Brochure of California Citrus State Historic Park (SP) in California. Published by California Department of Parks and Recreation.
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California Citrus State Historic Park Our Mission The mission of California State Parks is to provide for the health, inspiration and education of the people of California by helping to preserve the state’s extraordinary biological diversity, protecting its most valued natural and cultural resources, and creating opportunities for high-quality outdoor recreation. Grassy, tree-shaded areas evoke a quieter time — an era when the American dream might be found in a leafy evergreen grove, heavy California State Parks supports equal access. Prior to arrival, visitors with disabilities who need assistance should contact the park at (951) 780-6222. If you need this publication in an alternate format, contact firstname.lastname@example.org. CALIFORNIA STATE PARKS P.O. Box 942896 Sacramento, CA 94296-0001 For information call: (800) 777-0369 (916) 653-6995, outside the U.S. 711, TTY relay service www.parks.ca.gov California Citrus State Historic Park 9400 Dufferin Ave. / Mail: 1879 Jackson St. Riverside, CA 92504 (951) 780-6222 © 2003 California State Parks (Rev. 2016) with golden fruit. V isitors to California Citrus State NATIVE PEOPLE Historic Park are greeted at the park The area that is now Riverside County was entrance by a replica of an old-fashioned inhabited for centuries by diverse native roadside fruit stand. This charming “big peoples, including Serrano, Luiseño, orange” structure, on the corner of Van Gabrielino-Tongva, Cupeño, Chemehuevi, Buren Boulevard and Dufferin Avenue in and Cahuilla. California Indians traveled Riverside, recalls an era that forever changed seasonally from village to village, following the landscape their food sources and of Southern trade routes. They California. The maintained reciprocal park dedicates relationships with over half of its neighboring tribes that 250 acres to enabled them to trade what was once foods and raw materials the universal for tool making. Acorns, symbol of elderberries, yucca California’s role stalks, and agave roots in agriculture — were staples in diet. the citrus groves. Destructive policies Of all the crops by the U.S. government that constitute Old-fashioned orange stand replica and public prejudice California’s towards California agricultural legacy, juicy golden oranges Indians led to a decline of Native conjured an image of romance, prosperity, Americans working in the citrus industry. and abundance. Warm, dry summers and However, the 1903 move of Sherman cool, moist winters provide perfect growing Indian Institute to Riverside reestablished conditions. Between the late 1800s and a workforce of native people. the early 1900s, the groves spread across The school's "Outing System," a Riverside, San Bernardino, Orange, Los controversial program supposed to Angeles, and Ventura counties, and into provide vocational training to California the Central Valley. This second California Indian students, essentially offered cheap “gold rush,” combined with innovative labor to local businesses. Hundreds methods of irrigation, fruit processing, of these students at Sherman Indian advertising, cooperative marketing, and Institute worked in the citrus industry railroad transportation, helped establish until the end of the program in the 1930s. California’s image as the land of sunshine Since then, California Indians have and opportunity. been recovering from their historical trauma, honoring their cultural traditions, and contributing as vital community members. CREATING THE CITRUS INDUSTRY The mission padres planted the first Mediterranean Moro blood oranges varieties on the grounds of Mission San Gabriel around 1803. Emigrant Kentucky trapper William Wolfskill developed more acreage from seedlings he obtained in 1841. In the midto-late 1800s, lemon, lime, and orange trees grew in today’s downtown Los Angeles. Then, in 1873, Eliza Tibbets of Riverside obtained two young Bahia, or Washington navel orange trees, from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Harvesting oranges, ca. 1900 The Brazilian native orange was sweeter and more flavorful, had no seeds, and its thick, easily peeled skin protected it during shipping. Today nearly all of the Washington navel orange trees grown in California are descended from these two original trees, one of which still grows at the intersection of Riverside’s Arlington and Magnolia Avenues. immigrants moved in to fill the need. By 1900 Riverside’s citrus industry employed about 3,000 Japanese workers, hired through Japanese labor THE WORKFORCE contractors. In the late 1800s, Chinese labor contractors Between 1900 Restoring a citrus landscape hired Chinese workers to replace the and 1920, California Indian workers. By 1885 nearly Japanese were the largest labor group in 80 percent of the labor force was Chinese. the citrus industry. However, anti-immigrant Their considerable horticultural skills and sentiment also drove them out. Around 1919, knowledge made citriculture enormously Hispanic workers began to arrive, along successful. However, a climate of antiwith other immigrant nationalities. They Chinese sentiment, came with their families as well as the Chinese and formed communities Exclusion Act of 1882, wherever they worked. By caused their numbers the mid-1940s, Hispanics to dwindle. constituted approximately With fewer Chinese two-thirds of the citrus available, Japanese industry’s labor force. Women were the mainstay in the packing houses while men tended the Modern packing house citrus groves. IRRIGATION — THE GAGE CANAL Lured by land promoters and Southern California railroads, the dreams of large and small investors took root in the California soil. Riverside, a pioneer agricultural settlement, was established in 1870 by the Southern California Colony Association. Packing house, ca. 1900 To quell conflicts over water, the newly formed Riverside Water Company began an irrigation canal between the Santa Ana River and Riverside. In order to gain title to 640 acres on which he had filed a claim, Canadian jeweler Matthew Gage was given three years to bring water to the land. Between 1885 and 1889, he built a canal 11.91 miles long from the Santa Ana River in San Bernardino and later extended it an additional 8.22 