiny-wings. Lower leaves 4-10 lobed, heads 2-5, flower bracts woolly. NOXIOUS. BULL THISTLE (Cirsium vulgare) Naturalized Biennial - Sunflower Family - (May–Oct) Common. Disturbed areas - Plant 12-79" tall. Top of leaves bristly; leaf base forming decurrent wings on stem. Flowers purple, gen 1-2" wide. NOXIOUS weed. MILK THISTLE (Silybum marianum) Naturalized Annual-Biennial - Sunflower Family - (Feb–Jun) Roadsides, pastures, disturbed areas - Stem 1-10', stout. Leaves spiny, shiny green w/white veins and spots. Flowers red-purple. INVASIVE weed. PURPLE SALSIFY (Tragopogon porrifolius) Naturalized Biennial-Perennial - Sunflower Family - (Mar–Nov) - Common. Disturbed places - Plant 16-39" tall, milky sap. Leaves 0.8-1.6" long, very narrow, waxy blue. Flowers purple. CURLY DOCK (Rumex crispus) Naturalized Perennial - Buckwheat Family - (All year) Abundant. Disturbed places - Stem 16-39" tall. Flower cluster dense, valves 0.2-0.24", winged around tubercles, smooth edged. 1 tubercle enlarged. INVASIVE. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Green/Brown Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 6 FIDDLE DOCK (Rumex pulcher) Naturalized Perennial - Buckwheat Family - (May–Sep) Disturbed places, meadows, moist or dry habitats - Stem 8-24" long, branches widely spreading. Leaf blades 1.6-4" long, 1.2-2" wide. Valves w/2-5 teeth. WALL GOOSEFOOT (Chenopodium murale) Naturalized Annual - Goosefoot Family - (All year) - Common. Disturbed areas, fields - Plant 6-24" tall. Leaves dark green, shiny, broad, toothed. Seeds horizontal, bumpy, rim angled. RUSSIAN THISTLE (Salsola tragus) Naturalized Annual-Perennial - Goosefoot Family - (Jul–Oct) Common. Disturbed places - Plant < 5' tall. Stem gen red-striped, widely branched. Leaves succulent, 0.3-2" long, upper spine-tipped. NOXIOUS. DWARF NETTLE (Urtica urens) Naturalized Annual - Nettle Family - (Jan–Jun) - Disturbed areas, stream banks, shaded areas in grassland, oak woodland, chaparral, coastal-sage scrub, riparian woodland - Leaf teeth sharp. Petals 2 large, 2 small, free to base. CUT-LEAF PLANTAIN (Plantago coronopus) Native Annual-Biennial - Plantain Family (Apr–Jul) - Coastal bluffs, salt marshes, trampled places, chaparral, grassy flats - Leaves 1.6-10" long, tooth-like lobes. Flower: stems 1-6, 2-20" tall, cluster 0.8-8" long. COMMON PLANTAIN (Plantago major) Naturalized Annual-Perennial - Plantain Family (Apr–Sep) - Disturbed areas - Leaves basal, blades 5-18 cm long, broadly oval, not hairy. Flowers + stem 2-24" tall, flower cluster gen 1.2-8" long. SHEEP SORREL (Rumex acetosella) Naturalized Perennial - Buckwheat Family - (Apr–Jul) - ± Disturbed, often acidic places - Stem < 16". Leaf gen basal, blade 0.8-2.4" long, lower arrowhead-shaped w/2 lobes. Flowers yellowish, turn reddish. INVASIVE. SCARLET PIMPERNEL (Anagallis arvensis) Naturalized Annual - Myrsine Family - (Mar–May) - Common. Disturbed places, ocean beaches Plants 2-16" tall. Flowers 0.2-0.3" long, salmon or occasionally blue. Leaves TOXIC, can cause dermititis. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Red/Orange Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 7 CRIMSON CLOVER (Trifolium incarnatum) Naturalized Annual - Pea Family - (May–Aug) Uncommon. Disturbed areas - Hairy. Leaflets 0.6-0.8" long, wedge-shaped. Flower cluster 0.8-2.4" long, cylindrical. Flowers crimson or white, 0.4-0.6" long. CALIFORNIA POPPY (Eschscholzia californica) Native Perennial - Poppy Family - (Feb–Sep) Grassy, open areas - Plant 2-24" tall. Flower w/spreading rim <= 0.2". Petals 0.8-2.4" long, early spring = large and orange, fall = smaller and yellow. KNOTWEED (Polygonum aviculare subsp. depressum) Naturalized Annual - Buckwheat Family - (May–Nov) - Disturbed places - Stem 4-20", mat-forming. Flowers 2-8/leaf axil, ~0.1" long, fused 1/2 length, w/white or pink margins. POISON HEMLOCK (Conium maculatum) Naturalized Biennial - Carrot Family - (Apr–Jul) Common. Moist, esp disturbed places - Plants 2-10' tall. Stems purple-spotted. Leaves fern-like, gen 2x divided. Flowers white. TOXIC. INVASIVE weed. TALL SOCK-DESTROYER (Torilis arvensis) Naturalized Annual - Carrot Family - (Apr–Jul) Disturbed places - Plant erect, 12-40". Flower clusters open, > leaf. Fruits 0.1-0.2" long, covered with uncurved bristles. Flowers white or pinkish. INVASIVE weed. GOOSE GRASS (Galium aparine) Native Annual - Madder Family - (Apr–Jun) - Grassy, ± shady places - Stem 12-35" long, weak, brittle. Leaves 0.5-1.6" long, in whorls of 6-8. Flowers white, 4-lobed. Fruits covered w/short, hooked hairs. CHEESEWEED (Malva parviflora) Naturalized Annual - Mallow Family - (Mar–May) - Common. Disturbed places - Stem 8-32" long, gen erect, widely branched. Flower bractlets linear. Petals 0.1-0.2" long, pink to gen white. Fruit with flange from flower bracts. BINDWEED (Convolvulus arvensis) Naturalized Perennial - Morning-glory Family - (Mar–Oct) Roadsides, open areas in many pl communities Trailing. Leaf 0.8-1.2" long, w/round tip, pointed lobes. Flowers white to pink, 0.8-1" long. NOXIOUS. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - White Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 8 SHEPHERD'S PURSE (Capsella bursa-pastoris) Naturalized Annual - Mustard Family - (Jan–Oct) - Disturbed areas - Stem 4-20" long. Basal leaves 1.2-2.4" long, dandelion-like. Petals white, 0.08-0.16" long. Fruits 0.16-0.35" long, flat, heart-shaped. LESSER SWINE CRESS (Lepidium didymum) Naturalized Annual - Mustard Family - (Mar–Jul) Common. Disturbed areas, fields, pastures Stem 4-18" tall. Petals white, ~0.02" long. Fruit wrinkled, style < notch. THREADLEAF PEPPERGRASS (Lepidium nitidum) Native Annual - Mustard Family (Feb–Mar) - Alkaline soils, pastures, dry vernal pools, fields, beaches - Fruit stalk flat. Fruit smooth, 0.14-0.24" long, cupped, winged. WHITE CLOVER (Trifolium repens) Naturalized Perennial - Pea Family - (Feb–Dec) - Disturbed areas - Stem creeping. Leaflets 0.2-1" long, oval, wider at tip end. Flower cluster 0.4-1" wide. Flowers white, 0.28-0.43" long, becoming reflexed. No head bract. BICOLOR LEPTOSIPHON (Leptosiphon bicolor) Native Annual - Phlox Family - (Mar–Jun) Common. Open, grassy areas, chaparral, woodland - Plant 0.8-8.3" tall, hairy. Flower lobes ~0.1" long, pink or white; tube red; stigma <=0.02" long. STICKY MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED (Cerastium glomeratum) Naturalized Annual - Pink Family (Spring) - Dry hillsides, grassland, chaparral, disturbed