miles. The flume of the original canal (later replaced by the Mockingbird Canyon Dam) crossed Mockingbird Canyon. The canal doubled The Gage Canal the citrus-producing area of Riverside and still supplies water to local citrus ranches and the groves of California Citrus State Historic Park. Between 1891 and 1893, growers united to form cooperative organizations for marketing citrus. By 1908 a partnership between the Artistic crate label California Fruit Growers Exchange (later Sunkist) and the Southern Pacific Railroad launched advertising campaigns to promote the sale of citrus in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. markets. Among the most enduring creations of the citrus industry were crate labels. Though packing companies introduced the labels to identify their particular products, buyers soon began ordering fruit by specific labels. The labels, designed by some of the era’s best artists, became more and more ornate — reaching their peak between 1900 and 1930. Today these works are collectible, garnering top dollar for rare originals in prime condition. TODAY AND BEYOND California Citrus State Historic Park opened in August 1993 as a living historical museum reflecting the citrus industry heritage. Nearly 200 acres of citrus groves managed by the Friends of California Citrus Park produce navel and Valencia oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. Revenues generated under a nonprofit management agreement help fund new facilities and programs and maintain the citrus groves in the park. The income-producing groves also provide a backdrop for the palm-treelined trails, walkways, entryway, and picnic areas. The Varietal Grove features at least 75 varieties of citrus. The Sunkist Visitor Center / Museum, open Fridays – Sundays, has exhibits on the significance of the citrus industry as well as a sales area. The park is open daily, with extended hours in summer. Visitors may take self-guided tours daily or a guided tour on weekends. Call (951) 780-6222 to schedule guided Tour group at orange sizer tours for schools or large groups. This “park within a park” reflects typical building design and landscaping of the early 1900s, with Craftsman / California Bungalow-style structures. Grassy, treeshaded areas evoke a a quieter time in a leafy evergreen grove, heavy with golden fruit. Future plans include re-creation of the key components of the historic citrus industry and expanded interpretive programs. NATURAL FEATURES The terrain is somewhat hilly, with elevations ranging from 920 to 1,060 feet above sea level. The Mockingbird Canyon arroyo — a drainage tributary to the Santa Ana River — bisects the park, abutting foothills to the south. Approximately onethird of the park remains in its natural state before the citrus boom. The most common native growth along the river bottom wash of Mockingbird Canyon is willow and mule fat scrub. Non-native plant species such as eucalyptus and giant reed also exist here. Typical species in the upland portions of the canyon include Visitor Center California sagebrush, several species of buckwheat, blue elderberry, miner’s lettuce, nightshade, and desert thorn. WILDLIFE Though the natural Red-tailed ecosystem has been hawk affected by the citrus industry, the reservoir and year-round irrigation water attract waterfowl and other species that would normally visit only seasonally. The dry wash in Mockingbird Canyon shelters brush rabbits and bobcats. Raccoons, striped skunks, kangaroo rats, and coyotes are also found here. Red-tailed hawks, California quail, hummingbirds, and roadrunners are common. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES The Sunkist Center is open on Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays. Visitors may also explore the trails, have a picnic, and attend a Junior Ranger program or an Urban Campfire. The Sunkist Center, set in citrus groves and rose gardens next to a courtyard and gazebo, is also available for weddings, reunions, special events, and meetings. The group picnic area typifies the look and ambience of the pre-World War II period — peaceful, natural, and conducive to family picnicking and strolling under the trees. An outdoor amphitheater and interpretive gazebo provide a backdrop for open-air presentations and special events. See www.parks.ca.gov /calcitrus for details. ACCESSIBLE FEATURES • The Sunkist Center area and gazebo (approaches may require assistance) • The visitor center and back patio • Restrooms and drinking fountains • The stage area in the interpretive gazebo / amphitheater • The concrete Knoll Trail and trail to viewpoint behind the visitor center • Decomposed granite walkways between points are from 200 to 400 feet long. Accessibility is continually improving. For the latest updates, visit http://access. parks.ca.gov. NEARBY STATE PARKS • Chino Hills State Park 4721 Sapphire Rd., Chino Hills 91709 (951) 780-6222 • Lake Perris State Recreation Area 17801 Lake Perris Drive, Perris 92571 (951) 940-5600 / 5603 Gazebo and rose garden This park receives support in part from a nonprofit organization. For more information, contact: Friends of California Citrus Park P.O. Box 21292 • Riverside, CA 92516 California Citrus State Historic Park (No public access) M O C K Mockingbird Canyon Reservoir IN (No public access) G BI RD CITRUS GROVES (No public access) Paved Road (No public access) CA Accessible Paved Trail N YO N WORKING Drinking Fountain CITRUS GROVES (No public access) A R RO YO Citrus Varietal Grove CITRUS GROVES (No public access) CITRUS GROVES AVOCADO AVOCADO Ga GROVES GROVES Chino Hills SP California Citrus SHP Lake Perris SRA PLEASE REMEMBER • The park is open daily, but park hours vary seasonally. For park and visitor center hours, see www.parks.ca.gov / calcitrus. • All features of the park are protected by law. Visitors may sample citrus fruit only on interpretive tours; the taking of fruit, plants, or trees is prohibited. • Stay on designated trails and paths at all times. Ga ge • Access to working Ca citrus groves is prohibited. n Please stay out ofalthese work areas. • Dogs must be on a leash no longer than six feet and must be under control at all times. • Alcohol is not allowed in the park except by special-event permit. M oc kin g d bir ny o na l a nD m op (N s) es cc ca li ub (No public access) 215 © 2009 California State Parks (Rev. 2016) Ca g a eC