areas - Flowers 0.1-02" long, white, sticky-hairy. Flower bract hairs extend beyond tip; bracts herbaceous. COMMON CHICKWEED (Stellaria media) Naturalized Annual - Pink Family - (Feb–Sep) Oak woodland, meadows, disturbed areas - Plant 2.8-20" tall. Stem w/line of hairs on 1 side. Sepals 0.12-0.18" long. Petals white, 2-lobed, 0.7-0.9x sepals. ENGLISH PLANTAIN (Plantago lanceolata) Naturalized Annual - Plantain Family - (Apr–Aug) - Common. Disturbed areas - Leaves basal, hairy, 2-10" long, <= 1" wide. Flowers + stem 8-31" tall, flower cluster 0.8-3" long. INVASIVE, lawn weed. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Yellow Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 9 YELLOW JOHNNY-TUCK (Triphysaria eriantha subsp. eriantha) Native Annual - Broom-rape Family - (Mar–May) - Grassland, foothills - Plant 4-14" tall, purple. Leaves 0.4-2" long, 3-7 lobed. Flowers yellow with dark purple beak, 0.4-1" long. PRICKLESEED BUTTERCUP (Ranunculus muricatus) Naturalized Annual - Buttercup Family - (Apr–Jun) - Stream-banks, drainages, low meadows - Plant 6-20". Leaves gen 3-lobed. Petals yellow, 5, 0.16-0.3" long. Fruits 0.2" long with curved bristles. PUNCTURE VINE (Tribulus terrestris) Naturalized Annual - Caltrop Family - (Apr–Oct) Dry, disturbed areas incl roadsides, railways, vacant lots - Sprawling. Leaflets 6-12. Flowers yellow, < 0.2" wide. Fruits star-like, spines 0.16-0.28" long. NOXIOUS. FENNEL (Foeniculum vulgare) Naturalized Perennial - Carrot Family - (May–Sep) Roadsides, disturbed sites - Plants 3-6.5' tall, anise-scented. Stems waxy-blue, canelike. Flowers yellow. Leaf segments thread-like, edible when young. INVASIVE weed. BLACK MUSTARD (Brassica nigra) Naturalized Annual - Mustard Family - (Apr–Sep) - Common. Disturbed areas, fields - Plant 1-6' tall. Petals bright yellow, 0.3-0.4" long. Fruit upright, pressed against stem. INVASIVE weed. TURNIP (Brassica rapa) Naturalized Annual Mustard Family - (Jan–May) - Disturbed areas Stem 8-40" tall. Leaves clasping, upper smooth-edged & waxy. Petals yellow, 0.2-0.4" long, stalk 0.3-1"; fruit beak > 0.4". INVASIVE weed. HEDGE MUSTARD (Sisymbrium officinale) Naturalized Annual - Mustard Family - (Apr–Sep) - Disturbed areas, fields, pastures - Stem 10-22" tall, thin, wiry. Petals 0.1-0.16" long, pale yellow. Fruit 0.4-0.55" long, awl-shaped, appressed. BERMUDA BUTTERCUP (Oxalis pes-caprae) Naturalized Perennial - Oxalis Family (Jan–May) - Disturbed areas, roadsides, grassland, dunes - Flowering stem < 12" tall. Leaflets in 3s, < 1.4" long. Petals yellow, < 1" long. Ornamental. INVASIVE weed. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Yellow Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 10 CALIFORNIA BURCLOVER (Medicago polymorpha) Naturalized Annual - Pea Family (Mar–Jul) - Common. Chaparral, oak woodland, streambanks, roadsides, disturbed areas - Stem 4-20". Flower yellow, 0.14-0.24" long. Spiny spiral fruits. INVASIVE. SOURCLOVER (Melilotus indicus) Naturalized Annual-Biennial - Pea Family - (Apr–Oct) - Open, disturbed areas - Stem 4-24" long. Leaflets 3, 0.4-1" long. Flowers yellow, ~0.1" long. BRISTLY LEPTOSIPHON (Leptosiphon acicularis) Native Annual - Phlox Family (Apr–May) - Grassy areas, woodland, chaparral Plant 1-6" tall, hairy. Leaf lobes 0.1-0.4", needle-like. Flowers yellow. CNPS: FAIRLY ENDANGERED. PURSLANE (Portulaca oleracea) Naturalized Perennial - Purslane Family - (Late spring-early fall) - Disturbed soil - Stem 1.2-16" long, spreading. Leaves 0.12-1.2" long, ~ spoon-shaped, flat. Flowers solitary. Petals yellow, 4-6, 0.12-0.2" long. YELLOW STAR-THISTLE (Centaurea solstitialis) Naturalized Annual - Sunflower Family (May–Oct) - Invasive, roadsides, disturbed grassland or woodland - Plant 4-39" tall. Leaves woolly, extend down the stem. Flower bract spines 0.4-1" long. NOXIOUS weed. BRASS-BUTTONS (Cotula coronopifolia) Naturalized Perennial - Sunflower Family (Mar–Dec) - Common. Saline and freshwater marshes, mud flats - Plant 2-16"+ tall, smooth, ± fleshy. Leaves linear to lance-shaped w/linear teeth or lobes. INVASIVE. DANDELION-LEAF HAWKSBEARD (Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia) Naturalized Annual-Biennial - Sunflower Family - (Feb–Oct) Sandy clearings, hillsides, disturbed places Plant 1-47" tall. Leaves dandelion-like. Fruit beak 0.1-0.2" long. FLAX-LEAVED HORSEWEED (Erigeron bonariensis) Naturalized Annual - Sunflower Family - (All year) - Disturbed sites - Plant 4-39" tall, gray-hairy. Upper leaves narrow. Disk flowers yellow, disk-like rays white. Head bracts 0.14-0.2" tall. Revision: 3/2/2014 Herbaceous - Yellow Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 11 BRISTLY OX-TONGUE (Helminthotheca echioides) Naturalized Annual-Biennial Sunflower Family - (All year) - Common. Disturbed areas - Stem 1-6.5' tall, bristly. Leaf 2-8" long, covered with prickly bumps. Flower heads 0.8-1.6" wide. INVASIVE weed. SMOOTH CAT'S-EAR (Hypochaeris glabra) Naturalized Annual - Sunflower Family (Mar–Jun) - Common. Disturbed areas, grassland, open woodland - Plant 4-24" tall, smooth. Rays 0.2-0.3" long, barely > head bracts. Only inner fruit beaked. INVASIVE. PRICKLY LETTUCE (Lactuca serriola) Naturalized Annual - Sunflower Family (May–Oct) - Abundant. Disturbed places - Stem 1.6-10' tall, prickly-bristly. Leaves deeply-lobed, midvein and edges prickly-bristly. Flowers pale yellow, 0.16-0.2" wide. PINEAPPLE WEED (Matricaria discoidea) Naturalized Annual - Sunflower Family (Feb–Aug) - Abundant. Disturbed sites, riverbanks - Plant 4-12" tall, sweet-scented. Heads pineapple-shaped, ~ 0.4" wide; head stalk to 0.6" long. COMMON GROUNDSEL (Senecio vulgaris) Naturalized Annual - Sunflower Family (Feb–Jul) - Common. Disturbed areas - Plant 4-24" tall, not hairy, w/1-10+ stems. Flower head bracts with black-tips. Milky sap. PRICKLY SOW THISTLE (Sonchus asper subsp. asper) Naturalized Annual - Sunflower Family (All year) - Common. Slightly moist disturbed sites, along streams - Plant 4-48". Leaf teeth prickly. Basal lobes of upper leaves rounded, curving downward. COMMON SOW THISTLE (Sonchus oleraceus) Naturalized Annual - Sunflower Family - (All year) - Abundant. Disturbed places - Plant 4-55" tall. Leaf teeth soft to touch. Basal lobes of upper leaves sharply pointed, straight to curving upward. COMMON DANDELION (Taraxacum officinale) Naturalized Biennial-Perennial - Sunflower Family - (All year) - Abundant. Esp disturbed areas Stem hollow. Leaves bright green with sharp down-pointing lobes. Outer head bracts reflexed. Fruit ~ brown. Revision: 3/2/2014 Woody - Blue/Pink/Purple Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 12 BLUE BLOSSOM (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. thyrsiflorus) Native Perennial - Buckthorn Family (Mar–Jun) - Bluffs, slopes, canyons, chaparral, coastal scrub, closed-cone-pine forest - Leaves alternate, 3 main veins. Twigs angled, ridged lengthwise. CALIFORNIA COFFEE BERRY (Frangula californica subsp. californica) Native Perennial Buckthorn Family - (May–Jul) - Coastal-sage scrub, chaparral, forest, woodland - Shrub < 16' tall. Flowers greenish. Leaves smooth beneath. REDWOOD (Sequoia sempervirens) Native Perennial - Cypress Family - - - Redwood forest Tree to 380' tall, evergreen. Leaves alternate: on rapidly growing stems awl-like, < 0.3" long; others flat, 0.2-1" long. Seed cone 0.5-1.4" diam, woody. COAST LIVE OAK (Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia) Native Perennial - Oak Family (Mar–Apr) - Valleys, slopes, mixed-evergreen forest, woodland - Tree 30-80'. Leaves convex, hair-tuft below in vein axils. Acorns on 1st year twigs, shell glabrous inside. VALLEY OAK (Quercus lobata) Native Perennial - Oak Family - (Mar–Apr) - Slopes, valleys, savanna - Tree < 115' tall, deciduous. Leaves 2-5" long, not leathery, deeply lobed, lobes without bristles. Acorns 1.2-2" long, slender, cup 0.4-1.2" deep. WESTERN POISON OAK (Toxicodendron diversilobum) Native Perennial - Sumac Family (Apr–Jun) - Canyons, slopes, chaparral, coastal scrub, oak woodland - Shrub or vine. Leaflets 3, red in fall, mid leaflet stalked. Flowers green. Fruits white. TOXIC. N. CALIFORNIA BLACK WALNUT (Juglans hindsii) Native Perennial - Walnut Family (Apr–May) - Along streams, disturbed slopes Tree 20-75'. Leaflets 13-21, 3-5". Fruit 1.4-2" wide. CNPS: SERIOUSLY ENDANGERED (unplanted). FREMONT COTTONWOOD (Populus fremontii subsp. fremontii) Native Perennial - Willow Family - (Mar–Apr) - Scattered. Alluvial bottomland, streamsides - Tree < 66' tall. Leaves heart-shaped to triangular, coarsely scalloped, blade 1.2-2.8" long. Revision: 3/2/2014 Woody - Red/Orange Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 13 WESTERN SYCAMORE (Platanus racemosa) Native Perennial - Sycamore Family - (Feb–Apr) Common. Streamsides, canyons, arroyos - Tree 33-115' tall. Bark peeling pale. Leaf blades 4-10" long, palmately lobed, smooth to hairy above, short-woolly under. ENGLISH HOLLY (Ilex aquifolium) Naturalized Perennial - Holly Family - (May-Jun) - Cool, wooded areas - Shrub or tree < 66' tall. Leaves 1-2.4" long, edges smooth or w/spine-like teeth. Flower petals ~0.1" long, dull white. Fruits red, ~0.3" wide, smooth. JAPANESE HONEYSUCKLE (Lonicera japonica) Naturalized Perennial - Honeysuckle Family (May–Jul) - Disturbed places - Twining shrub. Leaf gen 1.2-3.1" long. Flowers white turning yellow, 1-1.6" long, in pairs. Fruits black. INVASIVE watch list. BLUE ELDERBERRY (Sambucus nigra subsp. caerulea) Native Perennial - Muskroot Family (Mar–Sep) - Common. Streambanks, open places in forest - Shrub 7-26' tall. Flower cluster flat-topped, 1.6-13" diam, petals spreading. Fruits waxy blue-black. RIVER RED GUM (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) Naturalized Perennial - Myrtle Family - (Apr–Jul) Common. Disturbed areas - Tree to 80' tall. Leaves 2-8" long, 0.6-1" wide. Flowers 5-10 in simple umbel, small, white; bud cap <0.25". INVASIVE. BLUE GUM (Eucalyptus globulus) Naturalized Perennial - Myrtle Family - (Oct–Jan) - Common. Disturbed areas - Tree < 200' tall. Flowers single, large, gen stemless. Leaves 4-12" long, 1-1.6" wide; used medicinally by Aboriginals. INVASIVE weed. CHRISTMAS BERRY / TOYON (Heteromeles arbutifolia) Native Perennial - Rose Family ((May)Jun–Aug) - Chaparral, oak woodland, mixed-evergreen forest - Shrub-tree < 33' tall, evergreen. Leaf 2-4" long. Petals white, < 0.16" long. Fruit bright red. WOOLLY FIRETHORN (Pyracantha angustifolia) Naturalized Perennial - Rose Family - (Feb–Jun) - Disturbed areas, fencerows, abandoned fields, roadsides - Plant < 13', gray-hairy. Leaves narrow, entire. Calyx and below leaves often woolly. INVASIVE. Revision: 3/2/2014 Woody - White Wild Plants of Ardenwood Historic Farm - Sorted by Form, Color and Family Page 14 HIMALAYAN BLACKBERRY (Rubus armeniacus) Naturalized Perennial - Rose Family - (Mar–Jun) - Common. Disturbed areas, roadsides - Shrub w/thorny 5-angled stem. Leaflets 3-5, white-hairy beneath. Blackberry-type fruit. INVASIVE. CALIFORNIA BLACKBERRY (Rubus ursinus) Native Perennial - Rose Family - (Mar–Jul) Open, disturbed areas - Stem round, bristly/prickly. Leaves simple to 3 leaflets, underside green. Plants unisexual. Petals 0.24-0.6" long, white. Blackberry-type fruit. CALIFORNIA BUCKEYE (Aesculus californica) Native Perennial - Soapberry Family - (May–Jun) - Dry slopes, canyons, borders of streams - Large shrub or tree 13-39' tall. 5-7 leaflets. Flowers white to pale rose. Large seeds toxic but edible after leaching out saponins. PEPPER TREE (Schinus molle) Naturalized Perennial - Sumac Family - (Jun–Aug) - Washes, slopes, abandoned fields - Tree 16-60' tall. Flowers white to yellow. Leaves compound, leaflets stemless. Fruits pink to red, 0.2-0.3" diam. COYOTE BRUSH (Baccharis pilularis subsp. consanguinea) Native Perennial - Sunflower Family - (Jul–Dec) - Coastal bluffs, woodland, grassland, disturbed sites, occ on serpentine Shrub < 15' tall, brittle, common. Leaves gen 0.6-1.6" long. CALIFORNIA BAY (Umbellularia californica) Native Perennial - Laurel Family - (Nov–May) Common. Canyons, valleys, chaparral - Tree < 150' tall. Leaf 1.2-4", 0.6-1.2" wide, aromatic. Cluster of 5-10 small, yellow or yellow-green flowers. Fruit 0.8-1" diam. BLACKWOOD ACACIA (Acacia melanoxylon) Naturalized Perennial - Pea Family - (Feb-Mar) Uncommon. Disturbed areas - Tree < 100' tall. Leaves simple, 0.2-1.2" wide, 3-5 main veins. Flowers pale yellow, 2-8 per head. INVASIVE weed. RED WILLOW (Salix laevigata) Native Perennial - Willow Family - (Dec–Jun) - Common. Riverbanks, seepage areas, lakeshores, canyons - Tree bark fissured. Leaf lanceolate, glaucous below, gen w/stalk glands. Stamens 5. Fruit glabrous. Notes: Decimal Inches .1 .2 .3 .4 1/8 1/4 .5 .6 1/2 .7 .8 .9 3/4 1 .5 2 .5 3 .5 4 .5 5 .5 6 .5 7 .5 8 .5 9 1 1/2 2 1/2 3 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 6 1/2 7 1/2 8 1/2 9 English Inches Notes:

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